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要打消乘客的“恐飞症”,机舱内的空气循环系统很关键

要打消乘客的“恐飞症”,机舱内的空气循环系统很关键

David Ziegler 2020年06月29日
让乘客相信乘坐飞机是安全的,这是航空业所有企业所共同面临的挑战。

2020年6月15日,英国某机场,乘客登上易捷航空(EasyJet)班机。图片来源: AFP via Getty Images

今年年初,商业航空还是一片繁荣景象,然而受新冠疫情影响,其业绩一落千丈,下滑速度之快令人瞠目,全球大多航空公司和无数设备制造商也因此陷入了严重的财务困境之中。

最近在接受美国全国广播公司(NBC)采访时,波音首席执行官大卫•卡尔霍恩表示,短期内,“航空业将受到严重威胁”。根据卡尔霍恩的说法,未来2到3年,航空业的客运量都无法恢复到2019年的最高水平,有些航空公司高管甚至做出了更为悲观的预测,认为航空业可能需要3到5年的时间才能得以恢复。相比之下,美国交通数据局的数据显示,“9•11”恐怖袭击后,美国航空业花了整整三年的时间才恢复元气。

当前,新冠疫情仍在全球许多地方肆虐,各大工业国也在努力遏制新冠疫情的传播,尽管如此,航空公司和设备与服务供应商仍在探索如何从根本上重塑航空业,以便乘客能放心地选择乘坐飞机出行。归根结底,要重振商业航空,还是要从恢复公众对航空业保障出行安全能力的信心入手。

航空业采取措施的有效性,取决于潜在航空乘客对其措施的了解与认可程度。由于乘客信心是航空业复苏的关键所在,航空公司哪怕有任何一点闪失都将拖累整个行业的恢复速度。这就意味着,对航空业工作的细微修正也将被赋予极为重要的意义;审视行业内任何工作都应从乘客福祉出发,而非着眼于航空公司利益。

随着相关政策逐渐成型,再次乘坐飞机的乘客将体验到多重安全保障,比如机上乘客会被强制要求遮蔽口鼻并遵循社交疏离政策,越来越多的机场也会对乘客进行健康检查,甚至机舱布局也很可能会出现调整。疫情期间,如何让乘客相信乘坐飞机是安全的,这是航空业所有企业所共同面临的挑战。

为此,航空业的各大供应商都在迅速采取行动,通过对机舱与机场航站楼中的“污染物扩散”进行模拟和建模,他们拿出了切实可行的解决方案。借助这些工具,航空公司将能够找到最大程度减少传播的方法,并向乘客证明他们的安全保障能力。

好消息是,现在所有的现代化客机都配备了非常先进的机舱空气循环系统,并配备了医用标准的高效微粒空气过滤(HEPA)设备,能够净化空气并保持空气在机舱中的持续流动。但要让乘客更有安全感,还得采取更多的安全措施。通过让无形的空气流动可视化不但能够创造安全感,还能为其安全性提供证明。

在抗击疫情的过程中,有很多工具的功效和价值已得到了充分体现。今年早些时候,为了应对新冠疫情,中国需要建立一些医疗设施,中国中南建筑设计院承担了在短时间内建立多家临时医院的任务。除后勤事宜外,他们还面临着搭建供暖、通风、空调(HVAC)系统的挑战,这种系统能将医务人员和其他患者暴露于新冠病毒前的风险降至最低。

通过对空气循环模式的实地模拟,可以帮助设计人员找出最为有效的通风布局。

采用相同的模拟技术,航空公司和机场也可以帮助其自身和原始设备制造商(OEM)根据机场客流和机舱布局,来确定如何最大限度地减少污染物扩散。航空公司可以对机舱中的气流和病毒扩散模式进行有效模拟,并使用虚拟模型来重新设计和测试安全流程。通过制作高清视频,展示其流程的工作方式,航空公司还可以实现与各利益相关方的有效沟通,并提升乘客的信心。(我所在的公司——达索系统所提供的持续运营解决方案和乘客体验解决方案便可解决其中一些问题。)

长远来看,为强化安全性,航空业的原始设备制造商可能也会选择对机舱本身的结构进行改造。但由于这种改造需要先获得美国联邦航空管理局的认证,所以需要更长时间才能付诸实践。“9•11”事件后,原始设备制造商就对飞机驾驶舱进行了改造,以为防止外人进入。

机场社交疏离政策的执行方面也有很大的不确定性,包括在安检排队时,需要进行哪些测试,相关测试如何管理都是问题。机场运营商协会首席执行官卡伦•迪表示,机场零售商店为机场运营商贡献了很大一块收入,这有助于运营商减少向航空公司收取的费用,所以这是一个机场和航空公司所共同面临的商业问题。

机场也可以使用相同的技术来构建模型、进行模拟,从而优化机场内的客流、测试其安全措施和流程的有效性。先通过“模拟机场”对计划进行试验,能够优化运营商的资源,并最大程度地减少实施这些计划给机场正常运营带来的干扰。更关键的是,他们可以制作视频,向员工及乘客证明机场环境是安全的。

