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美国1.2万亿美元基建法案达成协议,包含哪些内容?

美国1.2万亿美元基建法案达成协议,包含哪些内容?

Nocole Goodkind 2021年08月02日
拜登在执政第一年内的首要任务就是通过相关立法。

美国终于要出台万亿美元基建法案了。

经过长达数月的Zoom视频谈判,美国两党参议员小组于上周三宣布,已经就1.2万亿美元的“硬性”基础设施建设法案的重大事项达成协议。上周三晚上,参议院经过程序性投票,决定开始实施该项计划。

虽然这项法案要等到大概一周之后才能正式出台,但两党达成的这份协议,是乔•拜登总统取得的一项重大成就。拜登在2020年总统竞选中承诺,将推出数万亿美元的一揽子基建计划,他在执政第一年内的首要任务就是通过相关立法。

周三上午,共和党人在与参议院少数党领袖米奇•麦康奈尔举行会晤后同意了该项计划。

亚利桑那州参议员、民主党首席谈判代表凯尔斯滕•辛内马称,她已经与拜登总统进行了会谈,总统对于该协议的达成感到“鼓舞”和“兴奋”。她补充说,协议的大部分内容已经完成,她对参议院投票通过这项法案充满信心。

引用拜登总统的原话……

拜登为何称其为一项“重大协议”?

美国经济中有20万亿美元在某种程度上严重依赖基础设施,如交通、电网、高速互联网、港口、公路和桥梁等。但这些基础设施已经数十年没有更新换代,对我们的健康、安全和GDP构成了威胁。历史学家亨利•彼得罗斯基在《所走的道路:美国基础设施的历史和未来》(The Road Taken: The History and Future of America’s Infrastructure)一书中写道,美国每年因为交通拥堵造成的经济损失就高达1,200亿美元。.

美国土木工程师协会(American Society of Civil Engineers,ASCE)每年对美国的基础设施进行评级,2021年的评级为C-。

该协会的报告称,美国每两分钟就会发生一次总输水管道破裂,每天损失60亿加仑处理后的水。美国约43%的公共道路状况糟糕或一般。约42%的桥梁至少已经使用50年,有7.5%的桥梁被认为存在结构性缺陷。去年,约五分之一学龄儿童上网课没有高速互联网可用。

美国的基础设施质量排在全球第13位,落后于中国、印度、法国、德国、日本和阿联酋。欧洲国家通常在基础设施上的支出约为5%,美国的基础设施支出占比只有2.3%。

这项基建法案到底包含哪些内容?

这项法案号称将投入1.2万亿美元,大规模改造美国濒临崩溃的基础设施,但事实上,新增支出只有5,500亿美元,剩余部分则是之前已经获得批准的支出。

虽然该项法案的最终文本尚未公布,但根据白宫公布的信息,预计其中可能包括下列内容:

• 1,100亿美元,用于支持新公路和桥梁建设

• 730亿美元,用于推动从化石燃料向清洁能源转变,升级改造电力基础设施

• 660亿美元,用于对美国铁路公司的列车进行延期维护、扩大服务范围和对轨道服务进行现代化改造

• 650亿美元,用于通过宽带基础设施,在全国境内建设可靠的高速互联网

• 550亿美元,更换铅制管道和服务管道,在全国供应清洁饮用水

• 500亿美元,用于对基础设施进行气候防护处理,建设能够抵御气候变化影响和网络攻击的基础设施

• 390亿美元新投资,用于更新换代和完善公共交通,改善老年人和残疾人的无障碍通行

• 250亿美元,用于解决机场积压已久的维修维护,减少拥堵和碳排放

• 210亿美元,用于环境治理,解决超级基金站点、废弃矿井和露天石油天然气钻井等遗留污染问题

• 170亿美元,用于港口基础设施建设

• 150亿美元,用于开发电动汽车、公共汽车和卡车,并建设配套的充电基础设施

• 110亿美元,用于“全民安全街道”项目,致力于减少车辆交通事故和死亡人数,提高行人和骑行者出行的安全性

这是很大一笔钱……

所以两党才需要如此漫长的讨论。民主党和共和党都希望改善基础设施,但双方在资金来源方面却存在分歧。加税对共和党来说是一颗“毒药”,而民主党的一项提案也成了双方谈判的一大障碍,该提案主张通过打击税务欺诈增加国家税收,从而达到抵消成本的目的。

