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印度推新政,民众接种疫苗将不再自掏腰包

印度推新政,民众接种疫苗将不再自掏腰包

Biman Mukherji 2021年06月09日
根据新政策,大多数印度人将有资格获得免费疫苗。

6月7日晚些时候,印度总理纳伦德拉•莫迪撤回了他六周前宣布的一项政策。尽管印度第二波疫情形势严峻,该政策仍规定,将提高新冠疫苗价格,并迫使一些印度民众支付疫苗费用。截至目前,第二波疫情已导致印度数百万人感染,数万人死亡。

莫迪说,联邦政府将从6月21日起直接从制造商处采购疫苗,并免费分发给各邦,取代要求各邦自行从制造商处购买疫苗的规定。这一政策变动,旨在加快该国的疫苗接种计划。印度疫苗计划的目标是在年底前为每个成年人接种疫苗。截至目前,大约15%的印度成年人已经完整接种了新冠疫苗。

根据5月1日生效的现行政策,印度将疫苗接种划分为三个部分——联邦医院、各邦医院和私立医院。疫苗生产商将一半的库存卖给联邦政府,四分之一卖给各邦政府和私立医院。

根据新政策,联邦政府将购买三分之二的疫苗进行分发,另外三分之一将出售给私人医院。各邦将不再需要购买疫苗并让印度民众出钱。这意味着,大多数印度人将有资格获得免费疫苗。

莫迪说,他推行当前的政策,是因为各邦希望拥有获取自己疫苗的自由。他表示,现在各邦正在重新考虑这种做法。

“许多邦已经尽了最大努力,但他们也意识到了这样一个庞大计划所面临的挑战。”他补充说。

但是,这一声明发布之时,也正值莫迪政府因为处理第二波新冠疫情而面临激烈批评之际。批评人士指责莫迪政府在今年早些时候允许5个邦举行选举,并允许大型宗教节日的举行,最终吸引了数千名印度教信徒聚集,从而导致了致命疫情的爆发。反对党也抨击莫迪政府在没有保证充足供应的情况下,盲目扩大疫苗接种计划。

5月1日,印度向所有18岁以及以上的成年人开放了接种疫苗的资格。45岁及以上的老人、卫生保健和一线工作人员有资格在政府中心免费接种疫苗;但其他人必须通过邦政府或私人医院接种疫苗,有时需要付费。

在新政策下,只有私立医院才允许向病人收取注射费用,价格上限为150印度卢比(比医院购买时每剂多2美元)。目前还不清楚制造商是否会被允许向私立医院按市场价格收取费用。

印度最高法院(Supreme Court of India)批评印度联邦政府目前的疫苗接种计划,称该政策迫使各邦政府在购买疫苗方面相互竞争。

卫生保健专家表示,该政策存在缺陷,因为其没有按照需要分配疫苗,而只是给每个邦以“平等”的机会抢购疫苗。

印度工商联合会(Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry)的主席乌代•尚卡尔对新的疫苗接种政策表示欢迎。他认为,“中心化的方案”将有助于缓解混乱局面,加快疫苗采购。他还表示,新政策需要更快推出。按照目前每天220万剂的速度,到年底,也将只有30%的印度人口完成疫苗接种。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

6月7日晚些时候,印度总理纳伦德拉•莫迪撤回了他六周前宣布的一项政策。尽管印度第二波疫情形势严峻,该政策仍规定,将提高新冠疫苗价格,并迫使一些印度民众支付疫苗费用。截至目前,第二波疫情已导致印度数百万人感染,数万人死亡。

莫迪说,联邦政府将从6月21日起直接从制造商处采购疫苗,并免费分发给各邦,取代要求各邦自行从制造商处购买疫苗的规定。这一政策变动,旨在加快该国的疫苗接种计划。印度疫苗计划的目标是在年底前为每个成年人接种疫苗。截至目前,大约15%的印度成年人已经完整接种了新冠疫苗。

根据5月1日生效的现行政策,印度将疫苗接种划分为三个部分——联邦医院、各邦医院和私立医院。疫苗生产商将一半的库存卖给联邦政府,四分之一卖给各邦政府和私立医院。

根据新政策,联邦政府将购买三分之二的疫苗进行分发,另外三分之一将出售给私人医院。各邦将不再需要购买疫苗并让印度民众出钱。这意味着,大多数印度人将有资格获得免费疫苗。

