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商业 - 2013财富全球论坛

我们为什么要建202层的摩天大楼

Brian Dumaine 2013年06月09日

未来10年,221座中国城市将拥有100万以上的居民。怎样解决这些人的衣食住行问题?远大集团CEO在财富全球论坛上提出的解决方案是建设一座多功能、高达202层的摩天大厦。

    如今,全球城市人口首次超过农村人口。在这个等式中,常常被忽略的是这种趋势的加速度。以中国为例,它目前有6.5亿人居住在城市,占到人口总数的52%。大约10年后,这个数字预计将高达10亿。这意味着将有大约3.5亿人(相当于美国的全部人口)从中国农村地区迁移到城市地区。百万级以上人口的中国城市将达到221座。

    人口的迁移带来了挑战。中国城市居民的平均能源消耗量是农村居民的3倍。它意味着我们必须开发新城、重建旧城,以可持续的方式解决10亿人的吃饭、居住、出行和工作的问题。今年的成都财富全球论坛“城市发展的重新思考”分论坛上,能源设备制造商和房地产开发商远大集团(Broad Group)CEO张跃说,我们必须彻底重新定义究竟什么是城市生活。

    “人们不想每天都得坐车、开车去上班,”他说。他的解决方法是,他打算修建摩天大楼来解决城市人口密集问题。他计划在湖南省修建的预制装配式高层建筑“天空之城”将达到202层,高度为838米。

    张跃说,天空之城可在7个月内完工,而其他超高层建筑至少需要5年,并且天空之城的能效提高了5倍。相比中国杂乱无章的普通开发项目,这幢建筑将节约200公顷左右的土地,包含了办公场所、学校、娱乐场地、商店和餐馆,从而降低对汽车的依赖性。张跃说:“天空之城将使道路上减少大约2,000辆汽车,因为住户在他们居住的地方就能找到他们需要的大多数东西。”

    智能城市的另一个支持者是施耐德电气(Schneider Electric)CEO赵国华。这家法国公司提供电力、电网、交通系统等方面的解决方案。赵国华说,城市可以利用社交媒体来使它们更具可持续性。他说:“巴黎人在一生中总共需要花费一年的时间来寻找停车位。”他说,他的公司正在开发让司机可以利用社交媒体来寻找空置车位或避开交通拥堵的系统。

    半数业务都与能效有关的工业巨头霍尼韦尔(Honeywell)的CEO高德威举了个生动的例子来说明未来的城市怎样大幅降低能源需求。这家公司设计的建筑管理系统整合了HVAC、照明和安全等核心系统,在最大限度提高能效的同时实现成本节约。

    全世界已经认识到了使城市更具可持续性的挑战,而且也拥有实现这一点的技术。但高德威说这还不够。“我们不能让这个过程变得混乱不堪。我们需要更充分的规划。我们必须集思广益,找到实现这一切的方法。”

    作为本次讨论会的专家发言人,这三位企业高管无疑非常适合引领这样的讨论。(财富中文网)

    译者:千牛絮

    Today, for the first time, more people worldwide live in cities than in the countryside. What's often missed in this equation is how fast this trend will accelerate. Take China. Currently 650 million people, or 52% of the population, now live in cities. Fast-forward only ten years or so and that number is expected to hit one billion. That means that some 350 million people, the equivalent of the entire population of the U.S., will move from the Chinese countryside into urban areas. The number of Chinese cities with a million or more people will hit 221.

    This migration presents a challenge. China's urban dwellers on average consume three times more energy than rural ones. That means we must design new cities and rebuild old ones in ways that will allow billions to live, drive, eat, and work sustainably. At today's session on Rethinking Our Cities at Fortune's Global Forum in Chengdu, Zhang Yue, the CEO of Broad Group, a maker of energy equipment and a real estate development company, said that we have to totally redefine what it means to live in cities.

    "People don't want to have to get on trains or drive a car to get to work," he said. One solution: Zhang plans to lick the urban congestion problem by building up. His proposed high-rise prefab in Hunan Province called Sky City will soar 202 stories to a height of 838 meters.

    Zhang says that Sky City can be built in seven months compared to at least five years for other super high-rises and is five times more energy efficient. The building will save some 200 hectares compared to typical sprawl development in China and will contain offices, schools, playing fields, stores and restaurants, reducing dependency on the automobile. Says Zhang: "Sky City will take some 2,000 cars off the road simply because its residents can find most of what they need right where they live."

    Another proponent of smart cities is Jean-Pascal Tricoire, the CEO of Schneider Electric, the French company that offers solutions for power, grids, traffic systems and more. Tricoire says cities can embrace social media to make them run more sustainably. "Parisians," he says, "spend a year of their lives looking for parking spaces." He says his company is working on systems where drivers can tap into social media and find an empty parking spot or avoid traffic jams.

    David Cote, the CEO of Honeywell (HON), the industrial giant that has more than 50% of its portfolio linked to energy efficiency, gave a telling example of how the city of the future will require dramatically less energy. The company has designed building management systems that integrate core systems such as HVAC, lighting, and security that maximize energy usage while providing cost savings.

    So the world has recognized the challenge of making our cities more sustainable and has the technology to do it. Cote says that's not enough. "We can't let this process be chaotic. We need much more planning. We need to get a lot of smart people in a room to figure out how to make all this work."

    The three executives on this panel would certainly be well-suited to lead the discussion.

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