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投资理财

如何积累你的财富?来自巴菲特的十大经典理财建议

财富中文网 2017年02月09日

只要你将理财当作一生的事业,那么就算一时遇到挫折,你也能够始终保持财富正增长。

“股神”巴菲特可以说有史以来声名最高也最受尊敬的一位投资人了。此外“股神”最为人称道的,还有他平易近人的魅力,以及关于投资艺术的一些经典名言。

一般说来,如果你想攀登一座山,那么沿着曾经成功登顶的人的足迹走是最为保险的做法。如果你学习并应用了巴菲特关于投资的以下建议,你投资成功的机率就会大大增加。

1.永远别赔钱

巴菲特有一条最经典的投资建议:“规则一:永远别赔钱。规则二:永远别忘了规则一。”如果你的投资亏损了,那么连回本都尚且非常困难,就更别提盈利了。

2.以低价格买入高价值

在2008年伯克夏尔哈撒韦公司致股东的信中,巴菲特分享了另一条关键原则:“价格是你付出的东西,价值是你获得的东西。”如果你付出的价格超过了你所获得的价值,就有可能赔钱了——比方说,支付信用卡债的高息,或是花钱买一些很少使用的东西。

如果你真想获得成功,不如像巴菲特一样,过着丰足而不奢华的生活,集中精力寻找以低价格获取高价值的机会。巴菲特曾写道:“不管是买袜子还是买股票,我都喜欢买折价的优质商品。”

3.形成健康的理财习惯

在2007年佛罗里达大学的一次演讲中,巴菲特说道:“大多数行为是习惯性的,而人们常说,习惯的链条是如此之轻,以及至很难感觉到,直到它们已经重得无法打破。”所以你要培养积极的理财习惯,而打破这些习惯则可能会损伤你的钱包。

4.避免债务,尤其是信用卡债务

巴菲特之所以积累了如此之多的财富,秘诀就在于让利率为他服务,而不是像很多美国人一样为利率服务。巴菲特在1991年美国圣母大学的一次演讲中指出:“我见过很多人的失败是由于酒精和杠杆——杠杆就是借钱。其实你在这个世界上并不需要多少杠杆。如果你是个聪明人,你不需要借钱也能赚很多钱。”

巴菲特对信用卡尤为警惕。他的建议是最好完全避免使用信用卡。他曾说过:“信用卡的利率是很高的,有时能达到18%甚至20%。如果我按18%到20%的利率借钱,那我就破产了。”

5.手头上要有现金

确保财务安全的另一个关键,就是手头上随时要保持一定的现金储备。巴菲特在2014年伯克夏尔哈撒韦公司的年报中表示:“我们总是保持至少200亿美元的现金等价物,通常比这还要多得多。”

很多企业和个人恨不得把现金都拿来投资生钱。对此巴菲特表示:“现金对于企业来说,就像氧气对于一个人的作用。有它的时候感受不到它的存在,没它的时候就想起来了。在要付账的时候,只有现金才是合法的硬通货。千万不要没带现金就出门。”

6.投资你自己

据Inc.com报道,巴菲特曾经说过:“要尽可能地投资自己,你最重要的资产就是你自己。”他在接受CNBC采访时也表示过类似的观点:“你为提升自身才能和价值所做的任何事,都回以适当的实际购买力为形式得到回报。”

而且这些回报也是巨大的。“不管你向自身投资了多少,你得到的回报都是乘十倍的。”而且不像其他资产和投资,“没人能对它收税,也没人能偷走它。”

7.了解理财

投资自我的一个重要内容就是了解如何管理金钱。作为一名投资人,巴菲特的一个重要工作就是限制风险敞口,使风险最小化。据《福布斯》杂志报道,巴菲特曾说过:“风险来自于不知道你正在做什么。”你对个人理财了解得越多,你就越懂得削弱风险,你的财务状况也就越安全。

巴菲特的这句名言告诉我们,一定要积极学习关于个人理财的知识。就像巴菲特的合伙人查理·芒格所说的那样:“当晚睡觉时一定要比你当天起床时更聪明些。”

8.相信低成本的指数基金

巴菲特的不少名言警句都富有哲学意涵,此外他也曾给出不过几乎人人都能应用的实用建议。比如巴菲特曾建议普通投资者应该购买指数基金。

他在2013年写给股东的一封信中建议道:“把10%的现金用来购买短期政府债券,90%用来购买成本很低的标普500指数基金。”

巴菲特很多年都在坚持这一建议。他在2004年伯克夏尔哈撒韦公司的年会中也曾说过:“如果你投资了一支成本很低的指数基金——你不用把所有的钱一次性投进去,而是平均到10年的时间里,那么你的投资收益就会比90%的与你同时进行投资的人都高。”

9.回馈社会

据《福布斯》杂志报道,巴菲特曾经说过:“如果你属于人类最幸运的1%,你就理应考虑人类社会其余的99%。”作为这1%里的佼佼者,巴菲特在花钱做慈善方面向来说到做到。

比如他与比尔·盖茨共同发起的“捐赠誓言”倡议,就吸引了100多位亿万富翁的参与,他们计划在有生之年将至少一半的财产捐献给社会。虽然你可能不是一位亿万富翁,但你也可以通过回馈社会来丰富你的人生。

10.把理财视作一场长期的游戏

巴菲特曾说过:“有人之所以能坐在树荫下乘凉,是因为有人很久以前栽下了一棵树。”如果你现在就栽下理财的种子,就能在以后的人生中享受到荫凉。这种荫凉可能包括不必偿还债务、安祥的晚年生活,以及有能力支付子女的大学学费等等。

这种长期的金钱观正是巴菲特投资决策的精髓所在。在2014年致股东的信中,巴菲特表示,人们应当“放眼几十年进行投资……他们关注的焦点,应该是如何在整个投资生涯中使购买力得到显著提升。”他建设投资者不要过于关注股市动荡或经济危机的时期。

建立真正的财富和财务安全是需要时间的,在这个过程中,你可能会遇到很多挑战。只要你将理财当作一生的事业,那么就算一时遇到挫折,你也能够始终保持正轨。这样你才能拥有一个坚实持久的财务基础。(财富中文网)

译者:朴成奎

Warren Buffett is arguably the best-known, most respected investor of all time. Buffett is also known for his folksy charm, and his memorable quotes about the art of investing.

