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这些“优秀人才”都已退出特朗普经济团队

Rey Mashayekhi 2019年06月20日

在特朗普宣誓就职至今的两年半里,至少有50名高官离开了他,有些人主动辞职,另一些人则被粗暴赶走。

今年6月初,经济顾问委员会主席凯文·哈塞特(右二)宣布从特朗普政府离职。图片来源:Mark Wilson/Getty Images

现在看起来,特朗普政府的人员更替跟现代历史上其他届政府都不太一样。在他宣誓就职至今的两年半里,至少有50名高官离开了“特朗普世界”,从西翼的行政办公人员到内阁秘书均有离职。有些人主动辞职,另一些人则被粗暴赶走。

今年6月初,又一位曾经被特朗普高调任命的高官走出了宾夕法尼亚大道1600号的白宫大门,这次是总统经济顾问委员会主席凯文·哈塞特。他曾经在保守派领先智库美国企业政策研究所(American Enterprise Institute)担任主任,毕生致力于研究税收政策。他在特朗普政府任首席经济学家期间倡导给企业减税,构成了2017年《减税和就业法案》的主要内容,而该法案可以说是迄今为止特朗普在立法方面最重大的成就。

但与特朗普不同的是,哈塞特在贸易问题上持有更正统的自由市场观点,因此与特朗普政府的立场并不一致,特朗普政府先是采取贸易保护主义政策,对中国大幅提升关税,最近又对墨西哥提升关税。尽管如此,哈塞特还是向《纽约时报》(New York Times)表示,自己离职与政府“政策分歧无关”。

以下是在哈塞特之前离开白宫的特朗普经济智囊团成员(按离开的顺序排序)以及现在从事的岗位。

保罗·温弗里

国内政策委员会副主任/预算政策主任(2017年12月辞职)

跟哈塞特一样,温弗里也是从华盛顿著名的保守派智囊团进入政府,之前担任传统基金会(Heritage Foundation)的主任。这位财政政策学者在特朗普政府制定第一份预算提案时发挥了重要作用,当时他与管理和预算办公室的主任米克·穆尔瓦尼(现任代理白宫幕僚长)合作。

上任不到一年,温弗里就离开了白宫,回到传统基金会主任的岗位上。他的离职比较友好,上个月还有报道称,特朗普在提名斯蒂芬·摩尔和赫尔曼·凯恩出任美联储理事会成员失败以后,可能会提名温弗里。

杰里米·卡茨

国家经济委员会副主任(2018年1月辞职)

卡茨曾经是国家经济委员会前主任加里·科恩(下文将介绍)的副手,在起草和推进特朗普政府税收改革法案方面发挥过关键作用,该法案于2017年年底正式通过。此后不久,卡茨于2018年1月辞职,此前有报道称他向来计划在政府任职不超过一年。他离开过程也比较平和,当时科恩称他是“研究和执行总统经济议程的宝贵伙伴”。

迪娜·鲍威尔

经济倡议高级顾问/国家安全副顾问(2018年1月辞职)

鲍威尔在高盛集团(Goldman Sachs)当过高管,曾经是特朗普政府中级别最高的女性之一。刚加入新政府时她担任高级经济顾问,工作重点是“创业、经济增长和为妇女赋能”,与伊万卡·特朗普密切合作。2017年3月,时任国家安全顾问的麦克马斯特任命鲍威尔为副手之一,她还继续担任经济顾问,并兼任外交政策顾问,颇有影响力。

与卡茨一样,鲍威尔也原本就计划在政府中任职不超过一年。她在2018年1月辞职,回到纽约重新加入高盛。她离开白宫时也并无不睦,去年尼基·黑利辞职后很多人认为她是美国驻联合国大使的候选人,但最终她自己决定不予考虑。

加里·科恩

国家经济委员会主任(2018年3月辞职)

虽然哈塞特曾经是特朗普的首席经济学家,但曾经担任高盛总裁兼首席运营官的科恩则是特朗普最为倚重的首席经济顾问,在政府经济政策几乎每个方面都发挥过关键作用。为了出任该职,科恩放弃了接替劳埃德·贝兰克梵出任高盛首席执行官的大好机会(最终科恩的继任者大卫·所罗门成功上位,去年10月接替了贝兰克梵)。

