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投资理财

这7种方法让你更有钱

Cameron Huddleston 2017年04月03日

光靠工作赚钱是很难实现财富自由的,你必须投资才行。

虽然自2008年经济危机以来,经济和股市已经有所好转,但我们仍然处在一个疯狂的金融时代。实际上,至今还有很多人仍未从2008年的金融危机中恢复元气。而与此同时,美国正在经历历史上最低的利率水平,有些国家甚至出现了负利率。

在这样的经济形势下,所有人可能都有一种不确定感。但托尼·罗宾斯却认为,即便是在这样动荡的时期,你的财富依然可以稳如泰山。

在《不可动摇:你通往财务自由的蓝图》(Unshakeable: Your Financial Freedom Playbook)一书中,人生与商业战略师、百万富翁托尼·罗宾斯向我们展示了如何通过汲取多位理财大师的智慧,克服内心的恐惧,最终实现财务上的成功。

罗宾斯近日在接受理财网站GOBankingRates采访时表示:“之所以说这些建议‘不可动摇’,是因为它们是沃伦·巴菲特的建议,是雷伊·达利奥的建议,是卡尔·伊坎的建议,是耶鲁大学的大卫·史文森的建议。全世界最聪明的理财达人会在这本书里教你怎样理财。”

如果你希望不论市场多么动荡,你都能在夜里睡得很熟,那就不妨翻翻罗宾斯的这本书。只要你按照书里的建议进行理财,财务自由或许离你就不再遥远了。

做任何事之前都要先学习

罗宾斯认为,要想获得财务上的成功,并且在动荡的市场中岿然不动,人们要做的第一件事就是教育自己。“你必须要了解基本面。”

首先你必须理解的一件事是,股市大体上总是随着时间而增长的,只是偶尔会有一些小挫折。罗宾斯指出:“去年……股市一度大跌了2.3万亿美元。”但到了年底,各大主要指数依然呈现显著增长。

这种事情在历史上不止发生过一次。

“在上个世纪,甚至在过去的150年里,全球经济包括美国经济经历过多少次极为痛苦和艰难的情形?我们经历了两次世界大战,经历了大萧条,经历了大衰退,经历了禽流感导致的全球性危机,经历了英国脱欧。这个世界难免会发生各种各样的危机。纵观百年历史,市场总体上还是沿着一个方向发展的,那就是增长。”

在你进行投资和积累财富的时候,你也要意识到,你的投资之路难免会遇到一些挫折。正如罗宾斯在书中指出的那样,自从1900年以来,股市每年都会出现一次“市场修正”——也就是从最高点下跌10%以上。但每次市场修正平均持续的时间不会超过2个月,其中只有不到五分之一的时候会演变成熊市,也就是从最高点跌落至少20%以上。

“只要你认识到绝大多数的市场修正并没有那么糟糕,那么当你看到市场出现动荡的迹象时,你就更容易保持冷静,不会因为慌乱而盲目退市。”也就是说,只要你教育了自己,你就不会在恐惧的基础上做出反映。

加入投资游戏,且勿轻易退市

光靠工作赚钱是很难实现财富自由的,你必须投资才行。

“不管你能存下多少钱,是5%,10%,15%还是20%,你都要参与到投资的游戏中,要变成权益的所有者,也就是投资人。”

所以,不要再把钱放在储蓄账户里吃低利息了,把它投资在股市上吧。罗宾斯在他的书中指出:“攒钱进行常年投资的最好的地方就是股市。”

一旦你开始了投资,就要坚持不懈,哪怕是在股市下滑的时候。罗宾斯在书中写道:“最大的危险并不是市场修正或熊市,而是退出市场。”

如果你在股市下跌时抽出了现金,而且没有在正确的时机重新入市,那么你可能就失去了赢回亏损部分的机会。而且一旦你退市了,在正确的时机重新入市的机会可以说接近于零。

“如果你想把握股市的时机,那你很可能会错过它。巴菲特曾告诉我:‘托尼,你知道所谓的市场时机捕捉者和市场预测者吧,他们的唯一用处就是让算命先生显得靠谱了些。’所以那是很可笑的。”