相反,立法者称将通过以下方式为该法案获取资金:

• 改变2,500亿美元新冠救济基金的用途,包括遭到部分共和党州长反对的500亿美元联邦失业补助

• 追回在疫情期间已经发放的500亿美元被诈领的失业补助金

• 推迟前总统唐纳德•特朗普时期通过的医疗保险折扣规则,节约500亿美元

• 通过加强税务报告要求和对加密货币执法获得300亿美元

• 基础设施投资增加带来的效益

“基建周”真的已经结束了吗?

还记得唐纳德•特朗普执政时期,曾经多次试图通过基建立法,以至于“基建周”变成了类似西西弗斯式任务(永无尽头而又徒劳无功)的一种奇幻思维的代名词,最终成了一个笑料。

过去几周,特朗普曾试图公开打击谈判双方的信心。他私底下还曾试图说服共和党议员停止谈判。特朗普周一在其个人网站上写道:“这些名义上的共和党人如此热心地想要让左翼民主党在基建方面取得一次漂亮的胜利,看看这些人都是谁?共和党选民们和全体国民要牢牢记住他们的名字!”

但特朗普对于前共和党盟友的影响力似乎正在减弱。参议员林赛•格雷厄姆表示,他希望两党能够达成协议,他也向前总统特朗普表达过自己的立场。参议员罗伯•波特曼也希望特朗普支持该协议。参议员凯文•克拉默评价称特朗普的说法“不够具体”。支持基建计划的麦康奈尔被特朗普批评是“老乌鸦”,但他对于特朗普的言论不屑一顾。他告诉CNN记者称:“事实上,这是一种荣誉。老乌鸦是亨利•克莱最爱的波旁威士忌。”

为什么它被称为“硬性”基建法案?还会有其他计划吗?

好眼力。民主党目前正准备在没有共和党支持的情况下,在国会通过一项规模更大的3.5万亿美元支出计划。两党的基建协议可能因为这项计划遭遇困难,因为有民主党参议员表示除非两项法案同时通过,否则他们不会仅支持其中一项。

3.5万亿美元将用于支持拜登的社会议程,包括史无前例地扩大医疗保险、扩大儿童税收减免范围、提供带薪病假和事假、修订税法、采取气候行动甚至修订移民法等。

民主党和共和党中的温和派对此都不满意。

参议员米特•罗姆尼提到两项法案的差异时表示:“我支持这项法案;但另外一项是我不能接受的。”他提到了更大规模的支出法案可能引发的通胀问题。

两党基建协议的民主党首席谈判代表参议员辛内马也反对新支出法案。

她在周三表示:“虽然我会支持开始这项法案的工作,但我并不支持3.5万亿美元的新法案。未来几个月,我将尽职尽责制定这项立法。”

国会议员亚历山大•奥卡西奥-科尔特斯在Twitter上谴责了辛内马的说法。奥卡西奥-科尔特斯将支持“硬性”法案的投票与3.5万亿预算协调案捆绑在一起。她写道:“希望你在挫败本党的儿童看护、气候行动和基础设施投资计划的同时,还能在众议院获得3票领先优势。祝你好运。”

国会议员蒙德里尔•琼斯也持同样的观点。他写道:“如果没有当前急需的预算协调法案,我不会支持两党达成的协议。”

上个月,众议院议长南希•佩洛西表示,除非参议院通过3.5万亿美元法案,否则众议院不会批准两党协议。

这位资深众议院议长是否会改变强硬立场,我们仍要拭目以待。

何时能看到结果?

