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投资理财

一位不为人知的理财大师的20个生钱秘技

财富中文网 2017年02月12日

美国的励志家托尼·罗宾斯通过帮助别人成功来获取财富。这些年来,罗宾斯教给人们不少理财经验。

虽然在国际上知名度不高,但是企业家、畅销书作家、知名人生与商业战略师托尼·罗宾斯已经向5,000余万人传授了关于个人与职业发展的重要经验。罗宾斯自幼出身贫寒,经历多年的努力,才积累了巨额的财富。他的理财经验值得我们关注,本文将之归纳为20条。

1.成为投资人

罗宾斯曾指出,如果你想更快地实现自己的财务目标,就要养成投资的习惯。他曾在LinkedIn上写道:“你必须成为一名投资者,不管投资的金额有多小,这样你才能享受到复利的力量。”

在接受《Inc.》杂志采访时,罗宾斯讲述了一名UPS货车司机的故事。他每年只赚14,000美元,但他退休时已经坐拥7100万美元的财富,因为他每年都把20%的收入用于储蓄。正是储蓄的习惯和复利的力量为他创造了源源不断的财富。

罗宾斯建议,如果你觉得自己没有余钱用于投资,你可以想方设法削减一些支出。他表示:“投资能确保你在最急着用钱的时候有足够的钱用。”

2.主动规划理财

说到储蓄和赚钱,重要的是进行主动的管理。罗宾斯表示,你得做到“不当棋子当棋手,一劳永逸地掌握金钱游戏的真谛。”

不管你是正在建立一项预算,还是想控制一下自己的投资,都不要忘了你的理财大计。最重要的是不要害怕失败。毕竟就像罗宾斯所说的那样,失败也是成功的一个重要部分。

3.承担小风险,换取大回报

罗宾斯并不讳言风险的存在。但他认为,风险总是有办法管理的。他在2015年为《财富》撰写的一篇文章中写道:“世上没有零风险的回报,世界上的每位理财大师无一例外地会告诉你,要寻找风险与回报不等价的投资渠道。”

罗宾斯表示,要实现这个目标,你可以利用“五比一”法则。也就是说,“每承担1美元的风险,你要有能挣5美元的前景。这样你连错4次也没关系,只要第五次对了就能扳平。”即要承担小风险去换取大回报。

4.省钱比挣钱重要

罗宾斯对GOBankingRates表示,很多人都看重他们的投资,特别是极为重视投资收益。“但是你挣多少并不是最重要的,重要的是你省了多少。如果你的投资组合的节税性不高,那么有相当一部分应该存下的钱就会被交了税。”

罗宾斯表示,随着时间的推移,如果你的投资组合没有考虑到节税的问题,税就将严重蚕食你的收益。在这方面,你可以考虑向专业人士寻求帮助,比如去找一名特许金融分析师或认证财务规划师等等。

5.用多样化理财方式降低风险,实现收益最大化

多数投资者都明白多样化的投资组合能够降低风险的道理,因为你没有将所有的鸡蛋都放进同一个篮子里。不过罗宾斯表示,多样化投资并不意味着随机地投资一系列股票和债券。

有一种正确的多样化投资是购买费用较低的指数基金。“通过投资这种基金,你就能以最低的成本投资最多的证券。”

6.用低成本的指数基金代替高成本的共同基金

罗宾斯之所以特别青睐指数基金,不仅仅是出于多样化投资的考虑,还因为它们的费用低于主动管理型基金。费用为什么这么重要?因为它们会蚕食你退休账户里的收益,留给你的钱就更少了。

罗宾斯在发表于Business Insider网站上的一篇文章中引用了《福布斯》杂志2011年的一份报道,称持有一支共同基金的平均成本是每年3.17%。相比之下,一支追踪标普500指数的指数基金的费用还不到0.14%。

“光是抛掉昂贵的共同基金,用低成本的指数基金取而代之,你就有可能拿回未来70%的养老钱。”他写道。

7.停止不过大脑的花销

想把每一分钱都花在刀刃上吗?那就要像罗宾斯说的那样,“花钱要花在能显著提高生活质量的事物上,停止不能给生活带来任何价值的无脑开销。”

