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自己动手!美国民众自制口罩,应对短缺

自己动手!美国民众自制口罩,应对短缺

EMILY PRICE 2020年03月26日
外科口罩可以过滤掉90%的病毒颗粒,用抗菌枕套制成的口罩过滤效率约为70%。

新冠疫情期间,由于医院对口罩的需求增加,美国各地的裁缝为医生、护士和急救人员缝制口罩。图片来源:OSEPH PREZIOSO/AFP—GETTY IMAGES

上周末,无论专业还是业余裁缝坐在缝纫机前时,脑中只想一件事:对抗新冠疫情的口罩怎么做?随着医院、养老院和急救人员使用的口罩告急,博西尔城退休人员杰西·吉莱斯皮等缝纫师组建缝纫团队应对口罩短缺,大批制作后送去急需的地方。

自制口罩远非理想的选择,但在 N95口罩和外科口罩供不应求的地区,自制口罩可以延长医用级口罩的寿命,因为医用级口罩通常看完一个病人就会扔掉。在口罩更短缺的情况下,自制口罩就是主要的防护形式。

外科口罩可以过滤掉90%的病毒颗粒,用抗菌枕套制成的口罩过滤效率约为70%。

上周五,吉莱斯皮在 Facebook上创建了 “爱心缝护”组织,截至上周日已在美国发放了1000多个自制口罩。现在其成员已超过1600名,口罩生产速度仍然赶不上需求。吉莱斯皮经常参与救灾防护,不过组织裁缝还是第一次。

吉莱斯皮告诉《财富》杂志:“我之前是 Cajun Navy Supply副总裁,今年刚刚退休。我们公司主要从事后勤工作,向灾区提供人道主义救援。”

她说最初答应丈夫不会参与,但随后发现口罩短缺的情况,也找到了帮忙的方式。

吉莱斯皮说:“之前救灾主要是飓风之类。这次救助疫情有一点比较好,就是口罩都能快递,所以各种人都能全力帮忙,不管是奶奶辈还是家庭主妇还是cosplay玩家,只要手头有多余的布料就可以参与,真的很棒!”

“爱心缝护”组织制作的口罩。图片来源:Amanda Raquel Leyva

吉莱斯皮之所以决定成立该缝纫组织,是因为听医生和护士朋友说起物资缺乏的情况,有些医护人员甚至完全没有个人防护设备。

她说:“从一些文章上看到护士只能戴着头巾,脸上系着手帕,实在很可怕。”

目前,特朗普总统仍表示不会强迫公司生产口罩,尽管Hanes等一些企业表示已计划生产。

吉莱斯皮团队制作的口罩上都标有美国疾控中心的图案。她用谷歌在线表单管理口罩需求和发放。团队成员审核需求后,转给本地裁缝制作,以便加快口罩发放。

“我最头疼的是怎样判断需求紧迫程度。我们还在找更多裁缝,尽可能挖掘更多裁缝加入团队。”

虽然吉莱斯皮的团队规模最大,但并不是唯一一个。

上周三,因急需更多口罩,印第安纳州埃文斯维尔的女执事医院向社区请求帮助。在各界全力支持下,上周五口罩就已经能满足需要,医院还推出了名录,方便其他需要口罩的团体与有可能捐赠口罩的人联系。

截至周一,需要口罩的医院、医疗机构和急救人员的名单已达2000个之多。

口罩供应短缺一定程度上是由于缺乏原材料。例如,宾夕法尼亚州医用口罩面料生产商 Wazoodle fables公司最初因被认定“非必要”业务而被下令关闭。后来虽然可以重新开工,很多面料已经用尽,只得停止接收新订单。