还有不到两周时间,美国国会将开始8月份的休会,参议院多数党领袖查克•舒默曾表示,在此之前必须通过这两项法案。否则之前的努力将功亏一篑,而议员们可能会把精力转移到即将开始的中期选举,因为在选举期间他们的选票可能受到影响,而且他们还要面临特朗普等有影响力的政治人物所带来的压力。(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

美国终于要出台万亿美元基建法案了。

经过长达数月的Zoom视频谈判,美国两党参议员小组于上周三宣布,已经就1.2万亿美元的“硬性”基础设施建设法案的重大事项达成协议。上周三晚上,参议院经过程序性投票,决定开始实施该项计划。

虽然这项法案要等到大概一周之后才能正式出台,但两党达成的这份协议,是乔•拜登总统取得的一项重大成就。拜登在2020年总统竞选中承诺,将推出数万亿美元的一揽子基建计划,他在执政第一年内的首要任务就是通过相关立法。

周三上午,共和党人在与参议院少数党领袖米奇•麦康奈尔举行会晤后同意了该项计划。

亚利桑那州参议员、民主党首席谈判代表凯尔斯滕•辛内马称,她已经与拜登总统进行了会谈,总统对于该协议的达成感到“鼓舞”和“兴奋”。她补充说,协议的大部分内容已经完成,她对参议院投票通过这项法案充满信心。

引用拜登总统的原话……

拜登为何称其为一项“重大协议”?

美国经济中有20万亿美元在某种程度上严重依赖基础设施,如交通、电网、高速互联网、港口、公路和桥梁等。但这些基础设施已经数十年没有更新换代,对我们的健康、安全和GDP构成了威胁。历史学家亨利•彼得罗斯基在《所走的道路:美国基础设施的历史和未来》(The Road Taken: The History and Future of America’s Infrastructure)一书中写道,美国每年因为交通拥堵造成的经济损失就高达1,200亿美元。.

美国土木工程师协会(American Society of Civil Engineers,ASCE)每年对美国的基础设施进行评级,2021年的评级为C-。

该协会的报告称,美国每两分钟就会发生一次总输水管道破裂,每天损失60亿加仑处理后的水。美国约43%的公共道路状况糟糕或一般。约42%的桥梁至少已经使用50年,有7.5%的桥梁被认为存在结构性缺陷。去年,约五分之一学龄儿童上网课没有高速互联网可用。

美国的基础设施质量排在全球第13位,落后于中国、印度、法国、德国、日本和阿联酋。欧洲国家通常在基础设施上的支出约为5%,美国的基础设施支出占比只有2.3%。

这项基建法案到底包含哪些内容?

这项法案号称将投入1.2万亿美元,大规模改造美国濒临崩溃的基础设施,但事实上,新增支出只有5,500亿美元,剩余部分则是之前已经获得批准的支出。

虽然该项法案的最终文本尚未公布,但根据白宫公布的信息,预计其中可能包括下列内容:

