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新冠疫情引发离职潮,相当一部分是65岁以上女性

新冠疫情引发离职潮,相当一部分是65岁以上女性

Megan Leonhardt 2022年01月15日
一项新数据显示,“大辞职潮”中的主力军为年纪较大的女性。

图片来源:GETTY IMAGES

新冠疫情彻底颠覆了众多美国雇员的职场,但一项新数据显示,其中的主力军为年纪较大的女性,她们借此机会通过在新冠疫情期间退休来躲避风险。

圣路易斯联邦储备银行(St. Louis Federal Reserve)的新报告显示,婴儿潮期间出生人口的退休数量超过了美国老年人自然退休的预期数量。2021年10月退休的人数较2020年1月增长了7%,也就是多出了330万人。

那这些退休者都是谁?事实证明,他们并非只是提前退休那么简单。在新冠疫情期间退休的人士大体上都是65岁至74岁之间的已婚或丧偶女性,而且从其伴侣那里获得了一定的财务支持。事实上,65岁至74岁之间的女性在新冠疫情期间退休的概率大约是类似条件男士的11倍。

报告的合著者、圣路易斯联邦储备银行经济公平研究所(St. Louis Fed’s Institute for Economic Equity)的董事威廉·罗杰斯三世称:“已婚且拥有这些额外资源的女性宣布退休的可能性更高。”

在年龄65岁及以上的人群中,同样年龄的黑人和西班牙裔工人退休的可能性要低于白人员工。

——圣路易斯联邦储备银行(@stlouisfed),2022年1月5日

这一点与此前的分析结论存在出入,该分析称提前退休助长了新冠疫情期间的员工短缺现象。尽管很多婴儿潮时期出生的人口确实在新冠疫情期间退休了,但圣路易斯联邦储备银行最新的报告在仔细分析了这些人的年龄后发现,很多退休人员年纪较大且出生于婴儿潮时期,其岁数已经超过了65岁的传统退休年龄。

罗杰斯对《财富》杂志说:“我原以为会是55岁至64岁的[年龄组],但实际并不是这样。”他称这一数据“给出了一个不同的结果”。该数据基于美国人口普查局(Census Bureau)的家庭脉搏调查(Household Pulse Survey)和作者的自我上报退休状况概率模型,并对比了人口因素、收入和时间。

罗杰斯说,在新冠疫情期间退休的年长女性多在零售、贸易和休闲以及酒店行业工作。这些都是新冠肺炎感染风险最高的行业。这一发现与之前的多项调查不谋而合,这些调查均发现,休闲和酒店行业女性失业数量巨大。

罗杰斯称:“这些数字逐渐揭示了更多的内容,意味着大量年长女性因为健康原因而离开高风险岗位,她们之所以有能力这样做是因为自己已经结婚,而且拥有来自其配偶的资源。”

这些年长已婚女性离开工作岗位的另一个原因可能在于,其子女请她们帮忙照看孩子。罗杰斯指出:“这些女性离开可能是为了帮忙照看孩子。”

就种族而言,与同龄白人员工相比,黑人、西班牙裔和美国土著工人退休的可能性更低,但亚洲雇员的退休概率略高于其白人同僚。

意料之中的是,教育在其中也发挥了一定的作用。在这些人当中,非大学学历人士退休的可能性要高于那些至少接受过一定大学教育的人。考虑到众多白领工作以及那些通常对体力要求不高的工作,会对文凭或其他认证有要求。

值得注意的是,退休人员的构成——年龄、性别、背景,在新冠疫情期间没有太大的变化。罗杰斯表示:“某一组群或类型民众退休的可能性并未发生变化。[退休]人群的构成在新冠疫情前后看起来没有什么两样。”

罗杰斯及其合著者洛厄尔·里基茨称,很多在新冠疫情期间的退休人员有可能是受到了新冠疫情健康焦虑以及财富历史收入的驱使。精神健康问题,例如抑郁和倦怠,也起到了推波助澜的作用。研究人员发现,退休人员的焦虑水平要远低于同龄上班族。

在新冠疫情期间,很多美国老年人发现其储蓄有所增加。55岁至69岁人士的平均家庭资产净值在新冠疫情期间跃升了12%,同时70岁及以上人群的资产净值则增长了14.8%。

通常来讲,退休人员不会完全退出劳动力。在很多情况下,他们会从事第二职业或兼职,因此能够帮助提振美国可用员工的数量。然而,这一点在新冠疫情期间并未发生,重新进入劳动力的退休人员在数量上出现了下滑。