罗宾斯表示,在不需要的东西上花的钱如果积少成多,也是相当吓人的。比如如果你每周花40美元出去吃饭,而不是跟亲友在家吃饭,那你每年就要多花掉2000美元。如果你把这笔钱用于投资,每年能获得8%的投资回报,坚持40年,你就攒下了50多万美元。

8.专注于你能控制的东西

罗宾斯曾指出,要想成功,你就别纠结于自己无力控制的东西,而是要专注于自己能控制的东西。他在领英上写道,一个人可以通过不断提高自己来控制自己的将来。“我可以找到一种方法去服务大众,去做更多事,去成为一个更好的人,去为整个市场增加价值。”

9.别关心要做的事,只关心结果

领英曾请罗宾斯谈谈如何提高工作效率。对此,罗宾斯表示,人们应该扔掉他们的待办清单。你可能觉得,像罗宾斯这样一位领导力和绩效方面的权威人士,肯定会建议我们经常记下待办的事情,然而事实并非如此。

罗宾斯写道:“待办清单最大的问题是,你就算专心做完了该做的事情,也不能保证你能获得任何实际的进步。”所以你应该明确自己真正想要什么,然后集中所有精力朝着这个结果去努力。

“如果你继续通过待办清单打理你的生活,你只会感到长久的心理失衡和沮丧。因为你知道自己工作得很努力,但在对你的生活真正重要的各个方面却没有任何进展。”

10.执行就是力量

不断学习是一种非常重要的人生态度。罗宾斯本人的一种学习方式就是与那些勇于打破现状、彰显各种可能的人交往。但更重要的是,你要善于将所学到的经验应用到实际中。

他在2015年为MarketWatch网站撰写的一篇文章中写道:“每周或每天进步一点点,不知不觉中,你通往财富自由的道路就实现了。”

11.注意哪些东西有用,哪些没用

作为一名商业和人生战略师,罗宾斯总会问别人,他们的人生真正想要的是什么。要回答这个问题,你就要先想想哪些事物对你有用,哪些事物对你没有用。

他对《成功》(Success)杂志表示:“注意哪些东西有用,哪些没有用。如果它没有用,那就换条路走,直到你最终达到了自己的目标。”

这条经验适用于生活的所有方面,也包括理财。如果你少花钱、多存钱的办法不管用,就换另一种方法。如果你拼命想还债,结果却适得其反,就要采取另一种策略。关键是要从之前犯的错误中吸取教训。

12.效法其他人的成功策略

罗宾斯建议,要实现你的商业或人生目标,你不妨效法某个已经实现了这个目标的人。

“他们有很多亲测有效的策略。”他对《成功》杂志表示:“这样你就不必闭门造车、走一条没人走过的路了。”

13.提高标准

如果你在经济上成就不高,或许是因为你对自己的标准太低了。你可能认为自己这辈子也没有迎娶白富美、走上人生巅峰的命。而你的人生轨迹恰恰是基于这些自我认知的。因此,如果你提高了你的标准,还是能够改变人生的。

“改变和目标是两码事。你不一定总能实现你的目标,但你总有一个标准。”如果你认为某件事物对你来说是必需的,只要你提高了这个标准,你就总能找到一条能够达到目的地的路。

要提高你的标准,首先要看看你的局限性,问问自己,你是什么时候习惯了这样画地为牢的。然后再以一个新的标准定义自己。

14.扩大资源

大多数人在没有实现目标的时候,都会归咎于自己缺少资源。他们可能会说,他们没有成功所必需的支持、财力或时间。这种看法只会阻碍他们获得成功。

“领导者所做的事,就是想方设法扩大他们现有的各种资源,不管它有多不起眼。”而智慧能将你脑中的创意变成某种了不起的东西,因此罗宾斯也将其称之为“终极资源”。

15.不要自己破坏自己的理财大计

罗宾斯表示,自我破坏是让人无法实现理财目标的第一大敌。人们之所以会破坏自己的理财计划,往往是由于到了某个层次以后,他们会觉得理财的痛苦大于享受。他们可能会过于纠结金钱带来的负面问题——比如担心自己挣得越多,缴的税就越多。

罗宾斯在一段讲课视频中指出:“只有你的核心信念变了,你的财产才会变。”你应该多想想没钱的痛苦,并且把它写下来,然后再想想有钱的好处。这种方法能促使你改变自己的心态。

