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既要善待身体也要避免误区 这些是专家认可的2018年健康食谱

Sy Mukherjee 2018年01月13日

总体而言,最受推荐的是政府倡导的抗高血压食谱DASH饮食、地中海饮食、弹性素食饮食和专业瘦身机构Weight Watchers的纤体食谱。

 

新年许愿的时候,你有没有希望瘦一点、身材变好,或者简单地吃更好一点?健康专家已经想你所想,评选出2018年最有益健康的食谱,将地中海饮食、DASH饮食、生酮饮食和其他流行食谱一一排名,发布在《美国新闻与世界报道》上。

以下就是专家们的建议。

最佳综合类食谱

总体而言,最受推荐的是政府倡导的抗高血压食谱DASH饮食、地中海饮食、弹性素食饮食和专业瘦身机构Weight Watchers的纤体食谱。

那么,这些食谱中各自包括哪些内容?DASH饮食其实比较常规,即建议日常饮食中包括大量的水果、蔬菜、全谷物、优质蛋白质和低脂乳制品。注意少盐、少摄入饱和脂肪酸、添加人工甜味剂以及糖分高的食品和饮品。

地中海饮食模仿地中海地区居民的饮食习惯,大量食用鱼类和海产品、绿叶菜、坚果和豆类,少吃红肉,少摄入糖分等碳水化合物和饱和脂肪酸。在商业食谱中,Weight Watchers的食谱排名最高,得分超过了Jenny Craig和Flat Belly的食谱。如果食谱中含有可提高瘦身效果的食物,评分系统会给予相应的分值。(弹性素食饮食是另一种以水果、蔬菜和全谷物为基础的食谱,摄取蛋白质的来源也不是肉类,而是植物。)

最佳瘦身类食谱

不同的食谱有不同的用法。有人可能想瘦身,有人只想吃得健康些,还有人想控制糖尿病之类慢性病,长期保持饮食健康。《美国新闻与世界报道》的分类型食谱排名都可以提供有益的参考。

举例来说,Weight Watchers的食谱名列瘦身类食谱榜首,紧随其后的是量化食谱(基于“量”的饮食方式侧重热量较少却能提供较多能量的所谓“低密度”食物。)此类食物可能帮助实现明显减重,每周可下降一两磅(约0.45到0.9公斤)。

有助控制心脏病和糖尿病的食谱

很多瘦身食谱也有助于心血管健康。但如果已经身患糖尿病,或者罹患该疾病的风险比较高怎么办?

专家们认为,地中海饮食和DASH饮食都很适合预防或者控制糖尿病发作。弹性素食饮食、美国医疗机构梅奥诊所的食谱和纯素食谱排名也较高。总体上看,业内比较推荐地中海饮食,因为可能改善心脏健康,降低患老年痴呆的风险。

慎选食谱

你可能注意到,专家推荐食谱没有包括一些热门食谱,比如生酮饮食和原始人饮食法。实际上,在满分5分的评分系统中,生酮饮食只得到1.9分,排在第39位,和另一种食谱并列倒数第一。这种食谱大量减少碳水化合物,帮助燃烧脂肪,可能对部分人有效,但也有带来风险,尤其是身患某些疾病的人。2017年4月,《美国新闻与世界报道》曾刊发约什·阿尼克斯博士的一篇文章,后来广受欢迎。阿尼克斯指出:“生酮饮食不适合所有人。” 《美国新闻与世界报道》的食谱排行榜认为,孕妇和哺乳期产妇、体重过轻的人、曾出现饮食失调的女性都应避免生酮饮食,心脏病患者咨询医生前都不应尝试。生酮饮食对糖尿病患者风险也很高,因为要密切监控血糖和胰岛素水平。

原始人饮食法在《美国新闻与世界报道》榜单中排在第32位,只得到2.3分,不到满分5分的一半。这种食谱模仿远古人类进食,即食用动物蛋白和植物,原始社会时人类就靠狩猎和采集此类食物维生。至于有无科学依据目前存在一些争议。其实原始人饮食法的效果也跟具体吃哪种肉密切相关。毕竟,培根和其他红肉之类加工过的食物未必适合替代面包和富含淀粉的食品。

另外,还有两种流行的食谱不一定可靠。专家认为,杜坎饮食和三十天饮食计划是否有效还缺乏科学依据,促进健康的效果相当有限。(财富中文网)

译者:Pessy

审校:夏林

Does your New Year’s resolutions list include losing weight, getting more in shape, or just eating better overall? Well, health experts have weighed in on the best diets for 2018, ranking popular diets like the Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, Keto diet, and others in a list for U.S. News & World Report.

Here’s what they have to say.

Best diets overall

Overall, the most endorsed diets were the government-supported Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, the Mediterranean diet, the Flexitarian diet, and the Weight Watchers diet.

So just what do those diets consist of? The DASH diet is a fairly common sense one—it involved a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy. Things to keep in check? Salt, foods high in saturated fats, artificially sweetened or high-sugar content food and drinks.

The Mediterranean diet mimics the eating habits of that region, with an emphasis on fish and seafood, leafy greens, nuts and legumes, and low in red meat, carbs like sugar, and saturated fat. Finally, the Weight Watchers diet is the highest-ranking commercial diet on the list, outscoring competitors like Jenny Craig and Flat Belly; the system assigns point values to food with the goal of promoting weight loss (the Flexitarian Diet is another fruit, vegetable, and whole grain-oriented diet that also relies on plant-based proteins rather than meat).

Best diets for weight loss

Different diets have different uses. And the U.S. News rankings has helpful sections for people who may be trying to lose weight, simply eating healthy, or trying to control a chronic health condition like diabetes.

For instance, the Weight Watchers diet tops the weight loss list, followed by the Volumetrics diet (a “volume”-based eating regimen that focuses on “low-density” foods that provide plenty of energy but via fewer calories). Such diets could help people lose as much as a pound or two per week.

Best diets for heart disease and diabetes

Several of these weight loss diets are also good for your cardiovascular health. But what if you’re diabetic or at risk of developing diabetes?

According to experts, the Mediterranean and DASH diets are the best for preventing or controlling diabetes. Flexitarian, the Mayo Clinic diet, and vegan diet also rank highly on that list. In general, the Mediterranean diet comes with a slew of endorsements for its potential to lead to better heart health and possibly reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Diets you should think hard about

You may have noticed the aforementioned diets don’t include some more popular ones, such as the Keto diet or the Paleo diet. In fact, the Keto diet has an overall score of just 1.9 out of 5, or tied for last place on the list at #39. This carb-slashing, fat burning diet may be effective for some; however, it also comes with risks, particularly for those with certain medical conditions. “The Keto diet isn’t for everyone, as Dr. Josh Axe pointed out in a largely favorable U.S. News article published in April 2017. Pregnant or nursing women, underweight people, women with a history of eating disorders or anyone with heart disease who hasn’t first consulted a doctor should avoid the diet,” reads U.S. News’ list. It can also be risky for people with diabetes since their glucose and insulin levels would need strict monitoring.

The Paleo diet is number 32 on the overall list with a score of 2.3 out of 5. There is some controversy surrounding the scientific rationale of eating like our ancient ancestors—i.e., animal proteins and plants, the kinds of foods and that would be amassed by a hunter-gatherer society. The efficacy of the Paleo diet is also intimately linked to the type of meats you eat. After all, processed foods like bacon and other red meats aren’t necessarily great substitutes for bread and starchy products.

Two other diets to approach skeptically? The Dukan diet and the Whole30 diet, which the experts labeled as lacking scientific evidence of efficacy and as being entirely too restrictive to be healthy.

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