罗杰斯说,目前,人们对这些在新冠疫情期间退休的员工是否真的会返回岗位存在争议。其中的主要的争论焦点在于,人们是否有必要因为财务原因以及持续的安全问题而回归工作。

他说:“与2021年冬天一样,接下来的两个月必然将为春季和今年剩余部分的局势奠定基调。”(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

新冠疫情彻底颠覆了众多美国雇员的职场,但一项新数据显示,其中的主力军为年纪较大的女性,她们借此机会通过在新冠疫情期间退休来躲避风险。

圣路易斯联邦储备银行(St. Louis Federal Reserve)的新报告显示,婴儿潮期间出生人口的退休数量超过了美国老年人自然退休的预期数量。2021年10月退休的人数较2020年1月增长了7%,也就是多出了330万人。

那这些退休者都是谁?事实证明,他们并非只是提前退休那么简单。在新冠疫情期间退休的人士大体上都是65岁至74岁之间的已婚或丧偶女性,而且从其伴侣那里获得了一定的财务支持。事实上,65岁至74岁之间的女性在新冠疫情期间退休的概率大约是类似条件男士的11倍。

报告的合著者、圣路易斯联邦储备银行经济公平研究所(St. Louis Fed’s Institute for Economic Equity)的董事威廉·罗杰斯三世称:“已婚且拥有这些额外资源的女性宣布退休的可能性更高。”

在年龄65岁及以上的人群中,同样年龄的黑人和西班牙裔工人退休的可能性要低于白人员工。

——圣路易斯联邦储备银行(@stlouisfed),2022年1月5日

这一点与此前的分析结论存在出入,该分析称提前退休助长了新冠疫情期间的员工短缺现象。尽管很多婴儿潮时期出生的人口确实在新冠疫情期间退休了,但圣路易斯联邦储备银行最新的报告在仔细分析了这些人的年龄后发现,很多退休人员年纪较大且出生于婴儿潮时期,其岁数已经超过了65岁的传统退休年龄。

罗杰斯对《财富》杂志说:“我原以为会是55岁至64岁的[年龄组],但实际并不是这样。”他称这一数据“给出了一个不同的结果”。该数据基于美国人口普查局(Census Bureau)的家庭脉搏调查(Household Pulse Survey)和作者的自我上报退休状况概率模型,并对比了人口因素、收入和时间。

罗杰斯说,在新冠疫情期间退休的年长女性多在零售、贸易和休闲以及酒店行业工作。这些都是新冠肺炎感染风险最高的行业。这一发现与之前的多项调查不谋而合,这些调查均发现,休闲和酒店行业女性失业数量巨大。

罗杰斯称:“这些数字逐渐揭示了更多的内容,意味着大量年长女性因为健康原因而离开高风险岗位,她们之所以有能力这样做是因为自己已经结婚,而且拥有来自其配偶的资源。”

这些年长已婚女性离开工作岗位的另一个原因可能在于,其子女请她们帮忙照看孩子。罗杰斯指出:“这些女性离开可能是为了帮忙照看孩子。”

就种族而言,与同龄白人员工相比,黑人、西班牙裔和美国土著工人退休的可能性更低,但亚洲雇员的退休概率略高于其白人同僚。

意料之中的是,教育在其中也发挥了一定的作用。在这些人当中,非大学学历人士退休的可能性要高于那些至少接受过一定大学教育的人。考虑到众多白领工作以及那些通常对体力要求不高的工作,会对文凭或其他认证有要求。

值得注意的是,退休人员的构成——年龄、性别、背景,在新冠疫情期间没有太大的变化。罗杰斯表示:“某一组群或类型民众退休的可能性并未发生变化。[退休]人群的构成在新冠疫情前后看起来没有什么两样。”

罗杰斯及其合著者洛厄尔·里基茨称,很多在新冠疫情期间的退休人员有可能是受到了新冠疫情健康焦虑以及财富历史收入的驱使。精神健康问题,例如抑郁和倦怠,也起到了推波助澜的作用。研究人员发现,退休人员的焦虑水平要远低于同龄上班族。

在新冠疫情期间,很多美国老年人发现其储蓄有所增加。55岁至69岁人士的平均家庭资产净值在新冠疫情期间跃升了12%,同时70岁及以上人群的资产净值则增长了14.8%。

