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中国大银行拉低全球银行业透明度

Dan Mitchell 2012年07月13日

非赢利机构透明国际对全球各个行业的信息披露状况进行评分,得出的结果令人惊讶。能源行业的透明度高居榜首,金融银行业透明度垫底,部分原因是因为入围最不透明公司的名单中有四家中国银行,即中国工商银行、建设银行、交通银行和中国银行。

    国际反腐败监督机构透明国际(Transparency International)周二发布的最新报告显示,大能源行业在反腐方面最为“透明”。

    或许这个结果听起来有些匪夷所思。相比之下,金融业位列最不透明行业或许是众望所归。对这个结果影响较大的一个因素是,最不透明企业名单中有四家中国银行。但透明国际表示,尽管如此,“其余金融公司的得分也低于平均水平。”

    以十分制计,金融业平均得分仅4.2。透明国际调查了全球105家最大的公司。只有2/3的公司主动发布了反腐败政策。不过,这已经好于2009年透明国际上次编制报告时的情况,当时主动发布反腐败政策的公司比例还不到一半。

    105家公司中只有78家公司全面披露子公司的注册地信息。报告称,这让“人们很难知道位于发展中国家或保密管辖地(避税地)的业务在公司业绩中发挥着怎样的作用”。同时,很多公司也没有报告海外缴纳的税款。

    为什么石油天然气行业得分这么高?报告称,“希望这是一个迹象,说明投资者、政府和社会的压力已让业内企业努力提高透明度”。业内企业“长期以来一直因为业务不透明而遭人诟病,但自2008年透明国际首次评估以来,这方面已经出现了显著的改进。”

    俄罗斯国有控股企业俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom)是一个例外,这家公司同时也是全球最大的天然气开采企业和俄罗斯最大的企业,它的得分只有2.8。不过,这个成绩仍然好于得分仅2.4的伯克希尔哈撒韦(Berkshire Hathaway),与得分2.8的亚马逊(Amazon)不相上下。事实上,科技/互联网行业在这次调查中总体表现不佳。苹果(Apple)得分只有3.2,威瑞森(Verizon) 3.3。这或许是另一个让人大跌眼镜的领域。

    高居榜首的是挪威国家石油公司(Statoil),得分高达8.3。

    译者:早稻米

    Big Energy is the most "transparent" industry when it comes to corruption-fighting, according to Transparency International, a global anti-corruption watchdog.

    The might sound surprising. But those who prefer predictability can take heart in the fact that the finance sector is the least transparent, says the group's latest report, issued on Tuesday. That result is weighted by the fact that four of the "least transparent" companies on the overall list are Chinese banks. But the organization says that, nevertheless, "the remaining financial companies were also below average."

    On a scale of 0-10, the finance sector averaged a score of just 4.2. The organization examined the world's largest 105 companies. Only two-thirds of them voluntarily report on their corruption-prevention policies, but that's better than the last time Transparency International issued a report, in 2009, when less than half of them did.

    Only 78 of the 105 fully disclosed information about where all their corporate subsidiaries were registered. That makes it "difficult to know how operations in locations such as developing countries or secrecy jurisdictions [tax havens] feature in company earnings," the report states. Many companies on the list also do not report what taxes they pay in foreign jurisdictions.

    Why did the oil and gas sector score so high? "Hopefully, it's a sign that pressure from investors, governments, and society encourages businesses to become more transparent," according to the report. Companies in that sector "have long been targeted for the opacity of their operations, but have improved noticeably in this regard since Transparency International first evaluated them in 2008."

    One outlier is Russia's state-controlled Gazprom, the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and Russia's largest company. It scored just a 2.8. Still, that's better than Berkshire Hathaway (BRK.A), which scored only 2.4. And it's on a par with Amazon's (AMZN) 2.8. Indeed, the tech/Internet sector in general doesn't fare well in the findings. Apple (AAPL) scored 3.2 and Verizon (VZ) 3.3. This might be yet another area where tech is given something of a pass.

    Topping the list was Norway's Statoil (STO), which got a score of 8.3.

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