16.用恐惧推动自己前进

每个人都有自己害怕的事。罗宾斯表示,你并不需要完全克服那种恐惧,但你需要用它来推动自己前进。

罗宾斯在发布于Business Insider上的一则视频中表示:“要想克服对失败的恐惧,最简单的方法,就是更害怕不采取任何行动。” 你最应该担心的是过上一种远远不是你想要和你应该过上的生活。

17.制定一份商业地图而非商业计划

如果你经营着一家企业,那你需要的不只是一份商业计划,因为它过几年就会过时。

“在当今不断变化的市场和经济条件下,唯一的真正的竞争优势并不是拥有一份商业计划,而是拥有一份能带你从你所在的地方到你想去的地方的商业路线图。”罗宾斯在领英上写道。

罗宾斯指出,像星巴克、苹果、Toms和Facebook等公司都已经对自身进行了重新定义,以保持竞争优势,抓住市场机遇。“对于这些公司,他们这样做所产生的结果是极其惊人的。”

18.问正确的问题

罗宾斯在他的著作《掌握金钱游戏》(Money: Master the Game)中写道,成功的人会问正确的问题。比如,微软创始人比尔·盖茨并没有问自己怎样才能做出最好的软件,而是问自己如何才能创建一个能够控制所有电脑的操作系统。

罗宾斯写道:“要想获得结果,你不能只问一遍问题,而是要执著于寻找最好的答案。”

普通人问的问题经常会把他们引到死胡同,而不是找到解决方案。比如他们会问“这种事为什么会发生在我身上?”而罗宾斯则会问“我怎样能把事情做得更好?”他写道:“你是否意识到了自己最关注的问题,也就是你生活中最主要的问题是什么?不管是什么,它都会塑造和引领你的人生。”

19.别以为金钱会让人生更有意义

罗宾斯自己也赚了很多钱,但他并不认为我们任何人的人生意义是金钱赋予的。

“有些人将他们的资产净值等同于他们的人生价值。他们的身份与银行存款和投资报告紧密地联结在一起,忘了金钱只是一种工具,它的意义是满足我们的需求,而我们所有的需求几乎都跟钱没什么关系。”

罗宾斯写道,人生在于创造意义,而意义来自于你给予了什么。“金钱留给你的永远只有空虚,除非你将它贡献出去。如果你要从金钱里寻找意义,你就要付出很高的代价。”

20.有进步就有快乐

罗宾斯在一段励志视频中说道,进步等同于快乐。“如果我们能经常进步,我们就会感到生气勃勃。”

然而你不可能整天只是期待进步的发生。你要以另一种角度看待生活。罗宾斯表示:“你应该说:‘我得控制一下这件事的进展,不能只是希望事情能自己解决。’” (财富中文网)

译者:朴成奎

Through audio, video and live-training programs, he's taught more than 50 million people around the world important lessons about personal and professional development. But, Robbins hasn't always been an international success. He grew up in poverty and, over the years, built his wealth. If you want to become successful like Robbins, click through to see the best expert money tips.

1. BECOME AN INVESTOR

Robbins has said that if you want to reach financial goals faster, you have to make investing a habit. "You have to become an investor — no matter how small the amount—so you can tap into the power of compounding," he wrote on LinkedIn.

In an interview with Inc. magazine, Robbins told the story of a UPS (UPS, +1.76%)driver who made $14,000 a year but retired with $71 million because he saved 20 percent a year. That habit of saving and the power of compounding interest created lasting wealth, Robbins said.

If you think you can't afford to invest, Robbins recommends looking for expenses you can cut. Investing that money will "ensure you have more than enough when you need it most," he wrote.

2. BE PROACTIVE WITH YOUR MONEY

When it comes to saving and making money, it's important to be proactive. Robbins told GOBankingRates that you need to "stop being the chess piece and start being the chess player. It's time to master the game of money once and for all."

Whether you're learning to create a budget or taking control of your investments, don't put your finances on the back burner. Most of all, don't be afraid of a bit of failure. After all, as Robbins has said, failure is an important part of succeeding.

3. TAKE SMALL RISKS FOR BIG REWARDS

Robbins doesn't pretend that risk doesn't exist. But there are ways to manage risk. "While there is no such thing as a riskless return, every money master in the world will tell you, without exception, one of the most vital components of your portfolio is to find investments with asymmetric risk and reward," said Robbins in a 2015 article for Fortune.

