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症状相似:如何区分流感与新冠肺炎?

症状相似:如何区分流感与新冠肺炎?

美联社 2020年03月12日
流感和新冠病毒还有一个很大的区别——流感是有疫苗的,现在去接种还不晚。

非常时期,是不是家人咳嗽一声,都会让你高度紧张?当出现症状时,我们怎么才能分辨是感冒、流感还是新冠肺炎?什么情况才应该去做核酸检测或者去治疗呢?这些都是医生和病人当前最关心的问题。

美国家庭医生学会会长加里·勒罗伊指出:“目前有三种主要病毒在共同流行。”它们的症状是相似的,但它们的严重程度有高有低。

那么最危险的是谁?我们的应对方法为什么要有这么大的区别?

熟悉的敌人

由新型冠状病毒引起的COVID-19型肺炎是一种症状类似流感的疾病,死于新冠肺炎的人数,其实远远比不上每年死于流感的人数。在新冠肺炎疫情爆发的前四个月里,新冠病毒大约导致了4300人死亡。而根据世界卫生组织的数据,全球死于流感的人数每年都在29万人到65万人之间。

这种对比似乎会让一部分人感到宽慰,毕竟流感是一个“熟悉的敌人”。特朗普也经常拿这个问题说事,他在一条推特里指出很多美国人死于流感,并表示:“什么也没有关闭,生活和经济都在继续……想一想吧!”

不过在公共卫生专家看来,流感带来的大量死亡人数,恰恰说明了有必要对新冠肺炎采取超常的措施,以避免这种病毒广泛传播。

一年一度的流感爆发是无法阻止的,因为它已经根深蒂固地存在人类社会中。然而在研究新冠肺炎治疗方法的同时,我们还是有机会限制或减缓新冠肺炎的传播的。

新冠肺炎和流感的致命性有多高?

流感的致死率大约在千分之一左右,但每年仍有数十万人死于流感,因为流感的感染人群往往以数千万计。

目前,科研人员仍在试图了解新冠肺炎的致命程度。新冠肺炎的准确致死率尚不明确,因为疫情爆发早期的病例往往是最严重的,此外,很多轻症或无症状患者并未得到检测。个别情况下,由于医院人满为患,一些危重症患者也没有得到足够的医疗资源。目前,从已确诊病例看,各地报告的致死率从不足1%到4%左右不等,不同地区间存在差异。

大多数新冠肺炎感染者会出现轻度或中度症状,然后在大约两周后康复。

我得的是新冠还是流感?

普通感冒、流感和新冠肺炎有一些相似症状,不过症状的强度以及发病的方式却可以提供一些区分的线索。医生在一天之内就可以检测出流感,但目前在美国要想做新冠肺炎检测,却是一件很不容易的事。

美国家庭医生学会会长加里·勒罗伊是俄亥俄州代顿市的莱特州立大学的一名副院长,也是一名家庭医学博士。他表示,人们经常会怀疑自己得了感冒,因为成年人平均每年会得两次感冒。

他表示:“普通感冒发病时通常伴有喉咙肿痛、咳嗽、流鼻涕和鼻塞等症状。”而即便有发烧症状,通常也不会太严重。

而耶鲁纽黑文卫生系统指出,流感的症状一般更加强烈,而且通常是突然出现的,症状包括高烧(38度以上)、极度疲倦、肌肉或身体疼痛、干咳、发冷等。

勒罗伊表示:“得流感的感觉就像被一辆巴士撞上了一样。”你早上起床感觉还好,但到了下午就难受得不行。

据美国疾控中心介绍,流感的症状包括流鼻涕、鼻塞、头痛,有可能伴有呕吐或腹泻,不过后两种症状在儿童中更加常见。

据世卫组织介绍,新冠肺炎的症状可能出现得更慢一些。其症状有发烧、干咳以及明显的呼吸困难等,少部分病例会发展成肺炎。另外,老年人或患有高血压、肥胖、糖尿病、心脏病等慢性病的人更容易发展成重症。

一项针对中国住院患者的研究显示,大约半数的患者在收治入院时并未发烧,但几乎所有患者后来都出现了发烧症状。

人在美国,中招了怎么办?

美国的官方建议是,不要直接去医院看医生,那样只会让更多的人感染。应该提前打电话,询问是否你是否应该就诊,以及应该去哪就诊。

勒罗伊表示,“如果你出现了发烧、咳嗽和明显的呼吸困难,特别是如果你最近曾经出门旅行过,或是接触过有新冠肺炎感染风险的人,就应该及时就医。”

上周,美国疾控中心的苏伊·格伯医生曾在一次电话会议上对医生们指出:“应该鼓励轻症病人待在家里。出现呼吸困难的患者应该寻求治疗,老人或有其他疾病的患者在病程早期就应该联系他们的医生。”

如何避免中招?