莫迪说,他推行当前的政策,是因为各邦希望拥有获取自己疫苗的自由。他表示,现在各邦正在重新考虑这种做法。

“许多邦已经尽了最大努力,但他们也意识到了这样一个庞大计划所面临的挑战。”他补充说。

但是,这一声明发布之时,也正值莫迪政府因为处理第二波新冠疫情而面临激烈批评之际。批评人士指责莫迪政府在今年早些时候允许5个邦举行选举,并允许大型宗教节日的举行,最终吸引了数千名印度教信徒聚集,从而导致了致命疫情的爆发。反对党也抨击莫迪政府在没有保证充足供应的情况下,盲目扩大疫苗接种计划。

5月1日,印度向所有18岁以及以上的成年人开放了接种疫苗的资格。45岁及以上的老人、卫生保健和一线工作人员有资格在政府中心免费接种疫苗;但其他人必须通过邦政府或私人医院接种疫苗,有时需要付费。

在新政策下,只有私立医院才允许向病人收取注射费用,价格上限为150印度卢比(比医院购买时每剂多2美元)。目前还不清楚制造商是否会被允许向私立医院按市场价格收取费用。

印度最高法院(Supreme Court of India)批评印度联邦政府目前的疫苗接种计划,称该政策迫使各邦政府在购买疫苗方面相互竞争。

卫生保健专家表示,该政策存在缺陷,因为其没有按照需要分配疫苗,而只是给每个邦以“平等”的机会抢购疫苗。

印度工商联合会(Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry)的主席乌代•尚卡尔对新的疫苗接种政策表示欢迎。他认为,“中心化的方案”将有助于缓解混乱局面,加快疫苗采购。他还表示,新政策需要更快推出。按照目前每天220万剂的速度,到年底,也将只有30%的印度人口完成疫苗接种。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi late June 7 backtracked on a policy he announced six weeks ago that effectively raised the price of COVID-19 vaccines and forced some Indians to pay for doses, even as the country faced a deadly second wave of the virus that has since infected millions and killed tens of thousands.

Modi said the federal government will source vaccines directly from manufacturers and distribute them free to states starting June 21, instead of requiring individual states to buy doses from manufacturers. The reversal is intended to accelerate the country’s vaccination program, which aims to inoculate every adult by the end of the year. So far, roughly 15% of Indian adults are fully vaccinated.

Under the current policy that took effect May 1, India segregates its vaccination distribution into three channels—federal, state, and private hospitals. Vaccine producers sell up to half of their stocks to the federal government, and a quarter each to state governments and private hospitals.

The new policy will mean that the federal government will buy up to two-thirds of the vaccines approved for distribution, while another third will be sold to private hospitals. States will no longer have to buy vaccines and pass the cost on to citizens, meaning the majority of India's population will be eligible for free vaccines.

Modi said he introduced the current policy because states had wanted the freedom to source their own vaccines. Now, he said, states are reconsidering that approach.

“Many states have done their best, but they have realized the challenge of such a big program,” he added.

But the announcement also comes as Modi's government faces fierce criticism for its handling of the second COVID wave. Critics blame his administration for fueling the deadly outbreak earlier this year by allowing elections in five states as well as a massive religious festival that attracted thousands of Hindu devotees. Opposition parties have also slammed Modi's government for expanding the vaccination program without ensuring adequate supply.

On May 1, India opened vaccine eligibility to all adults 18 and up. Those 45 and older and health care and frontline workers are eligible for free vaccines at government centers, but everyone else had to receive their jabs from state governments or private hospitals, sometimes for a fee.

Under the new policy, only private hospitals will be allowed to charge patients for jabs, though prices are capped at INR 150 or $2 over what hospitals pay per dose. It was not immediately clear whether manufacturers will be allowed to charge market rates to private hospitals.

The Supreme Court of India has criticized the federal government’s current vaccination program, saying that the policy forced state governments to compete with one another to buy vaccines.

Health care experts have said the policy was flawed because it didn't distribute vaccines based on need, but instead gave every state an equal opportunity to snap up doses.

Uday Shankar, president of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, welcomed the new vaccination policy, saying that a “centralized approach” will help ease confusion and speed up vaccine procurement. A faster rollout is needed, he said. At the current rate of 2.2 million doses daily, only 30% of the country’s population will be vaccinated by year-end.

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