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有拖延症并不是因为人懒,有这三种方法可以缓解

有拖延症并不是因为人懒,有这三种方法可以缓解

L'OREAL THOMPSON PAYTON 2022-08-06
研究发现,20%的美国成年人是慢性拖延症患者,这意味着他们在家庭、工作、人际关系等方面有拖延现象。

人脑固有的机制是接受令我们愉悦的任务,避免带来负面感受的任务。图片来源:THE GOOD BRIGADE —— 盖蒂图片社

如果你总是等到最后一刻才去完成一项任务,你并不孤单。研究发现,20%的美国成年人是慢性拖延症患者,这意味着他们在家庭、工作、人际关系等方面有拖延现象。另外一项调查发现,88%的受访者每天会拖延至少一个小时。为什么呢?纽约伦斯勒理工学院(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)的神经科学家和高级讲师艾丽西亚·瓦尔福表示,事实证明,你在感受到压力时更有可能拖延。

她解释说:“当我们感受到压力时,我们更有可能希望避免手头的任务,以及围绕这项任务所产生的负面情绪。这是因为在基础神经科学层面,我们有对现在的偏好,我们更喜欢大脑释放多巴胺时的即时快感。”

事实上,人脑固有的机制是接受我们发现令我们愉悦的任务,避免带来负面感受的任务。

瓦尔福表示:“控制情绪的脑边缘系统会告诉你:‘让我们去做其他事情吧,避免会带来压力的任务。’而前额叶皮质就是大脑的CEO。它负责制定计划、设定目标和保证我们保持正轨。但当脑边缘系统无视前额叶皮质的信息时,就会出现脱节。”

在面对最终期限时,我们通常会能量爆发,这会在大脑中产生一条奖励路径,为拖延变成一种习惯奠定基础。

瓦尔福表示:“当你冲刺到终点并且实现目标时,你会感到非常满意;我们几乎让自己陷入了这样一种模式:‘我完成了任务,而且感觉良好。’你必须重新训练大脑。”

为此,瓦尔福推荐利用短暂休息,让自己重新专注于手头的任务。许多方法可以帮助你保持专注,例如番茄工作法,即每工作25分钟休息5分钟。在休息时融合一些正念方法,例如冥想、瑜伽和写日记等,也可以帮助减少导致拖延症的压力。

瓦尔福说道:“相对于压力、焦虑或缺乏动力等感受,确认自己感到紧张,并通过有意识地重新专注于某项任务从而最大程度减少压力,是在重新训练你应对压力的方式和行为模式。”

它还可以帮助你“解决拖延”,或者在每天早上首先完成当天最困难和最有意义的任务。

如果这些方法不奏效,尝试在完成你一直避免的任务之后提供一些小奖励,来训练你的大脑。

瓦尔福表示:“我的学生们告诉我一种小熊软糖法,即在学习时,把课本放在面前,每隔几段文字放一颗小熊糖,在读到某一段的时候就吃一颗。”

你的奖励可以是在一次非常辛苦的健身之后看自己最喜欢的节目;在提交报告后喝一杯拿铁犒劳自己;或者在当天早些时候主持完一场艰难的会议后,在午餐时开始看一本新书。

瓦尔福说:“这些小目标很有帮助,尤其是当你在努力实现更大目标的时候。你必须给自己充电,保持积极性。”(财富中文网)

译者:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

如果你总是等到最后一刻才去完成一项任务,你并不孤单。研究发现,20%的美国成年人是慢性拖延症患者,这意味着他们在家庭、工作、人际关系等方面有拖延现象。另外一项调查发现,88%的受访者每天会拖延至少一个小时。为什么呢?纽约伦斯勒理工学院(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)的神经科学家和高级讲师艾丽西亚·瓦尔福表示,事实证明,你在感受到压力时更有可能拖延。

她解释说:“当我们感受到压力时,我们更有可能希望避免手头的任务,以及围绕这项任务所产生的负面情绪。这是因为在基础神经科学层面,我们有对现在的偏好,我们更喜欢大脑释放多巴胺时的即时快感。”

事实上,人脑固有的机制是接受我们发现令我们愉悦的任务,避免带来负面感受的任务。

瓦尔福表示:“控制情绪的脑边缘系统会告诉你:‘让我们去做其他事情吧,避免会带来压力的任务。’而前额叶皮质就是大脑的CEO。它负责制定计划、设定目标和保证我们保持正轨。但当脑边缘系统无视前额叶皮质的信息时,就会出现脱节。”