要想保护自己,首先要勤洗手、仔细洗手,不要用手摸你的脸,远离人群密集场所,不要与别人站得太近。

流感和新冠病毒还有一个很大的区别——流感是有疫苗的,现在去接种还不晚。它无法预防新冠病毒,但一个健康的身体对于你预防新冠肺炎也是有帮助的。

勒罗伊表示:“就算你可能要感染新冠病毒,你也不想在免疫力低下的时候对抗它。”(财富中文网)

译者:隋远洙

非常时期,是不是家人咳嗽一声,都会让你高度紧张?当出现症状时,我们怎么才能分辨是感冒、流感还是新冠肺炎?什么情况才应该去做核酸检测或者去治疗呢?这些都是医生和病人当前最关心的问题。

美国家庭医生学会会长加里·勒罗伊指出:“目前有三种主要病毒在共同流行。”它们的症状是相似的,但它们的严重程度有高有低。

那么最危险的是谁?我们的应对方法为什么要有这么大的区别?

熟悉的敌人

由新型冠状病毒引起的COVID-19型肺炎是一种症状类似流感的疾病,死于新冠肺炎的人数,其实远远比不上每年死于流感的人数。在新冠肺炎疫情爆发的前四个月里,新冠病毒大约导致了4300人死亡。而根据世界卫生组织的数据,全球死于流感的人数每年都在29万人到65万人之间。

这种对比似乎会让一部分人感到宽慰,毕竟流感是一个“熟悉的敌人”。特朗普也经常拿这个问题说事,他在一条推特里指出很多美国人死于流感,并表示:“什么也没有关闭,生活和经济都在继续……想一想吧!”

不过在公共卫生专家看来,流感带来的大量死亡人数,恰恰说明了有必要对新冠肺炎采取超常的措施,以避免这种病毒广泛传播。

一年一度的流感爆发是无法阻止的,因为它已经根深蒂固地存在人类社会中。然而在研究新冠肺炎治疗方法的同时,我们还是有机会限制或减缓新冠肺炎的传播的。

新冠肺炎和流感的致命性有多高?

流感的致死率大约在千分之一左右,但每年仍有数十万人死于流感,因为流感的感染人群往往以数千万计。

目前,科研人员仍在试图了解新冠肺炎的致命程度。新冠肺炎的准确致死率尚不明确,因为疫情爆发早期的病例往往是最严重的,此外,很多轻症或无症状患者并未得到检测。个别情况下,由于医院人满为患,一些危重症患者也没有得到足够的医疗资源。目前,从已确诊病例看,各地报告的致死率从不足1%到4%左右不等,不同地区间存在差异。

大多数新冠肺炎感染者会出现轻度或中度症状,然后在大约两周后康复。

我得的是新冠还是流感?

普通感冒、流感和新冠肺炎有一些相似症状,不过症状的强度以及发病的方式却可以提供一些区分的线索。医生在一天之内就可以检测出流感,但目前在美国要想做新冠肺炎检测,却是一件很不容易的事。

美国家庭医生学会会长加里·勒罗伊是俄亥俄州代顿市的莱特州立大学的一名副院长,也是一名家庭医学博士。他表示,人们经常会怀疑自己得了感冒,因为成年人平均每年会得两次感冒。

他表示:“普通感冒发病时通常伴有喉咙肿痛、咳嗽、流鼻涕和鼻塞等症状。”而即便有发烧症状,通常也不会太严重。

而耶鲁纽黑文卫生系统指出,流感的症状一般更加强烈,而且通常是突然出现的,症状包括高烧(38度以上)、极度疲倦、肌肉或身体疼痛、干咳、发冷等。

勒罗伊表示:“得流感的感觉就像被一辆巴士撞上了一样。”你早上起床感觉还好,但到了下午就难受得不行。

据美国疾控中心介绍,流感的症状包括流鼻涕、鼻塞、头痛,有可能伴有呕吐或腹泻,不过后两种症状在儿童中更加常见。

据世卫组织介绍,新冠肺炎的症状可能出现得更慢一些。其症状有发烧、干咳以及明显的呼吸困难等,少部分病例会发展成肺炎。另外,老年人或患有高血压、肥胖、糖尿病、心脏病等慢性病的人更容易发展成重症。

一项针对中国住院患者的研究显示,大约半数的患者在收治入院时并未发烧,但几乎所有患者后来都出现了发烧症状。

人在美国,中招了怎么办?

美国的官方建议是,不要直接去医院看医生,那样只会让更多的人感染。应该提前打电话,询问是否你是否应该就诊,以及应该去哪就诊。

勒罗伊表示,“如果你出现了发烧、咳嗽和明显的呼吸困难,特别是如果你最近曾经出门旅行过,或是接触过有新冠肺炎感染风险的人,就应该及时就医。”

上周,美国疾控中心的苏伊·格伯医生曾在一次电话会议上对医生们指出:“应该鼓励轻症病人待在家里。出现呼吸困难的患者应该寻求治疗,老人或有其他疾病的患者在病程早期就应该联系他们的医生。”

如何避免中招?