在华盛顿,一家名为Kass Tailored的室内装潢公司也在为当地医务人员制作口罩。

全美国口罩短缺问题越来越严重,也让国民愈发团结。

“我觉得最酷的就是,能看到很多祖母带着12岁的孙女坐在缝纫机前,教孙女缝东西。在疯狂的疫情中,我们热爱的传统也在大举回归,”吉莱斯皮说。她认为人们赶工口罩支援前线就像当代的“铆工露丝”(二战时期,美国大批男性去前线参战,国内大量工厂职位空缺,政府鼓励女性走进工厂为战事贡献力量——译者注),“只不过这次的工具变成了缝纫机和法兰绒。”(财富中文网)

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

上周末,无论专业还是业余裁缝坐在缝纫机前时,脑中只想一件事:对抗新冠疫情的口罩怎么做?随着医院、养老院和急救人员使用的口罩告急,博西尔城退休人员杰西·吉莱斯皮等缝纫师组建缝纫团队应对口罩短缺,大批制作后送去急需的地方。

自制口罩远非理想的选择,但在 N95口罩和外科口罩供不应求的地区,自制口罩可以延长医用级口罩的寿命,因为医用级口罩通常看完一个病人就会扔掉。在口罩更短缺的情况下,自制口罩就是主要的防护形式。

外科口罩可以过滤掉90%的病毒颗粒,用抗菌枕套制成的口罩过滤效率约为70%。

上周五,吉莱斯皮在 Facebook上创建了 “爱心缝护”组织,截至上周日已在美国发放了1000多个自制口罩。现在其成员已超过1600名,口罩生产速度仍然赶不上需求。吉莱斯皮经常参与救灾防护,不过组织裁缝还是第一次。

吉莱斯皮告诉《财富》杂志:“我之前是 Cajun Navy Supply副总裁,今年刚刚退休。我们公司主要从事后勤工作,向灾区提供人道主义救援。”

她说最初答应丈夫不会参与,但随后发现口罩短缺的情况,也找到了帮忙的方式。

吉莱斯皮说:“之前救灾主要是飓风之类。这次救助疫情有一点比较好,就是口罩都能快递,所以各种人都能全力帮忙,不管是奶奶辈还是家庭主妇还是cosplay玩家,只要手头有多余的布料就可以参与,真的很棒!”

吉莱斯皮之所以决定成立该缝纫组织,是因为听医生和护士朋友说起物资缺乏的情况,有些医护人员甚至完全没有个人防护设备。

她说:“从一些文章上看到护士只能戴着头巾,脸上系着手帕,实在很可怕。”

目前,特朗普总统仍表示不会强迫公司生产口罩,尽管Hanes等一些企业表示已计划生产。

吉莱斯皮团队制作的口罩上都标有美国疾控中心的图案。她用谷歌在线表单管理口罩需求和发放。团队成员审核需求后,转给本地裁缝制作,以便加快口罩发放。

“我最头疼的是怎样判断需求紧迫程度。我们还在找更多裁缝,尽可能挖掘更多裁缝加入团队。”

虽然吉莱斯皮的团队规模最大,但并不是唯一一个。

上周三,因急需更多口罩,印第安纳州埃文斯维尔的女执事医院向社区请求帮助。在各界全力支持下,上周五口罩就已经能满足需要,医院还推出了名录,方便其他需要口罩的团体与有可能捐赠口罩的人联系。

截至周一,需要口罩的医院、医疗机构和急救人员的名单已达2000个之多。

口罩供应短缺一定程度上是由于缺乏原材料。例如,宾夕法尼亚州医用口罩面料生产商 Wazoodle fables公司最初因被认定“非必要”业务而被下令关闭。后来虽然可以重新开工,很多面料已经用尽,只得停止接收新订单。

在华盛顿,一家名为Kass Tailored的室内装潢公司也在为当地医务人员制作口罩。

全美国口罩短缺问题越来越严重,也让国民愈发团结。

“我觉得最酷的就是,能看到很多祖母带着12岁的孙女坐在缝纫机前,教孙女缝东西。在疯狂的疫情中,我们热爱的传统也在大举回归,”吉莱斯皮说。她认为人们赶工口罩支援前线就像当代的“铆工露丝”(二战时期,美国大批男性去前线参战,国内大量工厂职位空缺,政府鼓励女性走进工厂为战事贡献力量——译者注),“只不过这次的工具变成了缝纫机和法兰绒。”(财富中文网)