• 1,100亿美元,用于支持新公路和桥梁建设

• 730亿美元,用于推动从化石燃料向清洁能源转变,升级改造电力基础设施

• 660亿美元,用于对美国铁路公司的列车进行延期维护、扩大服务范围和对轨道服务进行现代化改造

• 650亿美元,用于通过宽带基础设施,在全国境内建设可靠的高速互联网

• 550亿美元,更换铅制管道和服务管道,在全国供应清洁饮用水

• 500亿美元,用于对基础设施进行气候防护处理,建设能够抵御气候变化影响和网络攻击的基础设施

• 390亿美元新投资,用于更新换代和完善公共交通,改善老年人和残疾人的无障碍通行

• 250亿美元,用于解决机场积压已久的维修维护,减少拥堵和碳排放

• 210亿美元,用于环境治理,解决超级基金站点、废弃矿井和露天石油天然气钻井等遗留污染问题

• 170亿美元,用于港口基础设施建设

• 150亿美元,用于开发电动汽车、公共汽车和卡车,并建设配套的充电基础设施

• 110亿美元,用于“全民安全街道”项目,致力于减少车辆交通事故和死亡人数,提高行人和骑行者出行的安全性

这是很大一笔钱……

所以两党才需要如此漫长的讨论。民主党和共和党都希望改善基础设施,但双方在资金来源方面却存在分歧。加税对共和党来说是一颗“毒药”,而民主党的一项提案也成了双方谈判的一大障碍,该提案主张通过打击税务欺诈增加国家税收,从而达到抵消成本的目的。

相反,立法者称将通过以下方式为该法案获取资金:

• 改变2,500亿美元新冠救济基金的用途,包括遭到部分共和党州长反对的500亿美元联邦失业补助

• 追回在疫情期间已经发放的500亿美元被诈领的失业补助金

• 推迟前总统唐纳德•特朗普时期通过的医疗保险折扣规则,节约500亿美元

• 通过加强税务报告要求和对加密货币执法获得300亿美元

• 基础设施投资增加带来的效益

“基建周”真的已经结束了吗?

还记得唐纳德•特朗普执政时期,曾经多次试图通过基建立法,以至于“基建周”变成了类似西西弗斯式任务(永无尽头而又徒劳无功)的一种奇幻思维的代名词,最终成了一个笑料。

过去几周,特朗普曾试图公开打击谈判双方的信心。他私底下还曾试图说服共和党议员停止谈判。特朗普周一在其个人网站上写道:“这些名义上的共和党人如此热心地想要让左翼民主党在基建方面取得一次漂亮的胜利,看看这些人都是谁?共和党选民们和全体国民要牢牢记住他们的名字!”

但特朗普对于前共和党盟友的影响力似乎正在减弱。参议员林赛•格雷厄姆表示,他希望两党能够达成协议,他也向前总统特朗普表达过自己的立场。参议员罗伯•波特曼也希望特朗普支持该协议。参议员凯文•克拉默评价称特朗普的说法“不够具体”。支持基建计划的麦康奈尔被特朗普批评是“老乌鸦”,但他对于特朗普的言论不屑一顾。他告诉CNN记者称:“事实上,这是一种荣誉。老乌鸦是亨利•克莱最爱的波旁威士忌。”

为什么它被称为“硬性”基建法案?还会有其他计划吗?

好眼力。民主党目前正准备在没有共和党支持的情况下,在国会通过一项规模更大的3.5万亿美元支出计划。两党的基建协议可能因为这项计划遭遇困难,因为有民主党参议员表示除非两项法案同时通过,否则他们不会仅支持其中一项。

3.5万亿美元将用于支持拜登的社会议程,包括史无前例地扩大医疗保险、扩大儿童税收减免范围、提供带薪病假和事假、修订税法、采取气候行动甚至修订移民法等。

民主党和共和党中的温和派对此都不满意。

参议员米特•罗姆尼提到两项法案的差异时表示:“我支持这项法案;但另外一项是我不能接受的。”他提到了更大规模的支出法案可能引发的通胀问题。

两党基建协议的民主党首席谈判代表参议员辛内马也反对新支出法案。

她在周三表示:“虽然我会支持开始这项法案的工作,但我并不支持3.5万亿美元的新法案。未来几个月,我将尽职尽责制定这项立法。”

国会议员亚历山大•奥卡西奥-科尔特斯在Twitter上谴责了辛内马的说法。奥卡西奥-科尔特斯将支持“硬性”法案的投票与3.5万亿预算协调案捆绑在一起。她写道:“希望你在挫败本党的儿童看护、气候行动和基础设施投资计划的同时,还能在众议院获得3票领先优势。祝你好运。”

国会议员蒙德里尔•琼斯也持同样的观点。他写道:“如果没有当前急需的预算协调法案,我不会支持两党达成的协议。”

上个月,众议院议长南希•佩洛西表示,除非参议院通过3.5万亿美元法案,否则众议院不会批准两党协议。

这位资深众议院议长是否会改变强硬立场,我们仍要拭目以待。

何时能看到结果?