疫情后的“新常态”中,我们需要从设计、起飞到飞行的各个环节为乘客全面打造安全的飞行体验。航空公司必须明确阐明为确保乘客安全都采取了哪些措施,从而使人们确信自己乘坐飞机是安全的。在整个航空领域各家公司的共同努力下,这种从起飞到降落的全程安全防控措施已经准备就绪。是时候采取行动了。(财富中文网)

大卫•齐格勒是达索系统负责航空与防卫业务的副总裁。

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

今年年初,商业航空还是一片繁荣景象,然而受新冠疫情影响,其业绩一落千丈,下滑速度之快令人瞠目,全球大多航空公司和无数设备制造商也因此陷入了严重的财务困境之中。

最近在接受美国全国广播公司(NBC)采访时,波音首席执行官戴维•卡尔霍恩表示,短期内,“航空业将受到严重威胁”。根据卡尔霍恩的说法,未来2到3年,航空业的客运量都无法恢复到2019年的最高水平,有些航空公司高管甚至做出了更为悲观的预测,认为航空业可能需要3到5年的时间才能得以恢复。相比之下,美国交通数据局的数据显示,“9•11”恐怖袭击后,美国航空业花了整整三年的时间才恢复元气。

当前,新冠疫情仍在全球许多地方肆虐,各大工业国也在努力遏制新冠疫情的传播,尽管如此,航空公司和设备与服务供应商仍在探索如何从根本上重塑航空业,以便乘客能放心地选择乘坐飞机出行。归根结底,要重振商业航空,还是要从恢复公众对航空业保障出行安全能力的信心入手。

航空业采取措施的有效性,取决于潜在航空乘客对其措施的了解与认可程度。由于乘客信心是航空业复苏的关键所在,航空公司哪怕有任何一点闪失都将拖累整个行业的恢复速度。这就意味着,对航空业工作的细微修正也将被赋予极为重要的意义;审视行业内任何工作都应从乘客福祉出发,而非着眼于航空公司利益。

随着相关政策逐渐成型,再次乘坐飞机的乘客将体验到多重安全保障,比如机上乘客会被强制要求遮蔽口鼻并遵循社交疏离政策,越来越多的机场也会对乘客进行健康检查,甚至机舱布局也很可能会出现调整。疫情期间,如何让乘客相信乘坐飞机是安全的,这是航空业所有企业所共同面临的挑战。

为此,航空业的各大供应商都在迅速采取行动,通过对机舱与机场航站楼中的“污染物扩散”进行模拟和建模,他们拿出了切实可行的解决方案。借助这些工具,航空公司将能够找到最大程度减少传播的方法,并向乘客证明他们的安全保障能力。

好消息是,现在所有的现代化客机都配备了非常先进的机舱空气循环系统,并配备了医用标准的高效微粒空气过滤(HEPA)设备,能够净化空气并保持空气在机舱中的持续流动。但要让乘客更有安全感,还得采取更多的安全措施。通过让无形的空气流动可视化不但能够创造安全感,还能为其安全性提供证明。

在抗击疫情的过程中,有很多工具的功效和价值已得到了充分体现。今年早些时候,为了应对新冠疫情,中国需要建立一些医疗设施,中国中南建筑设计院承担了在短时间内建立多家临时医院的任务。除后勤事宜外,他们还面临着搭建供暖、通风、空调(HVAC)系统的挑战,这种系统能将医务人员和其他患者暴露于新冠病毒前的风险降至最低。

通过对空气循环模式的实地模拟,可以帮助设计人员找出最为有效的通风布局。

采用相同的模拟技术,航空公司和机场也可以帮助其自身和原始设备制造商(OEM)根据机场客流和机舱布局,来确定如何最大限度地减少污染物扩散。航空公司可以对机舱中的气流和病毒扩散模式进行有效模拟,并使用虚拟模型来重新设计和测试安全流程。通过制作高清视频,展示其流程的工作方式,航空公司还可以实现与各利益相关方的有效沟通,并提升乘客的信心。(我所在的公司——达索系统所提供的持续运营解决方案和乘客体验解决方案便可解决其中一些问题。)

长远来看,为强化安全性,航空业的原始设备制造商可能也会选择对机舱本身的结构进行改造。但由于这种改造需要先获得美国联邦航空管理局的认证,所以需要更长时间才能付诸实践。“9•11”事件后,原始设备制造商就对飞机驾驶舱进行了改造,以为防止外人进入。

机场社交疏离政策的执行方面也有很大的不确定性,包括在安检排队时,需要进行哪些测试,相关测试如何管理都是问题。机场运营商协会首席执行官卡伦•迪表示,机场零售商店为机场运营商贡献了很大一块收入,这有助于运营商减少向航空公司收取的费用,所以这是一个机场和航空公司所共同面临的商业问题。

机场也可以使用相同的技术来构建模型、进行模拟,从而优化机场内的客流、测试其安全措施和流程的有效性。先通过“模拟机场”对计划进行试验,能够优化运营商的资源,并最大程度地减少实施这些计划给机场正常运营带来的干扰。更关键的是,他们可以制作视频,向员工及乘客证明机场环境是安全的。

疫情后的“新常态”中,我们需要从设计、起飞到飞行的各个环节为乘客全面打造安全的飞行体验。航空公司必须明确阐明为确保乘客安全都采取了哪些措施,从而使人们确信自己乘坐飞机是安全的。在整个航空领域各家公司的共同努力下,这种从起飞到降落的全程安全防控措施已经准备就绪。是时候采取行动了。(财富中文网)

大卫•齐格勒是达索系统负责航空与防卫业务的副总裁。

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

For an industry flush with success at the start of 2020, it’s remarkable how quickly commercial aviation went into a nose dive because of the COVID-19 health crisis, which has left most of the world’s airlines and countless equipment manufacturers in severe financial distress.