在科恩的主持之下,美国经济强劲扩张,但他在白宫任职的经历却很坎坷。从一开始,他就被视为政府“全球主义者”派系的关键人物,与史蒂夫·班农和斯蒂芬·米勒等顾问代表的白宫“民粹主义”派系展开了正面交锋。在特朗普发表争议言论,将弗吉尼亚州夏洛茨维尔白人至上主义集会上爆发的暴力事件归咎于“双方”之后,一度有传闻称科恩考虑在2017年8月辞职。

7个月后,在特朗普决定对进口钢铝全面征收关税,科恩终于宣布辞职。对钢铝开征关税是美国政府日趋保护主义贸易立场的第一步,而目前中美两国之间的贸易战正在不断升级。科恩的接任者为拉里·库德洛,哈佛大学约翰·肯尼迪政府学院政治研究所的访问研究员。

埃弗雷特·艾森斯塔特

国家经济委员会副主任/主管国际经济事务的总统副助理(2018年7月辞职)

艾森斯塔特曾经是特朗普在贸易相关事务上的高级助理之一,他曾经在G7、G20和亚太经合组织峰会等会议上代表总统。尽管艾森斯塔特在政府日益转向保护主义之际不断发声支持贸易,不过报道称去年他离职是出于“家庭原因”。之后,他加入通用汽车(General Motors),担任全球公共政策高级副总裁,负责通用汽车在华盛顿的游说工作,直接向该公司的董事长兼首席执行官玛丽·巴拉汇报。

克利特·威勒姆斯

国家经济委员会副主任/主管国际经济事务的总统副助理(2019年3月辞职)

威勒姆斯曾经是特朗普政府的另一位高级贸易顾问,去年夏天获得擢升,接替艾森斯塔特的职务。8个月后,威勒姆斯也决定离开,辞去中美两国主要贸易谈判代表的职务,加入艾金·岗波律师事务所,负责公共法律和政策实践事务。虽然威勒姆斯在中美双方贸易谈判日益激烈的当口上离职,但白宫方面表示,他辞去公职是想要有更多时间与家人团聚。

琳达·麦克马洪

小企业管理局局长(2019年4月辞职)

琳达·麦克马洪曾经跟丈夫文斯一起,将美国职业摔角WWE打造成了职业摔角界的杰出企业。特朗普总统跟麦克马洪一家是朋友,还曾经在美国职业摔跤当过上镜名人,他在当选以后任命麦克马洪为小企业管理局局长。今年春天,她在任职两年多后宣布辞职,在总统连任竞选即将到来之际担任亲特朗普的超级政治行动委员会主席。(财富中文网)

译者:艾伦

审校:夏林

At this point, it’s well-documented that the Trump White House has seen a level of turnover unlike any other administration in modern times. At this point, no less than 50 top officials—from West Wing staffers to cabinet secretaries—have left Trumpworld in the two-and-a-half years since the President took the oath of office. Some departed on their own volition; others, for one reason or another, were unceremoniously forced out.

In the beginning of June, another high-profile appointee walk out the doors of 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue: Kevin Hassett, the chairman of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. As the administration’s top economist, Hassett—a career tax policy wonk and former director at the American Enterprise Institute, a leading conservative think tank—advocated for the corporate tax cuts that comprised the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, arguably Trump’s most significant legislative achievement to date.

Yet unlike the President, Hassett also holds more orthodox, free-market views on trade—a position that put him at odds with the Trump administration’s protectionist, tariff-heavy trade stance toward China and, more recently, Mexico. Despite that, Hassett told The New York Times that his departure has “nothing to do with any policy disagreements” within the administration.

Here are the members of Trump’s economic braintrust who preceded Hassett in leaving (in the order of their departure) and where they are now.

Paul Winfree

Deputy Director of Domestic Policy Council / Director of Budget Policy (Resigned, December 2017)

Like Hassett, Winfree also came to the administration from a prominent D.C.-based conservative think tank—in his case, the Heritage Foundation, where he served as a director. The fiscal policy wonk played an important role in crafting the administration’s first budget proposal, working alongside Office of Management and Budget director (and now-acting White House chief of staff) Mick Mulvaney.

