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美国人平均每周要用掉三卷厕纸——森林也在因此遭到毁灭

Grace Dobush 2019年03月05日

关于纸张使用的一份新报告指出,美国人正在把加拿大的森林冲进下水道。

关于纸张使用的一份新报告指出,美国人正在把加拿大的森林冲进下水道。

这份新鲜出炉的报告由Stand.earth和美国国家资源保护委员会(National Resources Defense Council)联名发布,其中描绘了“树木-厕所”的流程,并得出结论称“土著居民、珍贵的野生生物和全球气候正在遭到毁灭”。

美国人的厕纸消费量冠绝全球,每周的人均使用量达到近三卷。他们选择的品牌在生态上也不具有可持续性。这些厂商将硬木树化成纸浆,制造消费者喜爱的柔软厕纸。在美国的人均年用量141卷之后,名列第二的是德国的134卷,接着是英国的127卷。日本消费者每年人均用纸量为91卷,中国的平均水平仅为49卷。

报告估计美国的纸巾市场价值高达310亿美元,并认为美国的三大纸品厂商宝洁(Procter & Gamble)、佐治亚太平洋(Georgia-Pacific)和金百利克拉克(Kimberly-Clark)应该为不在厕纸中使用可再生材料而承担责任。

金百利克拉克的发言人对《财富》杂志表示,公司致力于生产卫生健康的产品,同时“确保森林的恢复力,可持续地获取我们的纤维”。公司将就“报告中提出的复杂挑战”与美国国家资源保护委员会“保持对话”,并且会继续展现“金百利克拉克如何努力成为解决方案的一部分”。佐治亚太平洋并未立即回应《财富》杂志的置评请求。

在报告的可持续性排名中,第七世代(Seventh Generation)等环保品牌,以及全食超市(Whole Foods)和Trader Joes等基本款都得到了A的评级。而Cottonelle、Charmin、Ultra Soft、Angel Soft和Quilted Northern的评级均在D至F之间。纸巾品牌Viva、Brawny和Bounty也得到了D至F的评级。

报告的共同作者谢莉·维亚德在一份声明中表示:“我们向宝洁呼吁:作为美国领先的厕纸品牌,不要再把森林冲进厕所里了。宝洁有着让Charmin迈入21世纪的创新资源,问题在于这家公司是否愿意承载创新者的名誉,开发利用可再生材料而非树木的可持续产品。”

宝洁的发言人强调公司一直致力于可持续领域的投入,并表示产品中100%的木质纤维都来自于经由森林管理委员会(Forest Stewardship Council)等第三方认证、有人负责管理的森林。发言人对《财富》杂志表示:“纸巾产品中的原生纤维更受消费者喜爱,而且能够更高效地‘完成任务’。使用有人负责管理的森林的原生纤维,我们的产品会有更好的吸收性,因此消费者造成的浪费也更少。可再生材料制成的纸质产品较硬,吸收性较差,也缺乏原生纤维产品所具有的强度。”

每年,工业化伐木会砍掉超过100万英亩的北部森林,相当于每分钟砍伐七个冰球场的面积,其部分原因是为了满足美国纸巾产品的需求。与此同时,纸张与印刷行业在Two Sides上表示,加拿大8.57亿英亩的森林面积在过去25年里保持了稳定。

厕纸与纸巾中使用的硬木纸浆的价格在过去几年里飞速上涨,这也推动了纸巾的售价。不过厂商在产品中采用再生纸的动作却很慢,因为消费者更喜欢原木纸浆的柔软触感。

Stand.earth和美国国家资源保护委员会建议消费者首先减少厕纸的使用量,也希望厂商在卫生纸中增加再生纸和替代纤维的使用。(财富中文网)

本文在更新中添加了金伯利克拉克和宝洁公司的声明。

译者:严匡正

A new report on paper use says Americans are flushing away Canadian forests.

Stand.earth and the National Resources Defense Council just released a report describing the “tree-to-toilet” pipeline, concluding that “[t]he consequences for Indigenous Peoples, treasured wildlife, and the global climate are devastating.”

The U.S. consumes more toilet paper than any other country, almost three rolls per person each week. And the brands they choose to use aren’t sustainable, with hardwood trees being pulped to create the soft toilet paper consumers want. Following the United States’ annual use of 141 rolls of toilet paper per capita is Germany with 134 rolls and the United Kingdom with 127. Japanese consumers average 91 rolls annually, while the Chinese average just 49.

Estimating the U.S. tissue market to be worth $31 billion, the report took the three biggest paper product producers in the U.S. to task: Procter & Gamble, Georgia-Pacific and Kimberly-Clark use no recycled content in their consumer toilet paper, they say.

A Kimberly-Clark spokesperson told Fortune that it is committed to making products that provide health and hygiene benefits while “ensuring the resilience of the forests where we sustainably source our fiber.” It will remain engaged in “an ongoing dialogue” with the NRDC on “the complex challenges presented in their report” and will continue to demonstrate “how Kimberly-Clark is working to be a part of the solution.” Georgia-Pacific did not immediately return Fortune‘s request for comment.

In the report’s sustainability rankings, eco-friendly brands such as Seventh Generation and basic options from Whole Foods and Trader Joes earned an A. But Cottonelle, Scott, Charmin, Ultra Soft, Angel Soft and Quilted Northern earned grades of D or F. Paper towel brands Viva, Brawny and Bounty also got grades of D or F.

“We’re calling on Procter & Gamble, as the maker of America’s leading toilet paper brand, to stop flushing forests down the toilet,” report co-author Shelley Vinyard said in a statement. “Procter & Gamble has the innovation resources to bring Charmin into the 21st century; the question is whether the company will embrace its reputation as an innovator to create sustainable products using recycled material instead of clear-cut trees.”

A spokesman for P&G stressed the company’s commitment to sustainability, saying 100% of its wood fiber comes from responsibly managed forests, certified by third parties such as the Forest Stewardship Council. “Virgin fiber in tissue products is preferred by consumers, and ‘does the job’ much more efficiently,” the Procter & Gamble spokesman told Fortune. “By using virgin fiber from responsibly managed forests, our products are more absorbent, so consumers can do more with less waste. Paper products made from recycled materials are less soft, less absorbent and lack the strength that products manufactured from virgin fibers can provide.”

Industrial logging claims more than a million acres of northern forests every year, equivalent to seven hockey rinks each minute, in part to meet demand for tissue products in the United States. The paper and printing industries, meanwhile, argue that Canada’s forest area of 857 million acres has remained stable over the past 25 years, per Two Sides.

The price of hardwood pulp, used in toilet paper and tissues, has risen dramatically over the past few years, which has in turn increased consumer prices for tissue. But manufacturers have been slow to integrate recycled paper into their products, as consumers prefer the soft feel of virgin pulp.

The report from Stand.earth and the NRDC recommends consumers first and foremost reduce their toilet paper use, but also that manufacturers increase the use of recycled paper and alternative fibers in toilet tissue.

This story has been updated to reflect statements from Kimberly-Clark and Procter & Gamble.

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