还有不到两周时间,美国国会将开始8月份的休会,参议院多数党领袖查克•舒默曾表示,在此之前必须通过这两项法案。否则之前的努力将功亏一篑,而议员们可能会把精力转移到即将开始的中期选举,因为在选举期间他们的选票可能受到影响,而且他们还要面临特朗普等有影响力的政治人物所带来的压力。(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

It’s finally happening.

After months of negotiating late into the night over Zoom calls, a bipartisan group of Senators announced Wednesday that they had reached a deal around the major issues on their $1.2 trillion “hard” infrastructure bill. Later that night, the Senate voted to begin work on the plan.

While the bill itself may not be ready for another week or so, this agreement marks a major achievement for President Joe Biden who made a multi-trillion dollar infrastructure package a cornerstone of his 2020 campaign and prioritized passing legislation within the first year of his term.

Republicans agreed to the plan after meeting with Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell in his office Wednesday morning.

Arizona Senator Kyrsten Sinema, who led negotiations from the Democratic side, said she had spoken with Biden and that he is “committed” and “excited” about the agreement. Most of the text is already written, she added, and that she feels good about having the votes to get this through.

To quote the president…

Why is Biden calling this a "big f’ing deal"?

The entire U.S. economy, all $20 trillion of it, relies heavily on our infrastructure in one way or another, through transportation, power grids, high-speed internet, ports, roads, and bridges. But much of this infrastructure hasn’t been updated in decades, and delays are causing threats to our health, security, and GDP. In The Road Taken: The History and Future of America’s Infrastructure, historian Henry Petroski writes that just traffic congestion costs the U.S. economy $120 billion each year.

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), which grades U.S. infrastructure each year, gave the country a C- in 2021.

There’s a water main break every two minutes, said the ASCE report, leading to losses of 6 billion gallons of treated water each day. Some 43% of our public roadways are in poor or mediocre condition. About 42% of all bridges in the country are at least 50 years old, and 7.5% are considered structurally deficient. About one in five school-aged children lack the high-speed internet connection needed to access lessons last year.

The U.S. ranks 13th in the world in infrastructure quality, falling behind China, India, France, Germany, Japan, and the UAE. European countries typically spend about 5% on their infrastructure, the U.S. spends 2.3%.

What is actually in the infrastructure deal?

The bill is being advertised as a $1.2 trillion massive overhaul of America’s crumbling infrastructure, but in reality it will only include $550 billion in new spending, the rest of the package uses previously approved spending.

The finalized text still hasn't been revealed yet but here’s what you can expect, based on communications from the White House:

• $110 billion to fund new roads and bridges

• $73 billion to move from fossil fuels to clean energy and upgrade power infrastructure

• $66 billion to address deferred maintenance on Amtrak trains, expand service, and modernize rail service

• $65 billion to build reliable high-speed internet across America through broadband infrastructure

• $55 billion to replace lead pipes and service lines and provide clean drinking water across the country

• $50 billion for weather-proofing infrastructure and creating infrastructure that’s resilient to the impacts of climate change and cyber attacks

• $39 billion of new investment to modernize and improve public transit and and improve accessibility for the elderly and people with disabilities

• $25 billion for airports to address repair and maintenance backlogs, reduce congestion, and reduce carbon emissions

• $21 billion in environmental remediation to address legacy pollution like superfund sites, abandoned mines, and uncapped oil and gas wells

• $17 billion in port infrastructure

• $15 billion for electric vehicles, busses, and trucks and creating the infrastructure needed to charge them

• $11 billion towards a “Safe Streets for All” program which will work to reduce car crashes and fatalities and improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists

That’s a lot of money…

Yep, and that’s why negotiations have been so tedious. Democrats and Republicans both want to improve infrastructure, but they don’t see eye-to-eye on how to pay for it all. Talk of raising taxes is a poison pill on the right, and a big hold-up was a Democratic proposal to offset costs by cracking down on tax cheats to increase IRS revenue.

