4. 经常进行清晰的沟通。威廉姆斯建议，作为项目负责人， “你需要保证所有人了解他们正在做的工作和为什么要做，让所有人朝同一个方向努力。”这一点听起来浅显易懂，然而许多项目失败的常见原因是“出于好心的人过于专注自己那部分工作，他们所做的决定并没有首先与团队其他人沟通，结果导致整个项目受到影响。”尤其是在转变的初期，你可能更需要做一位微观管理着，避免这样的事情发生。
3. Keep the same team. If you decide to change the whole direction of the project, you might need to enlist people with different skills. But if the strategic goal is the same as before, "don't fire anyone. Just work with them," Williams suggests. He notes that this may seem counterintuitive, because management -- your boss, for one -- "often doesn't see how you can get different results with the same people. But in most cases, you need to change what the team is doing, not who's doing it."
Williams says he's seen many projects flounder because they're understaffed in critical areas, or because a project manager "overestimated what could be done all at once. The scope of your project may need to be better defined, so that you reach your goal in stages, rather than trying to run before you can crawl."
4. Communicate clearly and often. As the project leader, Williams says, "you need to make sure everyone understands what they're building and why, and get everyone moving in the same direction." That might sound obvious, but a frequent cause of failure is "well-meaning individuals who get so wrapped up in their own part of the work that they make decisions affecting the whole project, without checking with the rest of the team first." Especially in the early stages of a turnaround, you may have to be a bit more of a micromanager than you'd like, just to ensure that doesn't happen.
One further thought: Take a hard look at whatever technology you're using. Does it serve the project's goals, rather than the other way around? "For a project design to work, it has to be built around strategy, then people, then process, then technology," Williams says. "It has to be in that order. Putting the technology first will just get you into trouble a whole lot faster and more efficiently." Good luck.
Talkback: Have you ever been part of a turnaround? What helped get the project back on track -- and what didn't? Leave a comment below.