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隔离期间的“多班倒”让女性不堪重负

隔离期间的“多班倒”让女性不堪重负

Sheryl Sandberg,Rachel Thomas 2020年05月12日
无论是雇主、管理者、政府官员还是配偶,所有人都应该行动起来,减轻女性的负担。

LeanIn.org联合创始人雪莉·桑德伯格(上图)与瑞秋·托马斯认为,在新冠疫情期间,雇主应该为女性提供更多帮助。图片来源:Lino Mirgeler/picture alliance由盖蒂图片社提供

在美国爆发新冠疫情危机之前,许多女性已经在“两班倒”:她们既要工作,又要承担起照看子女和做家务的主要责任。疫情期间,孩子在家上学,还要照顾家里的病患或老年人,形成了“多班倒”的局面。这把女性推到了崩溃的边缘。

LeanIn.org和Survey Monkey在四月份进行的调查显示,四分之一女性表示她们正在经历严重的焦虑,身体出现了心跳加快等症状。有相同遭遇的男性只有十分之一。超过一半女性目前存在睡眠问题。女性,尤其是黑人女性,比男性更有可能担心未来几个月家庭的基本生活支出难以维系。

有全职工作并且已经组建家庭的女性,有31%表示她们要做的事情让她们疲于应付。只有13%有家庭的职场男性有相同的感受。我们的研究表明,出现这种差异的原因,不仅仅是因为男性能够更轻松地应对同样沉重的负担。相反,感觉不堪重负的女性之所以比例更高,是因为她们在夜以继日地工作,维持家庭运转。

以一位有配偶和子女的全职女性在疫情期间的日程表为例。我们的调查数据显示,她现在每周要花71个小时处理家务和照顾家人,包括新增加的应对疫情的责任。这已经相当于两份全职工作的时间,而这时候她还没有开始自己的全职工作。与此同时,男性每周的劳动时间比女性少20个小时。有色人种女性和单亲妈妈的负担更加沉重。

雇主必须帮助她们缓解这种压力。我们知道公司在经济衰退时期承受着巨大的财务压力,但帮助团队避免职业倦怠和染病应该成为公司的首要任务。只有这样做,他们才能在危机中让员工发挥最大的作用,并在危机过后留住员工。

只有40%的员工表示,疫情爆发之后公司采取了提高工作灵活性的措施,不足20%的员工表示公司调整了工作重点,或者减少了她们的工作任务。但这还远远不够。公司的领导者和管理者应该尽量推迟工作任务的截止时间,重新审视疫情之前设定的目标,重新考虑绩效评估的时间,把一些优先级较低的事项从待办事项清单中删除。

Facebook暂停了常规绩效评估,而是按照假设所有员工在今年上半年绩效均超出预期的情况发放奖金,并为需要照顾子女的员工提供了延长育儿假的福利,提供了新的请假方案。我们还允许公司各部门的管理人员根据具体情况重新调整任务的优先级别。并非所有公司都可以或者应该采取同样的措施,但想方设法减轻员工的负担能产生巨大的影响。

现在,管理人员应该发挥领导作用,为团队提供必要的情感支持。不到三分之一的员工和不足四分之一的必要工作者表示,在疫情期间公司有人关心他们的健康状况。如果员工有子女在家上课,或者担心住院的父母,她们的管理者应该了解到这种情况,并相应调整工作计划。任何公司,无论规模大小,都可以借鉴初创公司的做法,经常举行“站立”会议(因为时间很短,所以不需要坐下开会),让员工快速分享自己的工作内容、提出问题、及时调整工作重点和寻求帮助等。

当然,在疫情期间为员工提供支持不应该只是雇主的责任。我们需要国家解决方案,包括带薪休假、提高最低工资和可以负担的儿童看护等。在家里,男性应该站出来。在疫情危机期间,许多男性确实在家里承担了更多责任,但如果他们从承担20%的家务增加到30%,虽然听起来很多,但依旧不足一半。伴侣之间平均分担家务,能帮助女性在事业和健康不受影响的情况下,度过这次危机。