要想保护自己,首先要勤洗手、仔细洗手,不要用手摸你的脸,远离人群密集场所,不要与别人站得太近。

流感和新冠病毒还有一个很大的区别——流感是有疫苗的,现在去接种还不晚。它无法预防新冠病毒,但一个健康的身体对于你预防新冠肺炎也是有帮助的。

勒罗伊表示:“就算你可能要感染新冠病毒,你也不想在免疫力低下的时候对抗它。”(财富中文网)

译者:隋远洙

Is it the flu, a cold or the new coronavirus? Patients and doctors alike are parsing signs of illness to figure out who needs what tests or care and how worried they should be.

"You have three different major viruses floating around at the same time," causing somewhat similar symptoms—but different levels of concern, said Dr. Gary LeRoy, president of the American Academy of Family Physicians.

So what's the biggest danger? And why are we responding to them so differently?

Familiar foe

COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, is a flu-like illness that has killed a small fraction of the number of people that the flu kills every year. Through the first four months of the outbreak, coronavirus has killed about 4,300 people. Flu kills 290,000 to 650,000 every year around the world, according to the World Health Organization.

To some, that comparison seems comforting because flu is such a familiar foe. President Donald Trump regularly brings it up, noting in a tweet how many more Americans die from flu and adding, “Nothing is shut down, life & the economy go on ... Think about that!"

But to public health experts, the huge number of flu deaths is exactly why extraordinary steps should be taken to try to prevent the new coronavirus from spreading widely.

The flu's annual return can't be stopped because it's already so embedded in the population. There is still a chance COVID-19 cases can be limited or spread slowed while treatments are developed.

How deadly are coronavirus and the flu?

Flu kills about 0.1% of those it infects, but that's still hundreds of thousands of people each year because it infects millions.

Researchers are still trying to understand just how deadly the new coronavirus is. The mortality rate from infection with the virus isn't known yet because the cases caught in an early part of an outbreak are often the most severe, people with mild or no symptoms aren't being tested, and sometimes overwhelmed hospitals struggle to care for the sickest patients. Various reports have estimated the fatality rate from less than 1% to as high as 4% among cases diagnosed so far, depending on location.

Most people infected by the new coronavirus develop mild or moderate symptoms and recover after about two weeks.

So what do I have: Coronavirus or the flu?

Flu, cold and coronavirus often share certain symptoms, but differences in intensity and how they appear can offer clues to which one is causing the misery. Doctors can test for the flu and get results within a day, but coronavirus testing is still limited by availability in the United States.

Colds are often suspected because adults get about two on average each year, said LeRoy, a family medicine doctor and associate dean at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio.

"The common cold just starts out with a sore or scratchy throat, cough, runny nose, stuffy nose" and any fever is usually mild, he said.

Flu symptoms are more intense and usually come on suddenly, the Yale New Haven Health System advises. They can include a high fever (over 100.5 degrees), extreme exhaustion, muscle or body aches, a dry cough and chills.

"It really hits you like a bus," and people may start a day well but feel terrible by afternoon, LeRoy said.

Flu symptoms can include a runny or stuffy nose, headaches and possibly vomiting or diarrhea, though the latter two are more common in children than adults, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.

Symptoms of COVID-19 may appear more slowly. They usually include fever, a dry cough and noticeable shortness of breath, according to the World Health Organization. A minority of cases develop pneumonia, and the disease is especially worrisome for the elderly and those with other medical problems such as high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes or heart conditions.

One study of hospitalized patients in China found that about half did not have a fever when they were admitted but nearly all developed one.

What to do if you're sick

Don't go straight to your doctor's office—that just risks making more people sick, officials urge. Call ahead, and ask if you need to be seen and where.

Fever, cough and noticeable shortness of breath—"if you have those three components, especially if it's associated with some recent travel or someone you know who's been exposed to COVID-19, those things should prompt you to call for medical attention," LeRoy said.

“Mildly ill patients should be encouraged to stay home,” the CDC's Dr. Sue Gerber told doctors on a conference call last week. People having difficulty breathing should seek care, and older people or those with other conditionsshould contact their doctors early in the course of illness, she said.

How to prevent getting sick

To protect yourself, wash your hands well and often, keep them away from your face, and avoid crowds and standing close to people.

There's one big difference between flu and coronavirus: A vaccine exists to help prevent the flu and it's not too late to get it. It won't protect you from catching the coronavirus, but may put you in a better position to fight it.

"You don't want to have a compromised immune system if you were to encounter coronavirus," LeRoy said.

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