Instead legislators claim they will fund the bill by:

• Redirecting $250 billion in COVID relief funds, including $50 billion intended for federal unemployment relief that was eschewed by some Republican governors

• Recouping $50 billion in fraudulent unemployment benefits paid out during the pandemic

• Saving $50 billion by delaying a Medicare rebate rule passed under former President Donald Trump

• Gaining $30 billion from strengthening tax reporting requirements and enforcement for cryptocurrency

• Benefiting from increased growth from the infrastructure investments

So is "infrastructure week" actually over?

For those that remember the previous era, Donald Trump tried to pass infrastructure legislation so many times over his term in office that “infrastructure week” became shorthand for the magical thinking surrounding a Sisyphian task, the punchline to a joke.

Over the past few weeks Trump has attempted to publicly undermine confidence in negotiations. Privately, he’s attempted to persuade Republican lawmakers to stop bargaining. “Who are these RINO Republicans that are so dedicated to giving the Radical Left Democrats a big and beautiful win on Infrastructure? Republican voters will never forget their name, nor will the people of our Country!” Trump wrote on his personal website Monday.

Still, it looks like his influence is fading amongst his former Republican allies. Senator Lindsay Graham has said he wants to get to a deal and that he’s told the former president as much. Senator Rob Portman has also asked Trump to support the deal. Senator Kevin Cramer commented that Trump’s statements were “short on specificity.” McConnell, who Trump criticized as an “old Crow” for his support of an infrastructure plan shrugged off the comments. “Actually, it's quite an honor," McConnell told a CNN reporter. "Old Crow is Henry Clay's favorite bourbon."

Why is this being called a “hard” infrastructure bill? Is something else coming?

Good eye. There’s also a much bigger, $3.5 trillion spending package that Democrats are currently preparing to push through Congress without Republican support. This could be where the bipartisan infrastructure deal hits a snag, since some Democrats are saying they won’t vote for one without the other.

This $3.5 trillion would provide funding for Biden’s social agenda: a historic expansion of Medicare, expanding the child tax credit, providing paid medical and family leave, changing the tax code, taking climate action, and possibly even making changes to immigration law.

Moderate Democrats and Republicans aren’t happy with it.

“I love this bill; the other I can’t stand,” said Senator Mitt Romney about the difference between the two packages. He cited concerns about inflation with the larger bill.

Senator Sinema, who led negotiations on the bipartisan infrastructure deal, also opposes the spending package.

"While I will support beginning this process, I do not support a bill that costs $3.5 trillion—and in the coming months, I will work in good faith to develop this legislation," Sinema said Wednesday.

Sinema’s statement was rebuked by Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez on Twitter, who tied her vote on the “hard” bill to support for the $3.5 trillion budget reconciliation. "Good luck tanking your own party’s investment on childcare, climate action, and infrastructure while presuming you’ll survive a 3 vote House margin," she wrote.

Congressman Mondaire Jones agreed, writing that "without a reconciliation package that meets this moment, I’m a no on this bipartisan deal."

Last month, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said the House would not take up the bipartisan deal without the Senate passing the $3.5 trillion deal.

It remains to be seen if the longtime House Speaker will budge on her hardline stance.

When is this going to happen?

Congress is going into August recess in less than two weeks, and Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer has said both bills need to pass before then. If they don’t, the effort will lose steam and legislators will likely hyper-focused on the upcoming midterm elections which could impact their votes and open them up to feeling pressure from political influencers like Trump.

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