女性已经疲惫不堪,达到极限。度过此次危机,也意味着帮助女性度过难关。无论是雇主、管理者、政府官员还是配偶,所有人都应该行动起来,减轻女性的负担。(财富中文网)

本文作者雪莉·桑德伯格现任Facebook首席运营官兼LeanIn.Org联合创始人。瑞秋·托马斯为LeanIn.Org联合创始人兼CEO。

作者:Sheryl Sandberg,Rachel Thomas

译者:Biz

在美国爆发新冠疫情危机之前,许多女性已经在“两班倒”:她们既要工作,又要承担起照看子女和做家务的主要责任。疫情期间,孩子在家上学,还要照顾家里的病患或老年人,形成了“多班倒”的局面。这把女性推到了崩溃的边缘。

LeanIn.org和Survey Monkey在四月份进行的调查显示,四分之一女性表示她们正在经历严重的焦虑,身体出现了心跳加快等症状。有相同遭遇的男性只有十分之一。超过一半女性目前存在睡眠问题。女性,尤其是黑人女性,比男性更有可能担心未来几个月家庭的基本生活支出难以维系。

有全职工作并且已经组建家庭的女性,有31%表示她们要做的事情让她们疲于应付。只有13%有家庭的职场男性有相同的感受。我们的研究表明,出现这种差异的原因,不仅仅是因为男性能够更轻松地应对同样沉重的负担。相反,感觉不堪重负的女性之所以比例更高,是因为她们在夜以继日地工作,维持家庭运转。

以一位有配偶和子女的全职女性在疫情期间的日程表为例。我们的调查数据显示,她现在每周要花71个小时处理家务和照顾家人,包括新增加的应对疫情的责任。这已经相当于两份全职工作的时间,而这时候她还没有开始自己的全职工作。与此同时,男性每周的劳动时间比女性少20个小时。有色人种女性和单亲妈妈的负担更加沉重。

雇主必须帮助她们缓解这种压力。我们知道公司在经济衰退时期承受着巨大的财务压力,但帮助团队避免职业倦怠和染病应该成为公司的首要任务。只有这样做,他们才能在危机中让员工发挥最大的作用,并在危机过后留住员工。

只有40%的员工表示,疫情爆发之后公司采取了提高工作灵活性的措施,不足20%的员工表示公司调整了工作重点,或者减少了她们的工作任务。但这还远远不够。公司的领导者和管理者应该尽量推迟工作任务的截止时间,重新审视疫情之前设定的目标,重新考虑绩效评估的时间,把一些优先级较低的事项从待办事项清单中删除。

Facebook暂停了常规绩效评估,而是按照假设所有员工在今年上半年绩效均超出预期的情况发放奖金,并为需要照顾子女的员工提供了延长育儿假的福利,提供了新的请假方案。我们还允许公司各部门的管理人员根据具体情况重新调整任务的优先级别。并非所有公司都可以或者应该采取同样的措施,但想方设法减轻员工的负担能产生巨大的影响。

现在,管理人员应该发挥领导作用,为团队提供必要的情感支持。不到三分之一的员工和不足四分之一的必要工作者表示,在疫情期间公司有人关心他们的健康状况。如果员工有子女在家上课,或者担心住院的父母,她们的管理者应该了解到这种情况,并相应调整工作计划。任何公司,无论规模大小,都可以借鉴初创公司的做法,经常举行“站立”会议(因为时间很短,所以不需要坐下开会),让员工快速分享自己的工作内容、提出问题、及时调整工作重点和寻求帮助等。

当然,在疫情期间为员工提供支持不应该只是雇主的责任。我们需要国家解决方案,包括带薪休假、提高最低工资和可以负担的儿童看护等。在家里,男性应该站出来。在疫情危机期间,许多男性确实在家里承担了更多责任,但如果他们从承担20%的家务增加到30%,虽然听起来很多,但依旧不足一半。伴侣之间平均分担家务,能帮助女性在事业和健康不受影响的情况下,度过这次危机。