To do that, you should use the five-to-one rule, he said. That means "for every dollar you risk, you have the potential to make five. You can be wrong four out of five times, but as long as you are right that fifth time, you will break even." The principle is about taking small risks with the potential for big rewards.

4. LEARN THAT WHAT YOU KEEP MATTERS MORE THAN WHAT YOU EARN

Robbins told GOBankingRates that too many people look at their investments and focus strictly on returns. "But it's not what you earn that matters, it's what you keep," he said. "And if your portfolio isn't tax-efficient, then you may not be keeping as much as you should be."

In fact, he said taxes can dramatically erode your earnings over time if you haven't structured your portfolio with tax-advantaged investments. You might consider working with a professional, such as a chartered financial analyst or certified financial planner, to do this.

5. DIVERSIFY TO REDUCE RISK AND MAXIMIZE RETURNS

Most investors know that diversifying a portfolio helps reduce risk because you're not putting all of your money into a single investment. But diversification doesn't mean investing in a random selection of stocks and bonds, said Robbins.

One way to get the diversification you need is to invest in low-fee index funds. "With these types of funds, you will have the broadest exposure to the largest numbers of securities for the lowest cost," he said.

6. REPLACE EXPENSIVE MUTUAL FUNDS WITH LOW-COST INDEX FUNDS

Robbins touts index funds not only because of the diversification, but also because they have lower fees than actively managed funds. Why do fees matter? Because they eat away at the returns in your retirement account and leave you with less money.

In an article for Business Insider, Robbins cited a 2011 Forbes finding that the average cost of owning a mutual fund is 3.17 percent per year. By contrast, Robbins said an index fund that tracks the S&P 500 can have a fee of less than 0.14 percent.

"By simply removing expensive mutual funds from your life and replacing them with low-cost index funds, you will have made a major step in recouping up to 70 percent of your potential future nest egg," he wrote.

7. STOP MINDLESS SPENDING

Want to stretch the value of a dollar? Then "spend on things that dramatically enhance your quality of life, and stop mindless spending that doesn't add any value to your life," Robbins told GOBankingRates.

Spending on things you don't need can quickly add up, he said. For example, spending $40 a week to go out to dinner instead of enjoying a low-cost gathering at home with friends can add up to more than $2,000 a year. If you invested that money instead and earned an annual 8 percent over 40 years, you'd have more than a half-million dollars, he said.

8. FOCUS ON WHAT YOU CAN CONTROL

Robbins has said that to succeed, you need to stop focusing on what you can't control and focus on what you can. He wrote on LinkedIn that he learned he could control his future by improving himself. "I could find a way to serve, a way to do more, a way to become better, a way to add value to the marketplace," he wrote.

9. WORRY ABOUT RESULTS INSTEAD OF TO-DO LISTS

When LinkedIn asked Robbins to share his secrets for being more productive, he said people should ditch their to-do lists. You'd think an authority on leadership and performance would advocate a method for keeping track of what needs to be done. But that's not the case.

Instead, Robbins wrote, "The biggest problem with to-do lists is that focusing only on what you need to get done does not guarantee that you're actually making any real progress." Figure out what you want, then focus all of your activities on making progress toward that result, he said.

"To continue to manage your life by a to-do list only invites the continuing imbalance and frustration that comes from knowing you're working hard, but that you're not making progress in all the areas of your life that truly matter," he wrote.

10. REALIZE THAT EXECUTION IS POWER

It's important to always learn. Robbins does that for himself by seeking out people who break the norms and demonstrate what is possible. But you have to take what you've learned and put it into practice.

"Just make a little bit of progress each day or each week, and before you know it, your path to financial freedom will be realized," he wrote in a 2015 opinion piece for MarketWatch.

11. NOTICE WHAT WORKS — AND WHAT DOESN’T

As a business and life strategist, Robbins asks people to examine what they want in life. Part of the process of doing so involves noticing what is and isn't working.

"Notice what's working and what's not working. And when it's not working, change your approach. And keep changing until you finally achieve what it is you're committed to," he told Success magazine.

This can apply to all aspects of your life, including your finances. If your efforts to cut spending and save more aren't working, try another approach. If your attempts to eliminate debt are backfiring, look for another strategy. The key is to learn from your mistakes.

