多年来，伦敦、斯德哥尔摩、米兰和部分国际大都市的司机也在缴纳类似的费用。伦敦交通局（Transport for London）的数据显示，2003年至今，伦敦市中心的私家车数量已经减少了30%，而规定实行的最初三年，这项费用还导致一氧化二氮排放量减少了17%。不过Uber和Lyft等租赁汽车服务的爆炸式增长削弱了政策的效果，它们在继续给伦敦人制造着拥堵。
专家指出，纽约的计划明显不同，很难预测它的影响。纽约大学鲁丁交通中心（Rudin Center for Transportation）的主任米切尔·L.·莫斯表示：“伦敦这个城市与纽约很不一样，纽约的收费区域比伦敦大得多。”
Congestion charges—fees paid by drivers to enter highly trafficked areas in peak times—are coming to America. As part of the state budget, New York lawmakers have approved a daily charge on motor vehicles entering Manhattan below 61st Street. The plan is scheduled to go into effect in 2021, with the proceeds used to fix N.Y.C.’s ailing subway lines.
Drivers in London, Stockholm, Milan, and a handful of other international cities have been subject to similar charges for years. Since 2003, the number of private cars in central London has declined by 30%, according to transit authority Transport for London, and in its first three years, the tax was credited with a 17% reduction of nitrous oxide emissions. But its success has been tempered by the explosion of for-hire vehicles from services such as Uber and Lyft, which continue to create congestion for Londoners.
Experts point out that New York’s plan is distinct, and its impact is hard to estimate. “London is a very different city from New York,” says Mitchell L. Moss, director of NYU’s Rudin Center for Transportation. “It’s a much larger area than what’s [taxed] in London.”
Philadelphia and L.A. are considering similar schemes, but Moss points out that New York stands out from other U.S. cities because its 24-hour subway system makes it less dependent on cars: “The real reason you can do it in New York is five times as many people come in by mass transit as come in by car.”
But when it comes to shifting commuters back to overcrowded subways, the city and state could face a chicken-and-egg scenario, if lawmakers don’t act quickly to make updates to the aging transit system.
A version of this article appears in the June 2019 issue of Fortune with the headline “A Euro Solution for American Gridlock.”