|Jim Collins: Right. But, it's sort of starts there. And I think this is the real critical thing is key seats, what do you see as your most important seats?
I don't think you can compromise and have people who aren't passionate about what you folks are trying to do. Because then, first of all, they're not going, they can't do anything great if they're not particularly passionate about it. Now, where does it come from? I think you find people that are passionate; I don't think you can necessarily make people passionate.
We learned a very interesting thing about motivation. And in the "Good to Great" study, we're wrestling with the question of, how did these executives, particularly since they were not charismatic, in many cases, get people motivated and excited for the changes they needed to undergo?
And we kept asking them this question and we kept getting a blank response. They didn't understand the question.
Ok, you had these things you were tying to do, you had these people, and nobody's really excited and you went and did them. How did you do that? What do you mean, how did we do that? And we realized they didn't spend time motivating people. They thought the idea of motivating people was a waste of time.
What they spent time on was finding self motivated people. And then putting the things in place, and managing in such a way that you don't demotivate people who are already motivated.
I've done this thing a number of times, where I've been in a large room and I'll just simply ask, how many people in here today woke up this morning and said to yourself, I'd go do something interesting today only if somebody would come in and motivate me? No hands go up. If you really think about it, it kind of an insulting idea. The idea that somehow I am the motivator and you are this lump of flesh. And I as the motivator, I'm going to come in and infuse you with motivation. Well, if I'm the lump of flesh I don't feel very good about that, right?
So, what they really did is they said, we find people who have that kind of motivation when they come in the door and what we try to do is not destroy it. And that is a very different way of thinking about it.
Now, that said. I think that there are a lot of things companies can do about right seats that companies can teach.
One of the real critical dimensions of right people, may be we should just mention on some of those.
Uh-huh So, we stood back and said, ok, if we look across our researches, are there any kind of generic attributes of right people for key seats?
And we found a number, obviously there is always going to be specific things to that seat, or specific things to that company. If you're in bioengineering, if you are a biotechnology company and you're in the science area, you better know something about biochemistry or how to sequence DNA. Obviously that's important for the seat, but, in terms of generically...
And one, the right people in the key seat really don't think of it that they have a job. They have responsibilities and that's a huge distinction the idea that, no I'm responsible for bringing airplanes down safe, or I am responsible for the safety of the patient, or I am responsible for quality here, or I'm responsible, it's a set, I'm responsible for how the customer feels.
I'm responsible, I don't have a job, I don't have a list, I have a responsibility.
The second is that the right people in the key seats do what they say they're going to do, period.
Yeah, self-accountability. And so which means, they're very careful what they say they will do.
Number three. The right people have this very interesting, we call it, the 'window and mirror maturity'. What this means is, when some thing goes badly, they don't blame others. Even if it wasn't their fault, but if it's their responsibility, they'll stand in front of a mirror and say, I'm responsible. Here's what I learned, here's what I'll put in place for the future. Tremendous sense of learning.
And the flipside is, when things go really well, they don't take a lot of the credit. They readily point to the other people or the forces and factors that may have helped them be successful.
That's a very healthy response and you'll find that some people are always, if something goes wrong, they're blaming someone or something else rather than saying: I'm ultimately responsible and here's what I learned from it, here's how I grow.
Then we talked about that they have a passion for the company and they fit with the company's core values. Kind of walking in the door. So, these are really critical aspects of right people in key seats.
Now, you'll notice on there, that these are more character traits. Then there are skills and what we've learned about those that built a great company with a great culture is they focused on character, not on skills. What they would do is hire people who didn't necessarily know the business. So, we can teach them the business, we can't teach the work ethic. We can't teach them a sense of responsibility, we can't teach them a set of values. Because they bring those things with them, we can teach skills.
And so, we'll probably come back a little bit later when we talk about reduction into values. But, it's very interesting in Nucor's case how they opened up their steel mills in farming towns. And they opened their steel mills in farming towns because they said that farmers, there's a certain work ethic, rural, agrarian work ethic that will be very helpful in making steel. We can't teach that work ethic, but we can find it in these towns. And we can teach them how to make steel. So, instead of hiring folks who don't have a work ethic and try to give it to them. They said, we'll hire farmers that have a work ethic and we'll teach them how to make steel.
And you were mentioning a little while ago about the number of people coming out of universities is tripling in China. And you were talking about how companies have a great need for people; but young people don't yet have the skills that are needed.
What that means is, kind of a feeder program, you're trying to get those people who have the character you're looking for, they may be young, they may be untested and you bring them in and you train them in your business and you hire them based on the kinds of character you see in them and then you teach them the skills of the business, and that opens your playing field, much wider than saying we have to have someone coming out at age 22 that already knows our business. It's going to be a much smaller set of people to search through.
关于激励，我们发现了一些有趣的现象。《从优秀到卓越》（Good to Great）一书中，我们在思辨一个问题，这些高管们，尤其是那些不具备个人魅力的高管们，是怎样激励员工的，是如何使他们对即将经历的变革感到兴奋的？