立即打开
如何在3年内花掉1000亿美元?对台积电来说不是难事

如何在3年内花掉1000亿美元?对台积电来说不是难事

巴益明(Eamon Barrett) 2021年04月03日
这家全球最大的芯片代工厂预计,未来半导体的需求依旧旺盛。

当前全世界的半导体严重缺货,导致汽车厂商和电子厂商不得不推迟发布新产品。现在并没有快速摆脱困境的有效方法。全球最大的芯片代工厂台湾积体电路制造股份公司(简称“台积电”)预计,未来半导体的需求依旧旺盛。为了满足激增的需求,台积电计划在未来三年投入高达1,000亿美元以提高产能。

台积电的一位发言人发电子邮件给《财富》杂志称,公司的投资预计“未来几年过后会出现增长”。发言人还强调,台积电的1,000亿美元投资计划并不是针对目前的芯片短缺问题。“我们一直与客户密切合作,而且我们不会为了投机扩大产能。”

台积电在今年1月的投资者会议上宣布,其1,000亿美元投资将用于“增加产能,以支持生产和先进半导体技术的研发”,但国际媒体最近才获悉这一消息,并且依旧对这个庞大的数字感到震惊。

贝恩公司(Bain & Co.)的合伙人拉维·韦贾伊拉贡卡文说:“在芯片行业投资1,000亿美元或许不像其他行业那样令人瞠目结舌。”

事实上,芯片开发成本高昂,要花光1,000亿美元并不难。

台积电计划在菲尼克斯新建的半导体工厂预算为120亿美元,定于明年开始施工。上周,竞争对手英特尔也宣布投资200亿美元,同样在亚利桑那州新建两家芯片工厂。

韦贾伊拉贡卡文称:“很大一部分成本来自生产设备,每新发明一代芯片,其生产设备的成本就越高。”半导体通常按照芯片上每一个晶体管之间间隔的纳米(nm)距离进行分类。间隙越窄,芯片的功能越强大,生产难度自然越大。

今年1月,台积电的首席财务官黄仁昭(Wendell Huang)表示,公司仅今年就计划投入280亿美元,比2020年的资本支出增加了近100亿美元。黄仁昭称,今年约80%的资本支出将用于公司三款最先进的芯片制程,分别是7纳米、5纳米和3纳米芯片。

目前只有台积电和三星在生产5纳米芯片,预计英特尔在2022年可以生产复杂程度相对较低的7纳米芯片。由于业内有能力生产高端芯片的厂商少之又少,因此台积电需要满足对高端芯片的绝大部分需求,所以其他厂商可能不会效仿台积电投资1,000亿美元。

市场研究机构Counterpoint Research的分析师布拉迪·王说:“低端芯片制造商发现需求激增,是因为客户在新冠疫情期间纷纷囤货,增加了订单。”他认为,疫情结束之后,芯片需求会恢复到正常水平。但高端芯片的需求飙升却是得益于技术进步的长期趋势。

布拉迪·王表示,电动汽车和自动驾驶汽车、云计算数据中心、5G手机等都增加了对更尖端的计算能力的需求。有媒体爆料,台积电已经获得了苹果和英特尔的大宗订单,这些订单导致台积电目前的先进制程产能不足,因此必须扩大产能。

目前尚无法确定台积电未来三年的1,000亿美元预算是否会成为未来投资的新基准。韦贾伊拉贡卡文认为,台积电未来的投入可能取决于三星、英特尔、联华电子和格芯(GlobalFoundries)等主要竞争对手的投入力度。但如果竞争对手增加了全球产能,台积电也不需要承担起如此大的供应量。

韦贾伊拉贡卡文说:“有竞争是好事。你会希望保持领先优势。”(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

当前全世界的半导体严重缺货,导致汽车厂商和电子厂商不得不推迟发布新产品。现在并没有快速摆脱困境的有效方法。全球最大的芯片代工厂台湾积体电路制造股份公司(简称“台积电”)预计,未来半导体的需求依旧旺盛。为了满足激增的需求,台积电计划在未来三年投入高达1,000亿美元以提高产能。

台积电的一位发言人发电子邮件给《财富》杂志称,公司的投资预计“未来几年过后会出现增长”。发言人还强调,台积电的1,000亿美元投资计划并不是针对目前的芯片短缺问题。“我们一直与客户密切合作,而且我们不会为了投机扩大产能。”

台积电在今年1月的投资者会议上宣布,其1,000亿美元投资将用于“增加产能,以支持生产和先进半导体技术的研发”,但国际媒体最近才获悉这一消息,并且依旧对这个庞大的数字感到震惊。

贝恩公司(Bain & Co.)的合伙人拉维·韦贾伊拉贡卡文说:“在芯片行业投资1,000亿美元或许不像其他行业那样令人瞠目结舌。”

事实上,芯片开发成本高昂,要花光1,000亿美元并不难。

台积电计划在菲尼克斯新建的半导体工厂预算为120亿美元,定于明年开始施工。上周,竞争对手英特尔也宣布投资200亿美元,同样在亚利桑那州新建两家芯片工厂。

韦贾伊拉贡卡文称:“很大一部分成本来自生产设备,每新发明一代芯片,其生产设备的成本就越高。”半导体通常按照芯片上每一个晶体管之间间隔的纳米(nm)距离进行分类。间隙越窄,芯片的功能越强大,生产难度自然越大。