自动储蓄

你可能会觉得,所谓“投资是实现财务自由的关键”这种话只适用于罗宾斯这种人,毕竟他已经是个百万富翁了。普通百姓并非人人都有那么多钱能拿来投资。

然而投资并不是富人的专利,只不过你可能要改变一下对金钱的运用方法。“你首先要做一个决定,这也是你理财生涯中最重要的决定——你到底是要做金钱的所有者,还是金钱的消费者。”

首先,你可以在发工资的时候先扣出一笔投资基金,而不是拿到工资后就立即把它花出去。罗宾斯建议道,每次到了发薪水的时候,你可以首先从工资条或工资卡里扣出一个比例。这个比例一开始可以很小,然后随着你每次获得加薪或拿到奖金,再逐步扩大这个比例。

罗宾斯在《不可动摇》一书中写道:“这样就能建立起你的‘财务自由基金’——这样的一笔终身的投资收入,有朝一日能让你再也不必出去工作。”

利用复利的力量

即便你只能把收入的一小部分用来投资,借助复利的力量,你也依然能够积累起自己的财富。当你投资的时候,你的本金之所以会增长,是由于它产生了利息。而复利就是让利息去赚利息。

你越早开始投资,哪怕只是投资很小的金额,你的财富就会增长得越多。“随着时间的推移,这种力量会将不大的一笔钱变成一笔巨大的财富。”罗宾斯写道。

举个例子:如果某人从19岁起,每月拿300美元进行投资,每年的收益率是10%,那么到他65岁的时候,他就拥有了350万美元的资产。但如果他从27岁起才进行投资,每月也是投资300美元,年化收益率也是10%,那么等他65岁时,他的资产只有158万美元。仅仅是晚了八年开始投资,他的资产就损失了近200万美元。

用多样化投资手段保护自己

在做出了投资的决定之后,接下来你就需要决定把钱投在哪里了。罗宾斯认为,你最好将钱投在股市上。不过他也提醒道:“不要把所有的钱都放在股市里。”

你需要通过合理的资产分配,保障自己在市场下行时不至于伤筋动骨。“这样的话,就算市场下跌了50%,你的资产不至于也下跌50%。”而关键就在于投资的多样化。

通过多样化投资,你就拥有了一系列投资产品,如股票、债券和其他证券等。在每个资产类别下,你也可以有不同类别的投资产品,比如光是股票类,你就可以买入美国公司的股票、外国公司的股票、大企业股票和小企业股票等。

罗宾斯建议道,在这方面,你可以向一名注册的信托投资顾问寻求帮助,因为他们在法律上有优先保障客户利益的义务。

利用市场回调的机会

让财富增长的另一种方法,就是在其他人都陷入恐慌时获利。

“当市场大跌的时候,很多人会以几乎白给的价格卖房、卖股票。他们一心只想跳出去,而这时恰恰是你一生中最好的机会。”

为什么呢?因为你可以在低价时买入股票,等股价回弹时就能获利了。

罗宾斯在书中写道,过去20年间,市场的10个最佳交易日中,有6个发生在10个最差交易日的前后两周内。那些在市场下跌时退市的人,因此也就丧失了赚到更多钱的机会。

罗宾斯在谈到股市时指出:“当然,市场总会出现一些重大的修正时刻,而你的工作就是利用好这些机会。”

对不必要的费用说再见

在投资的过程中,还要确保各种费用没有蚕食掉你的利润。罗宾斯在他的书中指出,很多人并没有意识到费用问题对投资的重要性。

大多数共同基金都是主动管理型基金,也就是说,它们主要靠人来买卖基金资产进行经营。因此这些基金会收取一定的费用,用来支付基金经理的工资以及其他成本。如果你在401K或其他养老金账户里投资共同基金,那么你的费用比重可能会达到3%到4%。最糟糕的是,很多主动管理型基金的表现并不优于市场整体水平,所以支付高额费用并不能保证你获得更多利润。