通常来讲,退休人员不会完全退出劳动力。在很多情况下,他们会从事第二职业或兼职,因此能够帮助提振美国可用员工的数量。然而,这一点在新冠疫情期间并未发生,重新进入劳动力的退休人员在数量上出现了下滑。

罗杰斯说,目前,人们对这些在新冠疫情期间退休的员工是否真的会返回岗位存在争议。其中的主要的争论焦点在于,人们是否有必要因为财务原因以及持续的安全问题而回归工作。

他说:“与2021年冬天一样,接下来的两个月必然将为春季和今年剩余部分的局势奠定基调。”(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

COVID-19 completely upended the workplace for many U.S. employees, but new data shows that it was largely older women who took the opportunity to escape by retiring during the pandemic.

The number of baby boomers who are retiring exceeds the expected number of older Americans set to naturally retire, according to a new report from the St. Louis Federal Reserve. About 7% more people retired in the month of October 2021 compared with January 2020, around 3.3 million.

So who are these retirees? It turns out they’re not just taking early retirement. On the whole, people who retired during the pandemic were women ages 65 to 74 who were married or widowed, and had some financial support from their partner. In fact, women between the ages of 65 and 74 were approximately 11 times as likely as similarly situated men to retire during the pandemic.

“Women have a higher likelihood of announcing they’re retiring and also being married and having these additional resources,” says William M. Rodgers III, a coauthor of the report and director of the St. Louis Fed’s Institute for Economic Equity.

Among people age 65 and older, Black and Hispanic workers were less likely to be retired than their white peers of similar ages https://t.co/pMCWSZfIXy pic.twitter.com/iqnOY5Q0j9

— St. Louis Fed (@stlouisfed) January 5, 2022

That runs contrary to different, earlier analyses that argued the pandemic worker shortage was fueled by early retirements. And while it’s true that many baby boomers did retire during the pandemic, the St. Louis Fed’s latest report drilled down into the ages of those people to find that many of the retirees were older boomers past the traditional retirement age of 65.

“I thought it was going to be the 55 to 64 [age group]. But it really isn’t, Rodgers tells Fortune. He says the data, based on the Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey and the authors’ probability model of self-reported retirement status comparing demographic factors, income, and time, “paints a different picture.”

A larger share of the older women retiring during the pandemic worked in retail, trade, and leisure and hospitality—industries with highest COVID exposure, according to Rodgers. That parallels earlier studies that also found outsize job losses among women in the leisure and hospitality sector.

“These numbers start to tell you a little bit more, suggesting that you had a whole host of older women who for health reasons were getting out of high-exposure occupations—and they’re able to do that because they’re married and have resources from their spouse,” Rodgers says.

Many of these older, married women may also have left the workforce because they were asked to help take care of children, Rodgers says. “These are women who potentially left to go assist with childcare,” he notes.

When it comes to race, Black, Hispanic, and Native American workers were less likely to retire than their white peers of similar ages. But Asian employees retired at slightly higher rates than their white counterparts.

Education, unsurprisingly, also played a role. Those without a college degree were more likely to retire than those with at least some college education. That makes sense considering that many white-collar, and typically less physically demanding jobs, require a diploma or other certification.

It’s worth noting that the composition of retirees—age, gender, background—didn’t change drastically during the pandemic, according to Rodgers: “The odds of certain groups or types of people retiring haven’t changed. The composition of people [retiring] looks very similar pre- versus sort of post-pandemic.”

Rodgers and his coauthor, Lowell Ricketts, report that many of the pandemic retirements were likely driven by anxiety over the health effects of COVID, as well as historic gains in wealth. Mental health issues, such as depression and burnout, also played a role. The researchers found that retirees’ anxiety levels were significantly lower compared with rates among those still employed at similar ages.

During the pandemic, many older Americans have seen a boost to their savings. The average net worth for U.S. households run by those ages 55 to 69 jumped 12% during the pandemic, while net worth rose 14.8% for those 70 and older.

Typically retirees don’t exit the workforce completely. In many cases, they take on second careers or part-time work, which can help bolster the number of available U.S. workers. Yet that hasn’t been the case during the pandemic—the number of retirees reentering the workforce is on the decline.

For now, it’s still up for debate on whether these pandemic retirees will ever return, Rodgers says. Much of it comes down to whether people need to return to work for financial reasons, as well as ongoing issues of safety.

“The next two months will, like last winter, really set the tone for this for the spring and the rest of the year,” he notes.

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