今年1月,台积电的首席财务官黄仁昭(Wendell Huang)表示,公司仅今年就计划投入280亿美元,比2020年的资本支出增加了近100亿美元。黄仁昭称,今年约80%的资本支出将用于公司三款最先进的芯片制程,分别是7纳米、5纳米和3纳米芯片。

目前只有台积电和三星在生产5纳米芯片,预计英特尔在2022年可以生产复杂程度相对较低的7纳米芯片。由于业内有能力生产高端芯片的厂商少之又少,因此台积电需要满足对高端芯片的绝大部分需求,所以其他厂商可能不会效仿台积电投资1,000亿美元。

市场研究机构Counterpoint Research的分析师布拉迪·王说:“低端芯片制造商发现需求激增,是因为客户在新冠疫情期间纷纷囤货,增加了订单。”他认为,疫情结束之后,芯片需求会恢复到正常水平。但高端芯片的需求飙升却是得益于技术进步的长期趋势。

布拉迪·王表示,电动汽车和自动驾驶汽车、云计算数据中心、5G手机等都增加了对更尖端的计算能力的需求。有媒体爆料,台积电已经获得了苹果和英特尔的大宗订单,这些订单导致台积电目前的先进制程产能不足,因此必须扩大产能。

目前尚无法确定台积电未来三年的1,000亿美元预算是否会成为未来投资的新基准。韦贾伊拉贡卡文认为,台积电未来的投入可能取决于三星、英特尔、联华电子和格芯(GlobalFoundries)等主要竞争对手的投入力度。但如果竞争对手增加了全球产能,台积电也不需要承担起如此大的供应量。

韦贾伊拉贡卡文说:“有竞争是好事。你会希望保持领先优势。”(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

The world is currently facing a severe semiconductor shortage that has forced automakers and electronics manufacturers to delay the launch of new product lines. There’s no quick way out of the crunch. The world’s largest contract chip manufacturer, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. (TSMC), is expecting demand to remain high—so high, in fact, that it’s planning to invest a staggering $100 billion over the next three years to supply it.

The investment anticipates “growth that will follow in the next few years,” a TSMC spokesperson said in an email to Fortune, adding that the proposed $100 billion is not a response to the current chip shortage. “We always work closely with our customers, and we do not build speculative capacity.”

TSMC announced its $100 billion investment to “increase capacity to support the manufacturing and R&D of advanced semiconductor technologies” during an investors conference in January, but international media only recently became aware of the news and is still wrapping its head around the enormous sum.

“In the chip business maybe $100 billion is a little less eye-popping than in other industries, but it’s still a big number,” says Ravi Vijayaraghavan, a partner at consultancy Bain & Co.

Truth is, semiconductor development is an expensive business, and $100 billion won’t be at all hard to spend.

TSMC has budgeted $12 billion for the development of a new semiconductor factory in Phoenix, with construction due to start next year. Last week, competitor Intel likewise committed $20 billion to building two new plants, also in Arizona.

“A big chunk of the cost is in the manufacturing equipment, which gets more expensive with every new generation of chip,” Vijayaraghavan says. Semiconductors are typically categorized by the distance between each transistor on the chip, measured in nanometers (nm). The tighter the gap, the more powerful the chip, and the trickier it is to make.

In January, TSMC CFO Wendell Huang said that the chipmaker is committed to spending up to $28 billion this year alone—a roughly $10 billion increase over the group’s 2020 capital expenditure. Roughly 80% of this year’s capex, Huang said, will be spent on the company’s three most advanced chipmaking processes—namely 7nm, 5nm, and 3nm chipsets.

TSMC and Samsung are the only chip manufacturers currently producing 5nm chips, with Intel expecting to manufacture less-sophisticated 7nm chips in 2022. With so few players on the cutting edge of the industry, TSMC has been left to satisfy a significant proportion of advanced demand, which is why its $100 billion investment might not be replicated by other players.

“Manufacturers of less-sophisticated chips are seeing a surge in demand because customers were stockpiling during the pandemic, increasing orders,” says Brady Wang, an analyst at Counterpoint Research, suggesting demand volumes will return to normal post-pandemic. But the surging demand for cutting-edge chips is buoyed by a long-term trend of advancing tech.

Electric and autonomous vehicles, cloud computing data centers, and 5G phones are all driving up the need for more sophisticated computing power, Wang says. TSMC, specifically, has reportedly scored major contracts from Apple and Intel, too—essentially maxing out the chipmaker’s current advanced capacity and necessitating the need to add more.

Whether TSMC’s budget of $100 billion over three years will become a new baseline for the company’s future investment is unclear. According to Vijayaraghavan, TSMC’s future spending might depend upon how much its closest competitors—Samsung, Intel, UMC, and GlobalFoundries—spend next. Because if competitors improve global capacity, TSMC won’t be on the hook to provide so much supply.

“It’s good to have competition,” Vijayaraghavan says. “You just want to keep an edge.”

最新:
  • 热读文章
  • 热门视频
活动
扫码打开财富Plus App