为了少支付一些费用,你不妨投资一些低成本的指数基金,而非主动管理型基金。这些指数基金在设计上就着眼于追踪标普500等主要指数。

另外要注意的是,401K等养老计划的管理者也是要收费的。你可以登陆ShowMeTheFees.com对比一下401K的收费水平。如果你觉得你的养老金计划收费太高了,记得及时和你的公司进行沟通。

罗宾斯表示:“通常费用的比例也就是1%或者更低,所以你每多付了1%的费用,就意味着放弃了整整10年的收入。”通过降低费用支出,你就能保住更多的钱,建立起自己的财富。(财富中文网)

作者: Cameron Huddleston

译者:朴成奎

Although the economy and stock market has improved since the 2008 financial crisis, we're still living in crazy financial times. In fact, many people are still reeling from the 2008 financial crisis. Meanwhile, the U.S. is experiencing historically low interest rates, and some countries even have negative interest rates.

That's enough to make anyone feel uncertain. But Tony Robbins is convinced that you can be unshakeable during volatile times.

In his book "Unshakeable: Your Financial Freedom Playbook," the millionaire life and business strategist aims to show people how they can get over their fears and achieve financial success by taking advice from the smartest financial minds.

"Really, what makes this advice unshakeable is that it's Warren Buffett's advice, it's Ray Dalio's advice, it's Carl Icahn's advice, it's David Swensen at Yale," he said in a recent interview with GOBankingRates. "It's the smartest men and women in the world telling you this is what to do."

If you want to be set financially and be able to sleep at night no matter how volatile things are, take a page out of Robbins' book. Follow this advice from him and other experts — and watch your wealth grow.

EDUCATE YOURSELF BEFORE YOU DO ANYTHING

The first thing people need to do to set themselves up for financial success and become unshakeable is educate themselves, said Robbins. "You've got to understand the fundamentals," he said.

One of the most important things you can understand is that the stock market typically rises over time, despite smaller setbacks. "Last year … we saw a $2.3 trillion meltdown," said Robbins. But, how did the year end up? With noticeable gains in the major indexes.

This wasn't a one-time occurrence, either.

"In the last century — century and a half — how many unbelievably painful, difficult situations have happened to the world economy, to the U.S. economy?" said Robbins. "We've gone through world wars, we've gone through depressions, we've gone through recessions, we've gone through global crises related to bird flu. We've gone through the elements of Brexit. There's always going to be a crisis. Across all of that time there's been overall only one direction of these markets — and that has been up through time."

As your investing and building your wealth, understand there will be bumps along the way. As Robbins points out in "Unshakeable," there's been a market correction — at least a 10 percent drop from its peak — every year since 1900. But, on average, corrections last less than two months. And less than one in five become a bear market, which is a drop of at least 20 percent from the market high.

"Once you understand that the vast majority of corrections aren't that bad, it's easier to keep calm and resist the temptation to hit the eject button at the first sign of turbulence," Robbins writes. When you're educated, you won't react based on fear.

GET IN THE GAME — AND STAY IN

You can't just earn your way to financial freedom. You have to invest.

"Whether it's saving 10 percent or 15 and 20 or 5, you've got to get in the game, and you've got to become an owner — an investor," said Robbins.

So instead of stashing your cash in a savings account that's earning a low interest rate, invest in stocks. "The single best place to compound money over many years is in the stock market," Robbins wrote in his book.

Once you're in the game, stay in it — even when the market drops. "The biggest danger isn't a correction or a bear market," Robbins writes. "It's being out of the market."

If you cash out when the market drops, you could miss out on a chance to earn back your losses if you don't get back in at the right time. And the chances of getting back in at the right time are next to none.

