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TikTok深陷美国平台谣言泥潭

TikTok深陷美国平台谣言泥潭

DANIELLE ABRIL 2021年02月05日
TikTok打击谣言的决定或将伴随许多新的挑战,其落实过程也会受到更多审查。

TikTok已经清醒地意识到,它不再只是一个充斥着年轻人斗舞视频的平台了——现在,它也是人们散布谣言、耸人听闻的地方。而这一愈发突出的问题,其实早已困扰着它在社交媒体领域更为成熟的竞争对手们。

TikTok平台方于周三表示,公司正在采取新的措施来解决这一问题。现在,它将为人们发布的一些帖子打上“未经证实内容”的标签加以限流,并减少分享次数。如果用户仍尝试分享视频,他们将收到另一条警告,提醒称该视频包含“未经验证”的内容。

但是社交媒体专家说,TikTok的新措施也带来了很多问题。

例如,哪些属于“未经证实的内容”?最终是用户负责标记此类帖子,还是TikTok会制定一个方案来主动查找这些帖子?这部分工作有多少将由人工智能完成,多少将由人类完成?它的内容审核小组是否足具规模,能处理其用户每天发布的数量庞大的帖子?TikTok的中国母公司字节跳动(ByteDance)又对这些决定产生多大影响?

在布法罗大学从事谣言和不实信息研究的助理教授约坦•奥菲尔(Yotam Ophir)说:“我认为这上面的信息有一些是故意产生歧义。” 并表示“我很难理解他们想要干嘛。”

截至发稿,TikTok尚未回复置评请求。

目前我们所知道的是,TikTok表示,一旦他们识别出不实信息或谣言,就会立即删除——尽管我们不知道他们要如何识别。该平台还说,在英国,他们与Logically公司合作,后者是一家同时动用人类事实核查员与人工智能打击不实信息的公司。当Logically确定一条视频包含不实信息时,TikTok就会将其删除。目前尚不清楚,他们是不是仅在英国这么做。

同时,立法机关也一直在对社交媒体公司施加更大的压力——他们对这些平台上煽动仇恨的言论、充满暴力的帖子以及可能在现实世界造成负面影响忧心忡忡。对此,Facebook和Twitter迅速出台了更严格的规则,对包含可疑内容(如关于大选和疫情防治的谣言)的帖子越来越重拳出击。而且,美国国会大厦的暴动似乎也让社交媒体上的言论环境更加混乱,而这场暴动本身又是由社交媒体上用来欺骗选民的假消息助长的。

加州大学洛杉矶分校研究内容审核的副教授莎拉•罗伯茨(Sarah Roberts)说:“这着实是个能让人猛地一下清醒过来的时刻。这也再次证明,继续认为社交媒体空间是完全脱离现实世界的其他方面是不可行的。”

TikTok打击谣言的决定或将伴随许多新的挑战,其落实过程也会受到更多审查。但是专家们认为,这对社会和企业而言,都是朝正确的方向迈进了一步。罗伯茨指出,如果说TikTok现在能给出什么承诺,那就是它可以说自己正在尽最大努力管控这一问题,并降低商业风险。

但是正如范德比尔特大学斯坦顿基金会第一修正案研究所主任豪塔姆•汉斯(Gautam Hans)所说,TikTok正步入了一块言论监管的灰色领域。并且最终可能导致舆论场“一片混乱”。(财富中文网)

编译:陈聪聪

TikTok已经清醒地意识到,它不再只是一个充斥着年轻人斗舞视频的平台了——现在,它也是人们散布谣言、耸人听闻的地方。而这一愈发突出的问题,其实早已困扰着它在社交媒体领域更为成熟的竞争对手们。

TikTok平台方于周三表示,公司正在采取新的措施来解决这一问题。现在,它将为人们发布的一些帖子打上“未经证实内容”的标签加以限流,并减少分享次数。如果用户仍尝试分享视频,他们将收到另一条警告,提醒称该视频包含“未经验证”的内容。

但是社交媒体专家说,TikTok的新措施也带来了很多问题。

例如,哪些属于“未经证实的内容”?最终是用户负责标记此类帖子,还是TikTok会制定一个方案来主动查找这些帖子?这部分工作有多少将由人工智能完成,多少将由人类完成?它的内容审核小组是否足具规模,能处理其用户每天发布的数量庞大的帖子?TikTok的中国母公司字节跳动(ByteDance)又对这些决定产生多大影响?