When you're aiming to reach the top of the mountain, it's usually wise to closely follow the footprints of those who have successfully made the climb before you. Your odds of investing success can increase exponentially if you learn and apply Buffett's best investing tips.

1. Never Lose Money

One of the most popular pieces of Buffett advice is as follows: "Rule No. 1: Never lose money. Rule No. 2: Never forget rule No. 1." If you're working from a loss, it's that much harder to get back to where you started, let alone to earn gains.

2. Get High Value at a Low Price

In the 2008 Berkshire Hathaway shareholder letter, Buffett shared another key principle: "Price is what you pay; value is what you get." Losing money can happen when you pay a price that doesn't match the value you get — such as when you pay high interest on credit card debt or spend on items you'll rarely use.

Instead, live modestly like Buffett by looking for opportunities to get more value at a lower price. "Whether we're talking about socks or stocks, I like buying quality merchandise when it is marked down," Buffett wrote.

3. Form Healthy Money Habits

In a 2007 address at the University of Florida, Buffett said, "Most behavior is habitual, and they say that the chains of habit are too light to be felt until they are too heavy to be broken." Work on building positive money habits, and breaking those that hurt your wallet.

4. Avoid Debt, Especially Credit Card Debt

Buffett built his wealth by getting interest to work for him — instead of working to pay interest, as many Americans do. "I've seen more people fail because of liquor and leverage — leverage being borrowed money," Buffett said in a 1991 speech at the University of Notre Dame. "You really don't need leverage in this world much. If you're smart, you're going to make a lot of money without borrowing."

Buffett is especially wary of credit cards. His advice is to avoid them altogether. "Interest rates are very high on credit cards," Buffett once said. "Sometimes they are 18 percent. Sometimes they are 20 percent. If I borrowed money at 18 or 20 percent, I'd be broke.

5. Keep Cash On Hand

Another key to ensuring security is to always keep cash reserves on hand. "We always maintain at least $20 billion — and usually far more — in cash equivalents," Buffett said in the 2014 Berkshire Hathaway annual report.

Businesses and individuals alike might get an itch to put liquid cash to work through investments. "Cash, though, is to a business as oxygen is to an individual: never thought about when it is present, the only thing in mind when it is absent," Buffett said. "When bills come due, only cash is legal tender. Don't leave home without it."

6. Invest in Yourself

According to Inc.com, Buffett said, "Invest in as much of yourself as you can. You are your own biggest asset by far." He echoed those sentiments in a CNBC interview when he said, "Anything you do to improve your own talents and make yourself more valuable will get paid off in terms of appropriate real purchasing power."

Those returns are big, too. "Anything you invest in yourself, you get back tenfold," Buffett said. And unlike other assets and investments, "nobody can tax it away; they can't steal it from you."

7. Learn About Money

Part of investing in yourself should be learning more about managing money. As an investor, much of Buffett's job consists of limiting exposure and minimizing risk. And "risk comes from not knowing what you're doing," Buffett once said, according to Forbes. The more you know about personal finance, the more security you'll have as you minimize risks.

The lesson from this Buffett quote is to actively educate yourself about personal finance. As Charlie Munger — Buffett's partner — put it, "Go to bed smarter than when you woke up."

8. Trust a Low-Cost Index Fund for Your Portfolio

While much of Buffett's wisdom and advice borders on the philosophical, he has also provided some actionable tips that nearly anyone can apply. For instance, Buffett urges the average investor to purchase index funds.

"Put 10 percent of the cash in short-term government bonds and 90 percent in a very low-cost S&P 500 index fund," he wrote in his 2013 letter to Berkshire Hathaway shareholders.

Buffett has given this advice for years. "If you invested in a very low-cost index fund — where you don't put the money in at one time, but average in over 10 years — you'll do better than 90 percent of people who start investing at the same time," Buffett said at the 2004 Berkshire Hathaway annual meeting.

9. Give Back

According to Forbes, Buffett once said, "If you're in the luckiest 1 percent of humanity, you owe it to the rest of humanity to think about the other 99 percent." And as a top member of that 1 percent himself, Buffett makes it a point to put his money where his mouth is.

Along with Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates, Buffett is a founder of The Giving Pledge, which is a promise made by more than 100 billionaires to give their fortunes away. While you might not be a billionaire, you can still enrich your life by giving back.

10. View Money as a Long-Term Game

Buffett once said, "Someone's sitting in the shade today because someone planted a tree a long time ago." And it's true. Planting and nurturing the seeds of financial success now will lead to shade to enjoy later in life. That shade might include freedom from debts, a secure retirement or the ability to cover the cost of college for your children.

Such a long-term view of money is central to Buffett's investing decisions. In his 2014 letter to shareholders, he said people should "invest with a multi-decade horizon … Their focus should remain fixed on attaining significant gains in purchasing power over their investing lifetime." He urged investors not to focus on moments of stock market volatility or economic crisis.

Building true wealth and financial security takes time, and you'll likely encounter financial challenges along the way. But viewing your finances as a lifelong endeavor can help you stay on course despite hardships. That gives you a financial foundation that will last.

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