在面对最终期限时,我们通常会能量爆发,这会在大脑中产生一条奖励路径,为拖延变成一种习惯奠定基础。

瓦尔福表示:“当你冲刺到终点并且实现目标时,你会感到非常满意;我们几乎让自己陷入了这样一种模式:‘我完成了任务,而且感觉良好。’你必须重新训练大脑。”

为此,瓦尔福推荐利用短暂休息,让自己重新专注于手头的任务。许多方法可以帮助你保持专注,例如番茄工作法,即每工作25分钟休息5分钟。在休息时融合一些正念方法,例如冥想、瑜伽和写日记等,也可以帮助减少导致拖延症的压力。

瓦尔福说道:“相对于压力、焦虑或缺乏动力等感受,确认自己感到紧张,并通过有意识地重新专注于某项任务从而最大程度减少压力,是在重新训练你应对压力的方式和行为模式。”

它还可以帮助你“解决拖延”,或者在每天早上首先完成当天最困难和最有意义的任务。

如果这些方法不奏效,尝试在完成你一直避免的任务之后提供一些小奖励,来训练你的大脑。

瓦尔福表示:“我的学生们告诉我一种小熊软糖法,即在学习时,把课本放在面前,每隔几段文字放一颗小熊糖,在读到某一段的时候就吃一颗。”

你的奖励可以是在一次非常辛苦的健身之后看自己最喜欢的节目;在提交报告后喝一杯拿铁犒劳自己;或者在当天早些时候主持完一场艰难的会议后,在午餐时开始看一本新书。

瓦尔福说:“这些小目标很有帮助,尤其是当你在努力实现更大目标的时候。你必须给自己充电,保持积极性。”(财富中文网)

译者:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

If you wait until the last minute to complete a task, you’re not alone. According to research, 20% of U.S. adults are chronic procrastinators, meaning they procrastinate at home, at work, in relationships, and more. Another survey found that 88% of people procrastinate at least one hour a day. But why? As it turns out, if you’re feeling stressed, you may be more likely to procrastinate, says Alicia Walf, a neuroscientist and senior lecturer at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York.

“When we are stressed, we are more likely to want to avoid not just the task at hand, but the negative emotions we feel around that task as well,” she explains. “That’s because at a basic neuroscientific level, we have a bias toward the present and prefer the immediate reward of feeling good when the brain releases the neurochemical dopamine.”

Essentially, our brains are hardwired to approach tasks we find enjoyable and avoid those that produce negative feelings.

“Our limbic brain, the emotional part of our brain, is saying, ‘Let’s do this other thing and avoid that other stressful thing,’ whereas our prefrontal cortex is the CEO of our brain,” says Walf. “It’s making a plan, setting the goals, and making sure we stay on track. But there can be a disconnect when our limbic brain overrides that prefrontal cortex message.”

Then there’s the burst of energy we often get when we’re up against a deadline, which leads to a reward pathway within our brains and sets the foundation for procrastination as a habit.

“When you sprint to the end and get to the goal, it’s so satisfying; we almost get ourselves in that pattern of ‘Well, I got it done, and it felt good,’” says Walf. “You almost have to retrain your brain.”

In an effort to do so, Walf recommends taking breaks to refocus your attention on the task at hand. Methods such as the Pomodoro Technique, wherein you work in 25-minute intervals followed by five-minute breaks, can help you stay focused. Incorporating mindfulness techniques during those breaks, such as meditation, yoga, and journaling, can also help reduce the stress that causes procrastination.

“Recognizing when you’re getting stressed and trying to minimize that by deliberately refocusing on whatever the task is, versus those feelings of stress, anxiety, or not feeling motivated, is about retraining your approach to stress and behaviors,” says Walf.

It can also help to “eat that frog,” or tackle the most difficult and most meaningful task of the day and do it first thing in the morning.

If all else fails, try tricking your brain by giving yourself a small reward for working on the task you’ve been avoiding.

“My students have told me about the gummy bear approach where when you’re studying, and you’ve got your textbook in front of you, you put a gummy bear several paragraphs in, and when you get to that paragraph, you eat the gummy bear,” says Walf.

Your reward could look like watching your favorite show after a particularly strenuous workout; treating yourself to a latte when you’ve submitted that report; or starting a new book during lunch after leading that tough meeting earlier in the day.

“Those little goals really help us, especially when we’re trying to reach a larger goal,” says Walf. “You have to recharge and keep yourself motivated.”

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