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

This weekend U.S. seamstresses both professional and amateur sat down in front of their sewing machines with just one pattern on their mind: face masks for healthcare workers battling the COVID-19 outbreak. With hospitals, senior homes, and first responders putting out desperate calls for masks, sewists including Jessy Gillespie, a retiree in Bossier City, La., created groups to field urgent requests, pass them along to other seamstresses, and then distribute the masks where needed.

Handmade masks are far from ideal, but in areas where N95 masks and surgical masks are in short supply, handmade masks are being used to extend the life of medical-grade masks, which would typically be disposed of after seeing a single patient. In some cases, where there's an even greater shortage, homemade masks are being used as a primary form of protection.

While a surgical mask can filter 90% of virus-sized particles, a mask made of, say, an anti-microbial pillowcase filters about 70%.

Gillespie founded her Facebook group "Sew You Care" on Friday. By Sunday the group had distributed more than 1,000 handmade masks around the country. Now, even with more than 1,600 members, the group is struggling to keep up with the need. Gillespie is a longtime organizer for relief efforts, though this is her first time calling on sewing enthusiasts.

“I recently retired from it this year, but I was the vice president of Cajun Navy Supply. We specialized in logistics getting humanitarian aid into disaster areas,” Gillespie told Fortune.

She said she originally promised her husband she wouldn’t get involved, but then she saw the need for masks and a way to help.

“I usually do hurricanes and stuff like that,” Gillespie said. "What's really cool about this is that we can just mail them, so we can have people working all over, from grandmothers to stay-at-home moms to cosplayers. Everybody that has a little bit of extra fabric is jumping in on this and it's awesome.”

She decided to create the group after talking to friends that are doctors and nurses that said they had limited, or in some cases, no personal protective equipment (also known as PPE).

“I started seeing articles being shared that are saying these nurses are wearing bandanas, they’re wearing handkerchief’s tied across their faces,” she said. “It became a very scary realization.”

So far, President Trump has said that he will not compel companies to make masks, although some, including Hanes, have said they plan to.

Gillespie’s group is using a pattern for masks provided by the CDC. She’s organizing requests and the distribution of the masks through Google forms. Requests for masks are vetted by a team member, and then those requests are matched with a seamstress in the area where those masks are needed so they can be distributed quickly.

“What caught me really off guard is how badly they’re actually needed,” Gillespie said. “We're looking for more seamstresses. Currently, we're trying to root them out of everywhere that we can find them.”

While Gillespie’s group of seamstresses is one of the largest, it’s definitely not the only one.

Running low on masks, Deaconess Hospital in Evansville, Ind. put out a request last Wednesday asking for the community to sew masks. Thanks to an overwhelming amount of support, by Friday it was able to meet its demand and launch a directory to connect other groups that need masks with people that can potentially donate them.

As of Monday, the list of hospitals, medical facilities, and first responders that need masks was 2000 places long.

That need may be due, at least in part, to a lack of available materials. For instance, Wazoodle Fabrics in Pennsylvania, which makes medical-grade fabric for masks, was originally ordered to close because it was deemed a “non-essential” business. The manufacturer was later allowed to reopen and is now sold out of many of its fabrics and, for now, had to stop accepting new ones.

In Washington, an upholstery business, Kass Tailored, has been making masksfor local medical workers.

The lack of masks is a problem that's getting worse around the country, but it's also one that's bringing people together as well.

"The coolest thing to me is that you're seeing so many posts of grandmothers sitting down with their 12-year-old granddaughters and teaching them how to sew. This art form that we all love so much is making a huge comeback in a really crazy time," Gillespie said. She compares the work to being a modern-day Rosie the Riveter, "except with sewing machines and flannel."

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