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调查发现,这位CEO最能创新

Jonathan Vanian 2018年11月21日

贝佐斯一手将亚马逊从小型在线书商转变为电子商务巨头,也由此扬名。

一项新的民意调查显示,在顶尖科技公司的首席执行官里,亚马逊的首席执行官杰夫·贝佐斯堪称最佳。

根据哈里斯民意调查机构代表《财富》杂志的调查,83%受访者表示相信贝佐斯可以推动公司发展并坚持创新,高于苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克(77%),微软首席执行官萨蒂亚·纳德拉(76%),谷歌首席执行官桑达尔·皮查伊(76%)和Facebook首席执行官马克·扎克伯格(71%)。

贝佐斯一手将亚马逊从小型在线书商转变为电子商务巨头,也由此扬名。他还拓展公司业务,大力发展流媒体视频、信息技术、Kindle电子书阅读器,以及最近的Echo智能扬声器,也扩展到实体零售,特别是收购连锁杂货店全食超市。

“现在亚马逊发展的路线比较独立,”哈里斯民意调查的首席执行官约翰·格泽马表示,“就像10年前的苹果公司一样。”

但对于科技公司的首席执行官来说,当前情况比较复杂。以前人们认为科技能让生活更轻松,随着隐私泄露问题曝光,声讨人们花太多时间盯着屏幕的声音越来越多,很多科技公司也遭受质疑。

为了评估公众对主要科技公司首席执行官的看法,今年10月中旬,《财富》杂志请哈里斯民意调查机构对2,000多名美国成年人进行在线调查。调查人群基本可代表全民。

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos is the most skilled leader among top tech CEOs, according to a new poll.

Eighty-three percent of respondents said they had confidence in his abilities to grow his company and innovate, beating Apple CEO Tim Cook (77%), Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella (76%), Google CEO Sundar Pichai (76%), and Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg (71%), according to a survey conducted on Fortune’s behalf by The Harris Poll.

Bezos has earned his top position by transforming Amazon from a tiny online bookseller into an e-commerce Goliath. At the same time, he pushed the company beyond its roots into streaming video, information technology, Kindle tablets, and, more recently, Echo smart speakers while also expanding into physical retail, most notably by acquiring grocery chain Whole Foods.

“Amazon is sort of it’s own thing right now,” Harris Poll CEO John Gerzema said. “It’s like what Apple was 10 years ago.”

But the current landscape is complicated for tech CEOs. Once seen largely as helping make life easier for their users, many of them are now under suspicion amid problems like privacy missteps and the growing sentiment that people spend too much time staring at screens.

In an effort to gauge public sentiment about major tech CEOs, Fortune enlisted Harris Poll to conduct an online survey on its behalf in mid-October of over 2,000 U.S. adults. The group represents the population at large.

民意调查发现,公众对库克、纳德拉和皮查伊的信心与贝佐斯基本差不多。

过去,苹果的首席执行官通常排名远高于竞争对手。但在最新的民意调查中,格泽马发现信心出现下降,他认为原因在于跟前任首席执行官史蒂夫·乔布斯相比,现在的苹果缺乏创新。乔布斯曾推动初代iPhone和iPad问世。

虽然苹果公司的收入继续增长,财务健康状况尚可,而且开创了快速增长的苹果音乐等服务,还是缺乏新的革命性产品,这可能是公众对库克的信心不如贝佐斯的原因。

另一方面,近年来微软在纳德拉的带领下声誉节节攀升,纳德拉被誉为“能力出众且具有远见卓识的首席执行官”,格泽马表示。在纳德拉的领导下,微软股价创历史新高。微软从Windows操作系统等传统业务转向增速更快的云计算和相关云软件业务,华尔街对此很看好。

公众可能不太熟悉谷歌首席执行官桑达尔·皮查伊,因为他非常低调,而且级别不如谷歌母公司Alphabet的首席执行官拉里·佩奇。但格泽马表示,看起来多数美国人认为谷歌在皮查伊的指挥下能保持成长,而且认为公司的成功与这位知之甚少的高管很可能有关。

不过,在哈里斯民意调查之后不久,数千名谷歌员工高调罢工,抗议公司高管团队处理数起员工性骚扰投诉不力。后来谷歌修改了一些性骚扰相关政策,包括撤销性骚扰和性侵索赔强制仲裁的规则。

目前尚不清楚最近的谷歌罢工会不会影响调查结果。

曝出一系列数据泄露丑闻之后,Facebook的首席执行官马克·扎克伯格在调查中排名最后。今年4月,有消息称研究人员将社交网络巨头Facebook用户数据非法出售给政治咨询公司剑桥分析,Facebook还遭到黑客攻击,可能影响多达3000万用户。

Facebook方面还有个调查结果值得注意,18岁-34岁的受访者有79%对扎克伯格的能力抱有信心,比年长一些的人比例要高,35岁-44岁的受访者表示有信心的占72%,45岁-54岁的占67%,55岁-64岁的占63%。可能原因是年轻人更熟悉Facebook旗下问题较少的Instagram照片应用,他们更关注首席执行官比较年轻,或者对该公司最近的负面消息了解不多。

The poll found that public confidence in Cook, Nadella, and Pichai was almost neck-and-neck, just below Bezos.

