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调查称六分之一80、90后存款超60万,这些内情你应该了解下

Grace Donnelly 2018年02月03日

六分之一的80、90后受访者表示总储蓄额至少10万美元,包括支票与储蓄账户、个人退休账户、401(k)养老金以及其他退休或投资账户中的资金。


美国银行最近公布了一项调查结果,和人们对80、90后普遍的偏见有些出入。以往大家认为这群人深陷助学贷款和信用卡债务,应该存不下什么钱之。然而这次调查显示,拥有至少10万美元存款(约63万人民币)的80、90后占六分之一。

美银和在线调查平台GfK联合调查了美国人的经济状况,编写了《80、90后培养理财习惯报告》(Better Money Habits Millennial Report)。作为社会科学研究机构,GfK按照美国人口结构在5.5万名活跃用户群体中抽查了1500人。

50%的受访者是80、90后,其中年纪较大的80、90后(28-37岁)和较年轻的80、90后(23-27岁)各占一半。也就是说,调查结果基于各年龄段受访者自行披露的储蓄习惯,每组375人左右。

六分之一的80、90后受访者表示总储蓄额至少10万美元,包括支票与储蓄账户、个人退休账户、401(k)养老金以及其他退休或投资账户中的资金。

美银环境、社会和管理部门全球主管安德鲁·普莱普勒表示,存款增加表明80、90后正学着承担经济责任,且比其他年龄层更积极。

美银开展此项调查五年来,自称有存款的80、90后人数不断增长。今年,存款至少1.5万美元的80、90后所占比例达到47%,高于2015的水平。

普莱普勒指出:“80、90后、特别是较年轻的80、90后似乎更热爱储蓄,存款自律性和金额都略高于年龄较大的80、90后和婴儿潮一代。我们发现他们很小就开始存钱。”

虽然80、90后的形象看起来比啃老族成熟了不少,但仍有许多情况要详细解释一下。

大衰退期间失去信任

2007年经济崩溃时,80、90后小的在上中学,大的也刚开始工作。成长过程中遇到金融危对他们的储蓄方式影响很深。

美银零售银行部门Merrill Edge的报告显示,富裕的80、90后都在存钱,不喜欢投资。

三分之二的富裕80、90后表示,退休后打算靠自己的储蓄账户生活。70%的60、70后更依赖401K退休计划,婴儿潮一代则主要靠社保和养老金。

80、90后经常听别人提起养娃贵、买房难,想顺利退休也不容易,所以他们为将来努力存钱符合逻辑。

美国人刚刚再次开始储蓄

虽然该报告认为相关数字打破了对80、90后的偏见,但各年龄段的美国人仍然没有良好的储蓄习惯。

2017年8月,GoBankingRates调查询问受访者储蓄账户中有多少钱,结果声称银行存款不足1000美元的美国人占57%。

美联储每三年调查一次消费者经济状况,收集美国家庭的收入、净值、债务、信用等经济信息。2016年的调查显示55%的家庭存下了一些钱,比大衰退后几年有所好转,但仍未达到大衰退前水平。

和其他年龄段的工资、存款和退休计划对比

普莱普勒说,令人担心的是经济滑坡时能否保持财务自律。

他认为,应付未来艰难日子的办法是增加理财知识,通过预算摆脱低工资和高生活成本的困扰。也就是说,前几代人犯的错误要让80、90后承担责任。

当代年轻人不仅承受着在经济不稳定时期成长埋下的心理阴影,长大后经济形势也不见好,存钱更为困难。

Bank of America recently released survey results that fly in the face of some of the most prevalent stereotypes about millennials: They’re all suffocating under student and credit card debt, laughing at the suggestion they should put money away for their future. On the contrary, says the study: One in six has at least $100,000 saved.

Bank of America worked with GfK, an online survey platform, to ask people in the U.S. about their relationship to money for the bank’s Better Money Habits Millennial Report. The social science company polled 1,500 people from their user base of 55,000 active participants to get a representative sample of the U.S. population.

Half of those surveyed were millennials, split evenly between older millennials, ages 28-37, and younger millennials, 23-27. That means the survey results are based on the self-reported savings habits of about 375 people from each age group.

One in six millennial participants reported that their total savings — including money in checking and savings accounts, IRAs, 401(k)s, and other retirement or investment accounts — was $100,000 or greater.

Andrew Plepler, global head of environment, social, and governance at Bank of America, says the increase in savings shows that millennials are learning to be financially responsible faster than other generations.

The number of millennials reporting having any savings at all has increased in the five years that Bank of America has conducted the survey. Millennials with $15,000 or more in savings jumped to 47% this year, up from 2015.

“This generation of millennials, particularly younger millennials, seem to be adapting the savings habits a bit more rigorously, with a bit more discipline and a bit more intensity than even the older millennials and boomers,” he said. “We’re seeing their saving habits start earlier.”

While it seems to provide a more encouraging picture of millennials than the scrounging off their parents archetype, there’s a lot to unpack here.

Trust lost during the Great Recession

Millennials were somewhere between middle school and just starting their careers during the economic collapse in 2007. Coming of age during the financial crisis has had some profound impacts on the way they save.

