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大学专业10大就业困难户盘点

《财富》 2013年08月27日

选择商务专业,看起来似乎是非常实际的选择,但有一项研究发现,商务专业的本科生难逃失业命运。业内调查显示,商务专业的失业几率是平均水平的8.2倍。

    我们先来做个小调查:大学里哪一个专业更有可能出现“毕业即失业”的情况,是商务还是戏剧?后者是非常明显的答案——尤其是在纽约市或洛杉矶这些地方,可能连你身边的一位普通服务员都是在四处试镜的间隙打打零工的演员。但其实更有可能面临失业的却是商务专业的毕业生。

    薪酬调研网站PayScale.com利用其数据库中的4,000万份工作档案,对10个最受欢迎的大学专业进行了分析。结果发现,在戏剧专业毕业生当中,从事的工作与自身技能无关的比例是一般工作人口的6.9倍。但商务专业的情况更加糟糕。这个专业的失业几率是平均水平的8.2倍。

    简单来说,这就是所谓的供大于求——商务专业大学毕业生人数太多,而管理岗位空缺又太少。虽然经济在稳步回升,创造了更多的工作岗位,但美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)七月份的就业报告显示,新增工作岗位大都来自零售店、餐厅和酒吧,这些地方提供的工作通常并不需要本科学历。

    当然,这并不是说学生们应该放弃商务课程。相反:PayScale表示,一般商务管理的学士学位还不够。如今,要想进入一家公司,通常需要精通一些高需求的领域,比如会计或金融,或攻读一个MBA,或者(理想状态下)两者兼具。

    得益于《犯罪现场调查》(CSI)和《海军罪案调查处》(NCIS)等电视节目的影响,刑事司法专业毕业的人数在近几年突然攀升。PayScale的报告称:“毕业生们都怀揣打击犯罪和维护世界和平的梦想。”好消息是,许多毕业生最终都找到了警察、律师助理和保安等工作。报告认为,这些工作至少与刑事司法有点联系。但报告同时也表示:“可真正的罪过是,这类工作无法收回四年本科生教育的投资。”这种现实使刑事司法专业的不完全就业率达到6.9,与戏剧专业并列第二。

    其他入选PayScale十大就业不足专业的学科及各自得分分别是:人类学(5.8),人文科学(5.6)、历史(5.5)、心理学(5)、生物学(4.9)、英语(4.6)和经济学(3.1)。PayScale称,如果对上述专业感兴趣,恐怕要多花几年时间攻读研究生课程才会有出路。

    虽然经济学3.1分的得分相对较低,但经济学专业的本科生最可能从事客户服务代表、银行柜员或零售营业员——这些岗位通常也不需要有四年大学经历。PayScale的报告称:“许多经济学专业的学生都怀有拯救世界经济的伟大梦想。所以,当他们意识到当前的经济状况可能使得他们无法实现自己的职业规划时,往往会深受打击。”

    不过,对于所学无所用的毕业生们来说,至少有一点是值得欣慰的:他们起码还有一份工作。因为在7月份,18至29岁年龄段的失业率连续两个月保持在16.1%的高位,创下70年以来该年龄段持续失业率的最高记录。(财富中文网)

    译者:刘进龙/汪皓

    Here's a quick quiz: Which college major is more likely to lead to a job waiting tables after graduation, business or drama? The latter is the obvious answer -- especially if you spend much time in New York City or Los Angeles, where your average waitperson is just killing time between auditions -- but it's business.

    According to an analysis of 10 popular college majors by PayScale.com, using the 40 million job profiles in its database, theatre grads are toiling at jobs that don't use their skills at a rate of 6.9 times the general working population. But business majors fare even worse. They are 8.2 times more likely than average to be underemployed.

    It's a simple case of supply exceeding demand -- too many candidates with undergraduate business degrees are chasing too few management-track openings. While the economy is slowly but surely creating more jobs, the Bureau of Labor Statistics' July employment report showed that most of them are in retail stores, restaurants, and bars, where bachelor's degrees are usually not required.

    That's not to say that students should shun business courses. On the contrary: A bachelor's in general business administration is no longer enough, PayScale says. Now, getting a foot in the door of the corporate world takes specialization in a high-demand area like accounting or finance, or going after an MBA, or (ideally) both.

    Thanks in part to TV shows like CSI and NCIS, the number of criminal justice majors has soared in recent years. "Graduates imagine solving crimes and keeping the world safe," the PayScale report observes. The good news is that many grads do end up with jobs as police officers, paralegals, and security guards, which the report notes are at least related to criminal justice, adding, "The real crime here is that [these jobs] can be held without paying for a four-year degree." That earns criminal justice majors an underemployment rate of 6.9 -- tied for second place with their thespian peers.

    The rest of PayScale's 10 most underemployed majors and their scores: Anthropology (5.8), liberal arts (5.6), history (5.5), psychology (5), biology (4.9), English (4.6), and economics (3.1). Getting anywhere interesting with any of these will probably require stopping off for a couple of years of grad school first, PayScale notes.

    Even a bachelor's in economics, with its relatively low score of 3.1, will most likely lead to a job as a customer service rep, bank teller, or retail sales associate -- again, positions that don't generally call for four years of college. "Many economics students have big dreams of saving the economy," says the PayScale report. "So it can come as a shock to realize the economy might keep them from realizing their career plans."

    One consolation, however slight, for grads laboring at jobs where they aren't using their education: At least they're working somewhere. In July, unemployment among 18-to-29-year-olds stood at 16.1% for the second month in a row, the highest sustained jobless rate for this age group in nearly 70 years.

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