事情到这里还没有结束。假如希腊人不得不违约，希腊债券的信贷违约掉期（CDS）将飙升，意味着做多希腊债券的银行们将欠下那些做空希腊债券的银行和对冲基金数十亿欧元。人们普遍相信发行、有时甚至持有这些CDS合约的大银行并没有准备好足够多的资金用于平仓。结果可能导致很多金融机构出现美国国际集团（AIG）式的倒台。这正是周二全球银行股暴跌的原因，特别是那些在CDS市场有大量敞口的银行，比如美国银行（Bank of America）和摩根大通（JP Morgan Chase）的美股跌幅均达到了6%左右，以及欧洲的法国兴业银行（Societe Generale），其跌幅更是超过了16%。
So who holds the advantage here? If Greece goes ahead with the referendum, its citizenry would most probably reject the plan, creating a wave of instability in the region. In response, the EU would probably cut its lifeline to Greece, forcing the nation to default on its debt. That would cause all of the major Greek banks to collapse, as they are the largest holders of Greek debt. But at the same time, it would cause several European banks to take billions of euros in write downs, as they too hold significant amounts of Greek debt.
It doesn't end there. Since the Greeks were forced into default, credit default swap contracts on Greek debt would be triggered. That means the banks and hedge funds that were short Greek debt would now be owed billions of euros in insurance payments by those that were long Greek debt. It is widely believed that the large banks, which issue and sometime hold on to all those CDS contracts, have not set aside enough capital to payout claims. This could lead to an AIG-style meltdown of many financial institutions. That explains why bank stocks around the globe fell hard yesterday, especially those that play big in the CDS market like Bank of America (BAC) and JP Morgan Chase (JPM) in the U.S., which were both down around 6%, as well as those in Europe like Societe Generale, which was down over 16%.
This CDS chain reaction is one of the major reasons why the Europeans have kept Greece on life support for so long. The total collapse of the Greek economy would be a sad event, but a confidence crisis in the word banking system, three years after the fall of Lehman Brothers, would be a catastrophe. One of the major planks of the latest fix-it plan was to get the banks and other major holders of Greek debt to agree to take a 50% haircut on their bonds. Since such a cut would be voluntary "soft default," it would not trigger the CDS contracts, therefore limiting the fallout to those banks that physically held Greek debt.
A hard default would probably see all that Greek debt go to zero. While that would wipe the slate clean for the country, it would be a pyrrhic victory as its economy would be decimated. Papandreou is fully aware of this fact, as are members of Greece's main opposition party in parliament, which has blasted the prime minister for being reckless. If Papandreou survives a vote of no confidence Friday, the stage will be set for months of further market instability. The referendum would take place probably at the end of December or beginning of January.
To avoid all of this, the French and the Germans may need to swallow their pride and work out a better deal for the Greeks with the banks. Under the current plan, Greece's debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to be around 120% by 2020. While that is an improvement from the projected 190% ratio projected by 2013, it's still very high. The plan assumes further cuts in Greek government spending and a positive economic growth rate. Those assumptions are generous, since the cuts in spending, coupled with a strong euro, would probably lead to much slower economic growth. To dig itself out of this hole, Greece needs to cut its debt by more than 50%. The banks have balked at taking a larger haircut, but the threat of a hard default may scare them into accepting a greater loss.
Warren Buffett once called derivatives financial instruments of mass destruction. The CDS contracts attached to Greek debt are proving to be quite a destructive force indeed. Papandreou is now threatening to push the button. To avoid a nasty surprise, the Europeans will probably need to yield to Greece's demands.