Wealthy millennials are saving their money rather than investing it, according to a report from Bank of America’s retail banking division, Merrill Edge.

Two-thirds of affluent millennials say they plan to rely on their savings accounts when they retire. Meanwhile, seven in 10 Gen-Xers have been relying on 401Ks and the majority of boomers chose to rely on Social Security and pensions.

Millennials hear often that they won’t be able to afford childcare, own a home, or comfortably retire at a reasonable age, so it makes sense that they would aggressively save for the future.

Americans are just beginning to save again

While the report claims the numbers break stereotypes about millennials, Americans of all ages are notoriously bad at saving money.

A GoBankingRates survey, which asked people how much money they had in their savings accounts in August 2017, showed that 57% of Americans have less than $1,000 in savings.

The Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances, which collects information about American family incomes, net worth, debt, credit and other economic outcomes every three years, found that 55% of families were able to put away some savings in 2016 — an improvement from the years following the Great Recession, but still lower than pre-recession levels.

Wages, savings, and retirement plans compared to other generations

The concern moving forward is making sure this financial self-discipline continues in times of economic downturn, Plepler said.

It’s worth pointing out that his take — that the answer to future downturns is increasing financial literacy and budgeting your way out of depressed wages and high costs of living — puts responsibility on millennials to correct for problems caused by previous generations.

In addition to the psychological impact of growing up in a financially unstable time, the economy has been unfavorable to the youngest workers, making it more difficult to save.

Winslow Productions/Getty Images/Tetra images RF

80、90后刚就业时的收入中位数相对较低,比不上60、70后或婴儿潮一代。和父母相同年龄时的收入相比,80、90后的工资只达到一半。

80、90后参加工作时,养老金和其他退休福利正在下降,收入差距却奇高。在美银的调查中,27%年纪较大的80、90后表示存钱是为了子女教育,然而他们当中有些人可能自己的助学贷款还没还清。

整体评估80、90后参考意义不大

80、90后的存款金额差别很大,具体要看对这个群体如何定义。

GOBankingRates调查把80、90后定义为18-34岁,发现其中67%的存款不足1000美元,看起来非常惨。美银调查中47%的80、90后至少有1.5万美元存款,原因是美银将80、90后的年龄界定为23-37岁。

即使按照美银的定义,23岁和37岁的80、90后在职业发展和经济状况上差别也非常大。美银公布此项调查结果后接受《财富》杂志采访时表示,按他们划分较年轻80、90后存款至少10万美元的只有5%,而年纪较大的80、90后群体中比例是21%。

当前通常建议是到35岁时存款达到工资的两倍。这群人可不是莽撞的年轻人,不知怎的攒了10万美元。35岁的人群基本上都有事业有家庭,他们经受过惨烈的就业市场,现在都认为保障财务安全最为重要。

由于工资增长限于停滞,大多数80、90后可能更希望升职。实际上,美银本次调查显示,近一半的80、90后在过去两年中申请过晋升。

对美银来说,1600万用户中有30%是80、90后,让这一代人了解同龄人大致情况,同时提供财务规划建议不失为聪明一举。

本周早些时候,美银推出了清理免费支票账户的政策,可能对存钱困难的低收入消费者产生不利影响,特别是在出现意外开支的时候。

截至周三,要求美银继续提供免费支票账户的请愿书已征集逾6.5万个签名。(财富中文网)

译者:Charlie

审校:夏林

 

Millennial earnings are low compared to median wages — lower than Gen-Xers or Baby Boomers when they were early in their careers. They’re worth half what their parents wages were at the same age.

This generation is taking over the workforce at a time when pensions and other retirement benefits are on the decline and income inequality is at staggering highs. While 27% of older millennials in the Bank of America survey reported saving for their children’s education, most of them are likely still paying off their own student debt.

Evaluating Millennials as one group is ineffective

The amount of money in a millennial’s savings account also varies greatly depending on the way you define the generation.

The GOBankingRates survey, which identified millennials as ages 18-34, found that 67% had less than $1,000 in savings. That’s a much more dismal picture than what Bank of American found: 47% of millennials had at least $15,000 in savings when defined as ages 23 to 37.

Even a 23-year-old and a 37-year-old, the range Bank of America used for millennials, are at very different points in their professional and financial lives. Only 5% of younger millennials, as defined by the bank, have $100,000 or more in savings, compared to 21% of older millennials, Bank of America told Fortune in an interview after the survey was released.

The prevailing retirement savings advice is to have twice your salary saved by age 35. These aren’t irresponsible young people somehow squirreling away $100,000. These are adults with careers and families who weathered a terrible job market and are now making financial security a priority.

Considering the way wages have stagnated, most of them would prefer a raise to a pat on the back. In fact, nearly half of millennials asked for one in the last two years, according to the survey.

For Bank of America, where 30% of its 16 million customers are millennials, offering generation insights and financial planning advice could potentially be a smart move.

Earlier this week, the bank announced new policies that would eliminate no-fee checking accounts — a decision that could penalize low income customers who are struggling to save, especially during times when they have unexpected expenses.

A petition to continue access to free checking accounts at Bank of America had more than 65,000 signatures as of Wednesday.

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