女性已经疲惫不堪,达到极限。度过此次危机,也意味着帮助女性度过难关。无论是雇主、管理者、政府官员还是配偶,所有人都应该行动起来,减轻女性的负担。(财富中文网)

本文作者雪莉·桑德伯格现任Facebook首席运营官兼LeanIn.Org联合创始人。瑞秋·托马斯为LeanIn.Org联合创始人兼CEO。

作者:Sheryl Sandberg,Rachel Thomas

译者:Biz

Before the coronavirus crisis hit in the U.S., many women already worked a “double shift,” doing their jobs, then returning to a home where they were responsible for the majority of childcare and domestic work. Now, homeschooling kids and caring for sick or elderly relatives during the pandemic is creating a "double double shift." It’s pushing women to the breaking point.

According to recent surveys by LeanIn.org and Survey Monkey conducted in April, one in four women say they are experiencing severe anxiety with physical symptoms like a racing heartbeat. One in 10 men say the same. More than half of all women are currently struggling with sleep issues. Women, especially black women, were more likely than men to worry that they wouldn’t be able to pay for essentials in the next few months.

And 31% of women with full-time jobs and families say they have more to do than they can possibly handle. Only 13% of working men with families say the same. Our research indicates that this disparity is not because men are simply shouldering equally heavy burdens with greater ease. Instead, women are disproportionately feeling overwhelmed because they are disproportionately the ones working day and night to keep households afloat.

Consider the coronavirus-era schedule of a typical woman who works full time and has a partner and kids. She’s now spending 71 hours every week on housework and caregiving, including the new responsibilities of the pandemic, according to our survey data. That’s nearly two full-time jobs—before she starts doing her actual full-time job. Meanwhile, men in the same situation are doing 20 fewer hours of labor every week. For women of color and single moms, the demands are even greater.

Employers must work to relieve this stress. We know companies are under tremendous financial pressure during this economic downturn, but helping their teams avoid burnout and illness needs to be a priority. That is how they’ll get the best out of their employees amid all this disruption and retain those workers when the crisis is over.

Only 40% of employees say their companies have taken steps to increase flexibility since the pandemic began, and fewer than 20% say their employer has rejiggered priorities or narrowed the scope of their work. That’s not enough. Leaders and managers should move any deadline that can be moved, take a second look at targets set before the pandemic, rethink the timing of performance reviews, and remove low-priority items from the to-do list.

At Facebook, we suspended our usual performance ratings—instead, all employees will receive bonuses as if they exceeded expectations for the first half of the year—and created an extended childcare benefit and new leave options for caregivers. We've also allowed managers across the company to reshuffle priorities on a case-by-case basis. Not every employer can or should follow these exact steps, but finding ways to lighten your employees’ loads can make a big difference.

This is the time for managers to become leaders by giving their teams much-needed emotional support. Fewer than a third of employees—and fewer than a quarter of essential workers—say someone from their company checks in on their well-being these days. If employees are homeschooling kids or worrying about a parent in the hospital, their managers should know that and adjust work plans accordingly. Companies of all sizes can take a cue from the start-up playbook and hold regular “stand up” meetings—named because they’re so short, you don’t sit down for them—to let people quickly share what they’re working on, flag problems, readjust priorities on the fly, and ask for help.

Of course, supporting workers through this pandemic can’t be the responsibility of employers alone. We need national solutions, including paid leave, a higher minimum wage, and affordable childcare. And on the home front, men need to step up. Many have taken on more responsibility at home during this crisis, but if you go from doing 20% to 30% of the housework, it's still less than half even if it feels like a lot. Evenly sharing the increased domestic burden—splitting the double double shift—will help ensure women emerge from this period with their jobs and health intact.

Women are maxing out and burning out. Getting through this crisis means helping women get through it too. All of us—employers, managers, elected officials, and spouses—need to help lighten their loads.

Sheryl Sandberg is COO of Facebook and co-founder of LeanIn.Org. Rachel Thomas is co-founder and CEO of LeanIn.Org.

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