In the short term, “the threat to the airline industry is grave,” Boeing CEO David Calhoun recently told NBC News. According to Calhoun, passenger traffic isn’t expected to rebound to its record 2019 levels for two to three years, with some airline executives anticipating a more pessimistic three-to-five-year recovery. For comparison, it took nearly three full years following the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, for the airline industry to rebound, according to the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

Carriers and their equipment and services suppliers are exploring how to fundamentally rethink their industry to make travelers feel safe again, even as industrialized countries are still trying to wrest control of the pandemic that continues to ravage other parts of the world. Ultimately, resuscitating commercial aviation must start by restoring public confidence in the industry’s ability to make the end-to-end travel experience as safe as possible.

Whatever combination of steps the aviation industry takes will be only as effective as its effort to inform would-be air travelers of those actions and how they’re perceived in aggregate. Even small missteps by carriers could slow the recovery, with passenger confidence the linchpin to success. This means that the stewardship of aviation’s delicate course correction will be extremely important; everything the industry does will need to be seen through the lens of passengers’ well-being, not the airlines’.

As it is shaping up, layers of safety are what the flying public can expect to experience as they resume air travel. This includes mandatory face coverings, social distancing, passenger health checks in a growing number of airports, and in all probability the reconfiguration of aircraft cabin interiors. Moreover, how to convince air travelers that flying commercially is safe amid the virus’s spread is a challenge shared among all industry players.

On this last point, key vendors to the airline industry are quickly stepping up by offering ready-to-go solutions to leverage simulation and modeling of “contamination dispersal” in aircraft cabins and airport terminals. These tools should help airlines figure out and demonstrate to passengers how they are minimizing community spread.

The good news is that today, all modern passenger jets already have very sophisticated cabin air systems with hospital-standard high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, so air is cleaned and kept moving on a continuing basis. A greater sense of security, however, requires taking an additional step. Today, seeing the unseen—how air flows—can create more than a sense of safety but visible proof of safety.

Tools that can do this have already proven their abilities in the ground fight against COVID-19. When China needed to erect several medical facilities earlier this year in response to the coronavirus outbreak, the Central South Architectural Design Institute Company of China undertook the task of erecting multiple makeshift hospitals on an accelerated timeline. In addition to the logistical challenge, an HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system that minimized the risk of exposing hospital staff and noninfected patients to COVID-19 was imperative.

By using real-world simulation of air circulation patterns, designers were able to determine which of their proposed ventilation layouts would be the most effective.

Airlines and airports can employ the same simulation technology to help airlines and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) establish how to minimize the dispersal of contaminants, based on different cabin passenger layouts and traffic patterns in airports. (For an example, see this video.) Airlines can efficiently simulate airflow and virus diffusion patterns in an aircraft cabin and work with a virtual model to redesign and test safety procedures. By creating high-rendering videos to show how their procedures work, they can communicate effectively with all stakeholders and increase passenger confidence. (My company, Dassault Systèmes, offers solutions that address several of these issues, including our Keep Them Operating and Passenger Experience solutions.)

Longer term, aviation’s OEMs may also choose to structurally modify the cabin itself to enhance onboard safety. But this action would take longer to implement, since the Federal Aviation Administration would have to certify any such changes, as was the case following 9/11, when OEMs upgraded cockpit doors to make them virtually impenetrable.

Another area of great uncertainty is the extent to which social distancing will be required in airports, including security queues—what tests will be required, and how will they be administered. This is a commercial issue for both airports and airlines, since retail outlets provide a lucrative source of revenue for airport operators, which helps reduce the charges made to airlines, according to Karen Dee, CEO of the Airport Operators Association.

Airports can use the same technology to create simulated models that help them optimize passenger flow and test the effectiveness of safety measures and procedures. By trying out their plans in a “virtual twin” of the airport first, they can optimize resources and minimize disruption when implementing those plans. Crucially, they can also create videos to demonstrate to w

orkers and passengers that the environment is safe. (For an example of such a simulation, see this video.)

In the “new normal” that follows the pandemic, passenger safety needs to be built in at every stage, from design to departure and flight. And the steps that are taken to ensure passenger safety must be clearly articulated to give people assurances that they will be safe when they fly. Thanks to the combined efforts of companies across the aerospace ecosystem, that end-to-end approach is already in place. Now it’s time to act.

David Ziegler is the vice president of aerospace and defense at Dassault Systèmes.

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