Winfree left the White House after less than a year to return to his director gig at the Heritage Foundation. He did so amicably—as evidenced by reports last month that President Trump could nominate him to the Federal Reserve’s board of governors, in the wake of the failed nominations of Stephen Moore and Herman Cain.

Jeremy Katz

Deputy Director of National Economic Council (Resigned, January 2018)

Katz was deputy to former National Economic Council director Gary Cohn (more on him soon) and played a key role in crafting and pushing through the Trump administration’s tax reform bill, which was signed into law at the end of 2017. Katz resigned from his post shortly thereafter in January 2018, having reportedly always planned to stay in the administration for no more than one year. He departed on good terms, with Cohn describing him as “an invaluable partner in the development and execution of the President’s economic agenda.”

Dina Powell

Senior Counselor for Economic Initiatives / Deputy National Security Adviser (Resigned, January 2018)

The former Goldman Sachs executive was one of the highest-ranking women in Trump’s White House, initially joining the new administration as a senior economic adviser focused on “entrepreneurship, economic growth, and the empowerment of women”—a role in which she worked closely with Ivanka Trump. In March 2017, then-National Security Adviser H.R. McMaster named Powell as one of his deputies, with Powell continuing in her economic adviser role while also pulling double-duty as an influential foreign policy adviser.

Like Katz, Powell supposedly also planned to serve no more than one year in the administration—resigning in January 2018, returning to her home in New York and rejoining Goldman Sachs. She also left the White House on good terms, and was widely mentioned as a candidate for U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations after Nikki Haley’s resignation last year; Powell eventually withdrew herself from consideration.

Gary Cohn

Director of National Economic Council (Resigned, March 2018)

Hassett may have been Trump’s top economist, but the former Goldman Sachs president and COO was the President’s top economic advisor and played a crucial role in virtually every aspect of the administration’s economic policy. For the privilege of doing so, Cohn gave up what many considered to be a good shot at replacing Lloyd Blankfein as Goldman’s CEO (the job eventually went to Cohn’s replacement, David Solomon, who succeeded Blankfein last October).

Despite presiding over a robust, expanding economy, Cohn’s tenure in the White House was a rocky one. From the outset, he was cast as a key player in the establishment, “globalist” faction of the administration, which butted heads with the “populist” wing of the White House embodied by the likes of advisers Steve Bannon and Stephen Miller. Cohn was rumored to be considering his resignation in August 2017, after Trump’s controversial statements blaming “both sides” for the violence that broke out at that month’s white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, Va.

He eventually announced his resignation seven months later, in the wake of the President’s decision to impose sweeping tariffs on steel and aluminum imports—one of the first steps in the administration’s increasingly protectionist trade stance, now embodied by its escalating trade war with China. Cohn was replaced by Larry Kudlow and is now a visiting fellow at the Institute of Politics at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government.

Everett Eissenstat

Deputy Director of National Economic Council / Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs (Resigned, July 2018)

Eissenstat was one of Trump’s top aides on trade-related matters and represented the President at the likes of the G7, G20 and APEC summits. Despite being a pro-trade voice amid the administration’s shift toward more protectionist policies, Eissenstat’s departure last year was reportedly motivated by “family reasons.” He’s since joined General Motors as senior vice president of global public policy, leading the automaker’s D.C. lobbying efforts and reporting directly to GM chair and CEO Mary Barra.

Clete Willems

Deputy Director of National Economic Council / Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs (Resigned, March 2019)

Another of the administration’s top trade advisers, Willems was promoted to the departing Eissenstat’s job last summer. Eight months later, Willems himself was on the way out—exiting a role as one of the White House’s lead trade negotiators with China to join law firm Akin Gump’s public law and policy practice. Despite Willems’ departing amid increasingly contentious trade talks with Beijing, the White House said his pivot to the private sector was motivated by a desire to spend more time with his family.

Linda McMahon

Head of Small Business Administration (Resigned, April 2019)

Alongside her husband Vince, Linda McMahon helped built World Wrestling Entertainment into the preeminent enterprise in the world of professional wrestling. After his election, President Trump—a friend of the McMahons, and himself a former WWE on-screen personality—appointed McMahon to lead the Small Business Administration. This spring, she announced her resignation after more than two years on the job, stepping down to chair a pro-Trump super PAC ahead of the President’s reelection campaign.

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