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中企加大研发投入,欲赶超西方

Michael Casey 2014年10月30日

中国公司正把重心从从生产廉价出口商品上移开,专注于实现更高质量的经济增长。

    一份最新发布的报告指出,中国企业正在大幅增加研发支出。

    据管理咨询公司Strategy&的报告显示,总部设在中国大陆的企业支出水平在过去10年里增长了14倍。入选2014年Strategy&“全球创新企业1000强”榜单的中企数量,已从2005年的8家跃升至如今的114家。

    中国企业研发支出增长背后的原因在于,它们正把重心从从生产廉价出口商品上移开,专注于实现更高质量的经济增长。

    该报告作者巴里•雅鲁泽尔斯基是Strategy&公司的高级合伙人。他说:“在亚洲地区企业纷纷削减研发投入之际,中国企业仍继续大幅增加投入。”

    他补充道:“中企研发支出已经多年维持两位数的高增长,虽然世界其他地区也有两位数的增幅,但相对较低,在13%左右;而北美和欧洲的增长更是要低得多,分别为3.5%和2.5%。”

    这些结果与包括政府支出在内的中国整体研发趋势相契合。美国国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)称,中国政府的研发支出仅次于美国。

    在专利申请领域,中国份额也越来越大。来自中国和中国居民的专利申请数最多。世界知识产权组织(World Intellectual Property Organization)称,2012年中国的专利申请量已经超越了美国。

    世界知识产权组织日内瓦知识产权及统计部负责人莫萨德•肯说:“在发展方面,中国在过去20年中进步了很多,在技术前沿,无论是专利还是研发投资,中国正在赶超美国和日本。”

    2014年,全球研发投入达到6470亿美元。但中资公司的研发投入仍然远比不上美资公司。美资企业的研发投入规模历来都高居全球首位,今年达到2569亿美元,其次是欧资企业达到1938亿美元,然后是位居第三的日资企业达到1167亿美元。

    不过,中资企业的研发投入增长也不可小觑,从2005年几乎可以忽略不计的水平跃升至2014年的300亿美元,今年同比增长46%。

    美国信息技术与创新基金会(The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation)是一家总部设在华盛顿特区的科技政策智库,该基金会的总裁罗伯特•阿特金森提醒称,中国的企业研发投入数据可能“有些水分”,因为中国对国有企业实施的“奖励制度”看重研发,因此中资企业会将一些在美国不会归为研发的活动列入研发支出项目。

    Chinese companies are significantly ramping up their spending on research and development, according to a new report.

    Companies based on the mainland of China have increased their spending by a factor of 15 over the past decade, according to a report from the management consulting firm “Strategy&,” and the number of Chinese firms on Strategy&’s 2014 Global Innovation 1000 has gone from eight in 2005 to 114 today.

    The reason for the R&D growth: Chinese companies are shifting away from producing cheap goods for export and concentrating on higher quality economic growth.

    “When we are looking at the regional cut, China continues to go gangbusters,” said Barry Jaruzelski, the report’s author and a senior partner with the firm.

    “It’s been in the high double-digits for many, many years,” he added. “The rest of the world was double-digit, but lower — around 13 percent — and North America and Europe were positive, but much lower, at 3. 5 percent in North America and 2.5 percent in Europe.”

    The findings dovetail with overall research and development trends in China, including government spending, which the National Science Foundation found, is second only behind the United States.

    Patents, too, increasingly have a Chinese flavor, with the largest number of applicants coming from China and Chinese residents. The Chinese overtook the United States in 2012, according to the World Intellectual Property Organization.

    “In terms of their development, they have advanced a lot over the past 20 years,” said Mosahid Khan, head of the intellectual property and statistics section at WIPO in Geneva. “They are sort of catching up with the United States and Japan on the technological frontier whether it be patents or R & D investment.”

    Chinese companies are still are dwarfed by American-based firms when it comes to the $647 billion spent on global research and development. The Americans, as they have traditionally done, are the biggest spenders at $256.9 billion followed by European-based companies at $193.8 billion and then Japan which is third at $116.7 billion.

    Still, the Chinese growth can’t be ignored. It has gone from almost negligible number in 2005 to $30 billion in 2014. Chinese firms increased their spending from a year ago by 46 percent.

    Robert Atkinson, the president of The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, a Washington, D.C., technology policy think tank, warned that some of the Chinese figures may be “somewhat overstated” due to a “rewards system” for state-owned enterprises which is based on them doing “a lot of R & D” and thus classifying some things as research and development which wouldn’t be treated as such in the United States.

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