在布法罗大学从事谣言和不实信息研究的助理教授约坦•奥菲尔(Yotam Ophir)说:“我认为这上面的信息有一些是故意产生歧义。” 并表示“我很难理解他们想要干嘛。”

截至发稿,TikTok尚未回复置评请求。

目前我们所知道的是,TikTok表示,一旦他们识别出不实信息或谣言,就会立即删除——尽管我们不知道他们要如何识别。该平台还说,在英国,他们与Logically公司合作,后者是一家同时动用人类事实核查员与人工智能打击不实信息的公司。当Logically确定一条视频包含不实信息时,TikTok就会将其删除。目前尚不清楚,他们是不是仅在英国这么做。

同时,立法机关也一直在对社交媒体公司施加更大的压力——他们对这些平台上煽动仇恨的言论、充满暴力的帖子以及可能在现实世界造成负面影响忧心忡忡。对此,Facebook和Twitter迅速出台了更严格的规则,对包含可疑内容(如关于大选和疫情防治的谣言)的帖子越来越重拳出击。而且,美国国会大厦的暴动似乎也让社交媒体上的言论环境更加混乱,而这场暴动本身又是由社交媒体上用来欺骗选民的假消息助长的。

加州大学洛杉矶分校研究内容审核的副教授莎拉•罗伯茨(Sarah Roberts)说:“这着实是个能让人猛地一下清醒过来的时刻。这也再次证明,继续认为社交媒体空间是完全脱离现实世界的其他方面是不可行的。”

TikTok打击谣言的决定或将伴随许多新的挑战,其落实过程也会受到更多审查。但是专家们认为,这对社会和企业而言,都是朝正确的方向迈进了一步。罗伯茨指出,如果说TikTok现在能给出什么承诺,那就是它可以说自己正在尽最大努力管控这一问题,并降低商业风险。

但是正如范德比尔特大学斯坦顿基金会第一修正案研究所主任豪塔姆•汉斯(Gautam Hans)所说,TikTok正步入了一块言论监管的灰色领域。并且最终可能导致舆论场“一片混乱”。(财富中文网)

编译:陈聪聪

TikTok is well aware it’s no longer a service used solely by bubbly teens doing dance challenges. It’s also a place where people spread harmful misinformation—a problem that has proliferated on the platforms of its more mature rivals.

The service said on Wednesday that it’s taking new steps to crack down on the problem. It will now label posts with “unsubstantiated content” in an effort to reduce the number of times they're shared. If users still try to share the video, they’ll receive another warning reminding them that the video has “unverified” content before they can share it.

But social media experts say TikTok's new step raises a lot of questions.

For example, what is considered “unsubstantiated content”? Will users ultimately be responsible for flagging such posts or does TikTok have a plan in place to proactively find them? How much of this work will be done by artificial intelligence versus humans? Is its content moderation team big enough to handle the massive number of posts users publish every day? And how much does TikTok's Chinese owner ByteDance influence those decisions?

“I think there is some intentional ambiguity in the message here,” said Yotam Ophir, an assistant professor at the University of Buffalo who studies misinformation. “It’s hard for me to understand what they’re going to do.”

TikTok had not responded to a request for comment by the time this newsletter was published.

Here’s what we know. TikTok says it already removes misinformation as it identifies it, though we don’t know how that's identified. It also says that in the U.K., it partners with Logically, a company that combines human fact-checkers with artificial intelligence to fight misinformation. When Logically determines a video has misinformation, TikTok removes it. It’s unclear if this is only happening in the U.K.

Meanwhile, legislators and lawmakers have been turning up the pressure on social media companies, concerned about hate speech, violent posts, and misinformation that could lead to real-world harm. As a result, Facebook and Twitter have rapidly ramped up their rules, getting tougher on posts that contain problematic content like election misinformation and fake coronavirus cures. And they’ve all seemingly been rattled by the riots at the U.S. Capitol, which were fueled by false claims of voter fraud that were bolstered on social media.

“It’s certainly a come-to-Jesus moment,” said Sarah Roberts, an associate professor at the University of California, Los Angeles who studies content moderation. “It was yet again a demonstration of the ways in which it’s not feasible to pretend like the world of social media is somehow completely divorced from the rest of our reality.”

TikTok’s decision to crack down on misinformation will likely come with a host of new challenges and a lot more scrutiny over how it executes the plan. But experts agree it’s a step in the right direction, both for society and the business. Roberts points out that if anything, TikTok can now claim it's making a good-faith effort to control the problem and reduce its business risks.

But as director of Vanderbilt University's Stanton Foundation First Amendment Clinic Gautam Hans says, TikTok is wading into the gray area of regulating speech. And ultimately: “Speech is messy.”

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