In the past, Apple, and by implication, its CEO, usually ranked much higher than its rivals. But in the latest poll, Gerzema noticed a decline in confidence, which he attributed to a shortage of innovation at Apple compared to during the era of former CEO Steve Jobs, who unveiled the original iPhone and iPad.

While Apple has continued to grow its revenue, indicating financial health, and has created fast-growing services businesses like Apple Music, the lack of new revolutionary products could be partly why the public gave Cook a lower confidence score than Bezos.

Microsoft’s reputation, on the other hand, has climbed in recent years under Nadella, who is praised as a “competent and visionary CEO,” Gerzema said. Under Nadella, Microsoft shares have reached record highs due in part to Wall Street’s enthusiasm about the company’s shift from older businesses like the Windows operating system to newer and faster growing cloud computing and related cloud software businesses.

The public is probably less familiar with Google CEO Sundar Pichai, because he keeps a lower profile and is outranked by Larry Page, CEO of Google’s parent company, Alphabet. But most Americans seem to think that Google will continue growing under Pichai’s watch, and likely attribute the company’s success to an executive they likely don’t know, Gerzema said.

That said, the Harris Poll survey was conducted before thousands of Google employees participated in a high-profile walkout to protest how the company’s executive team handled several sexual harassment complaints by workers. Google eventually revised some of its sexual misconduct policies, including ending rules that required mandatory arbitration of sexual harassment and assault claims.

It’s unclear if the recent Google walkout would have impacted the survey results.

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg finished last in the survey following a number of data privacy scandals. The company came under fire in April when news reports emerged that a researcher improperly sold Facebook user data to the Cambridge Analytica political consulting firm, and the social networking giant recently suffered a major hack that may have affected up to 30 million people.

A noteworthy addendum for Facebook, however, was that people 18-34 were more confident in Zuckerberg’s abilities (79%) than older adults, 35-44 (72%), 45-54 (67%), and 55-64 (63%). Some possible explanations are that younger people are more familiar with Facebook’s less problem-plagued Instagram photo app, they identify more with the CEO’s relative youth, or that may be unaware of recent negative news about the company.

对首席执行官领导力的民意调查只是一部分,其实更全面的调查主要询问公众对科技巨头,还有对数据隐私和道德相关问题的观点。其他调查结果显示,人们认为在保护数据方面,Facebook在各大技术巨头里最不值得信赖,而且会比以往更认真关注科技公司的数据政策。

格泽马指出,举个例子,虽然公众对数据伦理的看法方面贝佐斯排名最高,但认可率仅为77%,不像其他调查问题上高管认可率经常高出80%很多,甚至超过90%。这可能意味着受访者越发关心亚马逊在新兴领域的发展,例如Alexa语音助手。跟别家的语音助手一样,积攒的用户数据会越来越多。

至于全面调查中的重要内容,格泽马预计随着大型科技公司扩展新业务线,公众监督也会更严格。

“在硅谷眼里,这些公司只是科技品牌,但在美国公众眼里,它们都是生活方式品牌,”格泽马表示,“科技大公司是生活的一部分。”(财富中文网)

译者:Vanian

The poll on CEO leadership skills was part of a larger survey on the public’s perception of tech giants and issues pertaining to data privacy and ethics. The results from the other survey questions found that Facebook is viewed as the least trustworthy of the tech giants when it comes to safeguarding data, and that people are beginning to scrutinize tech companies and their data policies more than they have been.

For instance, while Bezos ranked the highest among the CEOs regarding the public’s perception of data ethics, his approval was at 77% and not the high 80s or even 90s that the executive typically receives in other Harris Poll surveys, Gerzema noted. This could imply that the survey respondents are becoming increasingly concerned with Amazon’s growth into newer areas like the Alexa voice-activated digital assistant, which like other digital assistants, improves over time with more user data.

As for the big takeaways from the overall survey, Gerzema predicted that there will be increased public scrutiny of big tech companies as they expand into new business lines.

“Silicon Valley might look at these companies as tech brands, but the American public looks at them as lifestyle brands,” Gerzema said. “They are a part of their lives.”

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