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史上第二位女性诺贝尔经济学奖得主,曾入选《财富》40位40岁以下精英

Anne Sraders 2019年10月20日

在获奖后的一场新闻发布会上,迪弗洛表示希望自己能激励经济学领域的女性。

10月14日,2019年诺贝尔经济学奖得主埃斯特·迪弗洛成为该奖项最年轻(也是第二位)的女性,并表示“备感谦卑”。

现年46岁的迪弗洛来自于麻省理工学院,本次跟同在麻省理工学院的丈夫阿比吉特·班纳吉,还有哈佛大学的迈克尔·克雷默一道,因为在全球扶贫方面的实验性方法而荣获奖项。三人的研究探索了贫困的成因,也采取实地试验判断教育、医疗、农业和其他项目对贫困人口的帮助。奖金方面,由三人分享900万瑞典克朗(91.6万美元)的现金奖励。目前三位教授的主要研究对象为非洲和印度。

在获奖后的一场新闻发布会上,迪弗洛表示希望自己能激励经济学领域的女性。迪弗洛是自1969年以来第二位荣获经济学奖的女性(首位女性经济学奖得主是2009年获奖的埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆)。

“我希望,如果可以证明女性能够获得成功并获得认可,可以激励很多很多女性继续努力工作,也促使很多男性给予她们作为人应得的尊重。”她说。

此外,迪弗洛在随后的电话采访中告诉诺贝尔奖委员会,“经济学圈开始意识到,整体环境和对待彼此的方式对于吸引更多女性投身该领域并不友好。”她补充说,“比如人们在研讨会上交谈和讲话的方式,我们要继续努力,确保对女性更尊重也更接受,让女性不必大声疾呼才能获得注意。”

这位麻省理工学院的教授长期研究与贫困相关的挑战,2010年曾经获得约翰·贝茨·克拉克奖。她也是2009年麦克阿瑟“天才”奖学金的获得者,之前曾经入选《财富》杂志40位40岁以下的商界精英榜单。

“说实话,我备感谦卑。”迪弗洛在获得诺贝尔奖的新闻发布会上说。“我认为年纪超过我们三个人之前,没有可能获得诺贝尔经济学奖。”

她表示,自己和其他获奖者都希望从科学的角度解决贫困问题。“穷人常常变成讽刺漫画的内容,就连想施以援手的人往往也不清楚穷人面临问题的深层根源。”

该团队的研究已经产生重大的影响。瑞典皇家科学院的声明称,正因为几位经济学家的试验,印度有500万儿童在学校接受补习辅导,还有一些国家推出了预防保健补贴。

迪弗洛说,希望通过研究“一一找出问题,并尽可能严格和科学地解决。”(财富中文网)

译者:Charlie

审校:夏林

Nobel Prize in Economics’ 2019 winner Esther Duflo became the youngest (and second) woman to win the award on October 14, and says it is “incredibly humbling.”

Duflo, 46, who hails from MIT, won the prize along with her husband Abhijit Banerje of MIT and Harvard’s Michael Kremer for their work on an experimental approach to alleviate global poverty. The trio’s work explored the causes of poverty and did field experiments to determine how those in poverty respond to education, healthcare, agriculture and other programs. The trio received a 9 million Swedish kronor ($916,000) cash award as part of the prize. The professors’ work has primarily focused on Africa and India.

In comments made at a news conference following her win, Duflo, as only the second woman to win the prize since its inception in 1969 (the first woman to win the prize was Elinor Ostrom in 2009), said she wants to be an inspiration for women in her field.

“Showing that it is possible for a woman to succeed and be recognized for success I hope is going to inspire many, many other women to continue working and many other men to give them the respect that they deserve like every single human being,” she said.

Additionally, Duflo told nobelprize.org in a later phone interview that “the profession is starting to realize the climate and the way we treat each other is not conducive for having more women in the profession.” She added that, “it’s how people talk to each other and address each other in seminars, that we need to work on to ensure it’s more respectful and will be more acceptable for women to think they don’t have to play the games of shouting at each other.”

The MIT professor has long worked on challenges related to poverty, and previously won the John Bates Clark Medal in 2010. She was also the recipient of the MacArthur “genius” Fellowship in 2009, and was previously named to Fortune’s 40 Under 40.

“It was incredibly humbling to tell you the truth,” Duflo said during the news conference of winning the Nobel prize. “I didn’t think it was possible to win the Nobel prize in economics before being significantly older than any of the three of us.”

Duflo and her fellow recipients wanted to approach the problem of poverty from a scientific angle, she said. “Often the poor are reduced to caricatures, and often even people that try to help them often do not actually understand what are the deep root of the problems that are addressing the poor,” Duflo said.

The team’s research has already made a big impact. As a result of some of their experiments, 5 million children in India have received remedial tutoring in schools, and some countries have introduced subsidies for preventative healthcare, according to a statement from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Duflo says their research seeks to “unpack the the problems, one by one, and address them as rigorously and scientifically as possible.”

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