"If you're going to try to time the market, you can forget it," said Robbins. "[Billionaire investor] Warren Buffett told me, 'Tony, you know market timers and market forecasters. Their only purpose is to make fortune tellers look good.' It's absurd."

AUTOMATE YOUR SAVINGS

You might be thinking it's easy for Robbins to say investing is the key to financial freedom. He's a millionaire, after all. Not everyone has much money to invest.

But you don't have to be rich to invest. However, you might need to change how you handle your money. "You have to make the first decision — the most important decision of your financial life — that is to become an owner instead of a consumer," he said.

You can do this by paying yourself first instead of spending your money when you get it. Robbins recommends having a percentage of your income automatically deducted from your paycheck or bank account. You can start small, then increase the amount you're setting aside with every raise or bonus you receive.

"This will build your Freedom Fund — the source of lifetime income that will allow you to never have to work again," Robbins writes in "Unshakeable."

TAP INTO THE POWER OF COMPOUNDING

Even if you can invest only a small amount, you can build wealth thanks to the power of compounding. When you invest, your money grows because it's earning interest. Thanks to compounding, your interest earns interest.

The sooner you start investing — even if it's a small amount — the more your money can grow. "Over time, this force can turn a modest sum of money into a massive fortune," Robbins writes.

Consider this example: Someone who invests $300 a month starting at age 19 and earns 10 percent annually will have $3.5 million at age 65, Robbins writes. But if he waits until age 27 to start investing $300 per month and earns 10 percent annually, he'll have about $1.58 million. That's nearly $2 million less because he waited just eight years to start investing.

DIVERSIFY TO PROTECT YOURSELF

After you make the decision to put your money in the market, you need to decide where to put it. As Robbins said, you should invest in stocks. However, "you don't want everything in the stock market," he said.

You need an asset allocation that will protect your money during downturns. "So if the market goes down 50 percent, you don't go down 50 percent," Robbins said. You do this through diversification.

By diversifying your portfolio, you have a mix of investments, such as stocks, bonds and other securities. And within each asset class, you have different types of investments, such as stocks of U.S. companies, foreign companies, large and small companies.

Robbins recommends getting help from a registered investment advisor who is a fiduciary, someone who is legally obliged to put the client's interests first.

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF MARKET CORRECTIONS

Another way to grow your money is to profit when others are panicking.

"When the market is crashing through the floor, people will give you their house, they'll give you their stocks for next to nothing," said Robbins. "They just want out. Those are the greatest opportunities in your life."

Why? You can buy shares when the prices are lower. And you can profit when the share prices bounce back.

Robbins writes in "Unshakeable" that six of the 10 best days in the market over the past 20 years happened within two weeks of the 10 worst days. Those who got out of the market during those downturns missed out on opportunities to make more money.

"Yes, there's going to be some significant corrections," Robbins said about the stock market. "Your job should be to take advantage of that."

SAY GOODBYE TO UNNECESSARY FEES

If you invest to grow your wealth, make sure hefty fees aren't eating away at that wealth. But as Robbins writes in his book, many people don't realize they're paying fees to invest.

Most mutual funds are actively managed, meaning they're run by people who buy and sell the assets that are in the funds. The funds charge fees to pay the managers and cover other costs. So if you're investing in mutual funds inside a 401k or retirement account that also charges fees, you could be paying 3 percent to 4 percent. To top it off, many actively managed funds don't perform better than the market. So, paying high fees doesn't necessarily mean you're getting better returns, Robbins writes.

To pay less in fees, try investing in low-cost index funds instead of actively managed funds. These funds are designed to track major indexes, such as the S&P 500.

Also, pay attention to fees charged by your 401k or retirement plan administrator. Visit ShowMeTheFees.com to see how the fees on your 401k compare. Then, let your employer know if you think your plan's fees are too high.

"Every 1 percent you pay above what's required — which is roughly 1 percent or less — is 10 years of income you give up," said Robbins. By reducing the fees you'll pay, you'll get to keep more of your money and build your fortune.

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