12. MODEL OTHER SUCCESS STRATEGIES

To achieve what you want in business or life, Robbins advocates modeling someone who has already achieved that goal.

"They've got a set of strategies that they apply and those strategies work," he told Success magazine. "You don't need to reinvent the wheel. You don't need to reinvent a way to succeed."

13. RAISE YOUR STANDARDS

The way you see yourself might be what's holding you back from financial success. You might think you're not the type of person who can succeed, get ahead and be rich. The way you live is based on these self-perceptions. Raise your standards, and you can change your life.

"Lasting change is different than a goal," said Robbins. "You don't always get your goals, but you always get your standards." When you decide something is a must for you and raise the standard, you will find a way to achieve what you want, he said.

To raise your standards, take a look at your limitations and ask when you decided to accept those limitations. Then, identify yourself in a new way.

14. BE RESOURCEFUL

Most people who fail to achieve goals blame a lack of resources, Robbins once said. They might say they didn't have the support, money or time to succeed. But that belief keeps them from being able to lead.

"What leaders do is they find a way to maximize whatever resources they have — as little as they may be," said Robbins. Resourcefulness is the fuel that takes an idea in your head and turns it into something. Robbins called it "the ultimate resource."

15. DON’T SELF-SABOTAGE YOUR FINANCES

Self-sabotage is the No. 1 thing that keeps people from achieving financial goals, said Robbins. People sabotage their own financial success because on some level, they believe it will lead to more pain than pleasure. They focus on the negative aspects of money — worrying, for example, about the taxes they'll have to pay as they earn more.

"Your finances will not change until your core beliefs change," said Robbins in one of his instructional videos. He said you should think about the pain not having money has caused you. Write it down. Then, write down the positive things money offers. This will motivate you to change your mindset.

16. USE FEAR TO MOVE YOURSELF FORWARD

Everyone has something they're afraid of doing. Robbins said you don't have to get rid of that fear, but you do need to use it to move forward.

"The easiest way to deal with the fear of failure is to be more fearful of not taking action," said Robbins in a video posted at Business Insider. Be afraid of settling for a life that's far below what you deserve and desire, he said.

17. CREATE A BUSINESS MAP, NOT A BUSINESS PLAN

If you have a business, you need more than a plan that can become obsolete in a few years as the market changes.

"The only true competitive advantage in today's changing market and economy is not having a business plan, but having a business map that can take you from where you are to where you want to be," Robbins wrote on LinkedIn.

Robbins noted that businesses such as Starbucks, Apple, Toms and Facebook all have redefined who they are to stay competitive and meet market opportunities. "In each case, the results they have generated have been spectacular," he wrote.

18. ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS TO GET RESULTS

In his book "Money: Master the Game," Robbins wrote that successful people ask the right questions. For example, Microsoft founder Bill Gates didn't ask how he could build the best software, but rather how he could create the operating system that would control all computers.

"To get results, you can't just ask the question once, you have to become obsessed with finding its greatest answer(s)," Robbins wrote.

Average people often ask questions that lead them to focus on roadblocks rather than solutions, such as "Why is this happening to me?" But Robbins wrote that he asks how he can make things better. "Are you aware of what you focus on most; your primary question in life?" he wrote. "Whatever it is, it will shape, mold, and direct your life."

19. DON’T EXPECT MONEY TO GIVE LIFE MEANING

Robbins has made a lot of money in life, but he doesn't think it is what gives him—or any of us—meaning.

"People can equate their net worth with their self-worth," he wrote on LinkedIn. "Their identity is married so deeply to their bank statements and quarterly portfolio reports that they've forgotten that money is simply a vehicle for trying to meet our needs, almost all of which are not financial."

Robbins wrote that life is about creating meaning, which comes from what you give. "Money will always leave you empty unless it comes from a contribution you've made," he wrote. "And if you're looking for significance from money, it's a high price to pay."

20. MAKE PROGRESS, AND YOU’LL BE HAPPY

Progress equals happiness, Robbins said in a motivational video. "If we can make progress on a regular basis, we can feel alive," he said.

You can't just expect progress to happen. You have to look at life in a different way. "You have to say 'I've got to take control of this process and not just hope it's going to work out,'" Robbins said.

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