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如何成为最适宜工作的公司

一些职场之所以卓越,并不是因为它们的福利仅有特定行业才能提供,或是仅限于公有或私有机构、大公司或小公司。

为了编制这份榜单和类似的其他榜单,我们卓越职场研究所(Great Place to Work)每年要调查来自50多个国家的几百万名员工,了解是什么让他们热爱自己的工作,雇主又是如何营造堪称典范的工作环境。我们还会开展文化审查,研究各家公司的福利和人文关怀项目,例如健康保险、培训和发展、奖金、带薪休假、退休计划和慈善事业等。我们要确保那些上榜公司对所有人而言都是卓越职场,机构中的任何群体在我们的调查中都愿意给出高分。

1998年起,我们与《财富》杂志合作,编制了一年一度的“最适宜工作的100家公司榜单”。二十年来,关于适合所有人的卓越职场中员工的工作体验,以及领导者如何打造这类公司的经验,我们积累了大量数据。从中我们发现,那些职场之所以卓越,并不是因为它们的福利仅有特定行业才能提供,或是仅限于公有或私有机构、大公司或小公司。相反,一般来说,适合所有人的卓越职场是那些员工互相信任、互相欣赏,并以自己的工作为豪的地方。

二十多年前,我们着手研究时的目标,是了解并表彰那些被员工认为“卓越”的工作经历类型。而在分析的过程中,我们甚至有了更具影响力的发现。员工认为卓越职场的特质——信赖、自豪、友爱——也会提高公司的业绩。我们的研究显示,《财富》最适宜工作的100家公司榜单中,上市公司股票的市场回报要比主要股指的平均水平高出两到三倍。在收入增长、员工保留度、生产力、创新力、韧性、灵敏度、客户服务、员工敬业度等多项指标上,卓越职场都要优于竞争对手。

全新的评判机制

从那时起到现在,我们的评判方法基本没有过改动,然而,原来的公式只注重信赖、自豪和友爱程度,现在无法适应时代了。人们经营和工作的方式已经变了。我们意识到自己需要重新发掘其中的奥秘——适合所有人的卓越职场怎样将机构文化作为成功的关键要素。所以,我们在制作今年的排名时增加了一些新指标,借以更准确地了解卓越的职场文化将如何转化为增长率,塑造出杰出的企业。

一些基础的商业知识经历了几十年,在当今依旧是金科玉律。一家成功的公司必须拥有健全的商业模式,明智地选择策略,精明地做好财务管理。但这些商学院教导的基础知识已经不够用了。商业领袖通往成功的道路在不断发展。事物的变化越来越快,信息传播的速度和透明度都更胜从前,科技让所有消费者和员工的声音都能传遍全球。这些都是我们这个时代独特的挑战。而最好的领袖正在做出回应。

在商业的新前沿,成功的要素是什么呢?适合所有人的卓越职场如今有六项评估指标:价值观、创新力、财务增长、领导效率、员工潜能最大化程度和信赖度。商业成功的关键是最大化人的潜能,再通过领导的效率、价值观和信赖度来实现。有了这些要素,创新和财务增长也就随之而来。为了确定今年《财富》最适宜工作的100家公司榜单,我们仔细审阅了对每家公司的员工调查和文化审查情况,对这六项指标进行了打分。

全新评估方法的重点是员工潜力的最大化程度:如今,我们评估了公司在为所有员工持续营造积极体验上的表现,无论这些员工是谁,他们在公司承担什么工作。我们希望借此反映当今全球的现实,表彰那些起到带头作用的包容性机构,并向他们学习。这不是出于道德考虑,而是由于商业原因。我们最新的研究表明,那些在 “适合所有人”的新标准上得分最高的公司,收入的增长率比那些包容性不那么强的竞争对手快三倍。换言之,如果信赖是卓越职场取得优秀业绩的燃料,那“适合所有人”就是它的加速剂。

另一项研究中我们发现,比起仅考虑信赖、自豪和友爱程度的旧机制下得分最高的机构,在“适合所有人”的新机制下得分最高的机构的收入增长速度要快10%。“适合所有人”的机构赶在了发展的最前列,这是情有可原的。因为在当今时代,商业的成功依赖于发掘员工的所有潜力。在重视互联互通、创新和诸如激情、品格与合作等人文素质的经济中,每位员工都很重要。结果就是,在新兴经济体中,卓越职场的表现会更好,而且要好得多。他们必须如此。他们不得不采用新的工作方式,新的处事方法,营造适合每个人优秀文化,无论他们是谁,在公司中承担什么工作。为了在未来生存和发展,这些机构必须打造适合所有人的卓越职场。

To create this list and others like it, each year, we at Great Place to Work survey millions of employees in more than 50 countries to glean their insights on what makes them love the work they do, and to learn how their employers have created an exemplary work environment. We also conduct a culture audit to review each company’s benefits and people programs, such as health insurance, training and development, compensation, paid time off, retirement plans, and philanthropic efforts. For a company to be one of the best, we ensure that it must be a Great Place to Work for All—that every demographic group in an organization has consistently high scores on our survey.

Since 1998, we’ve partnered with Fortune to compile its annual list of the 100 Best Companies to Work For. Over the past two decades, this has amounted to a trove of data on what employees experience when their company is a Great Place to Work for All—and how leaders can build one. We have learned great workplaces are not created through a particular set of benefits that are unique to a particular industry, limited to public or private organizations, or the advantages of large or small organizations. Instead, universally, a Great Place to Work for All is one where employees trust the people they work with, have pride in the work they do, and enjoy the people they work with.

When we started our research more than 20 years ago, our goal was to understand and celebrate what type of work experience was considered “great” by employees. In the process of that analysis, we discovered something even more powerful. The same qualities employees report make a great workplace—trust, pride, and camaraderie—also fuel business performance. Our research shows that the publicly-held companies that appear on the Fortune 100 Best Companies list have delivered stock market returns two to three times greater than major stock indices. Compared to their competitors, great workplaces win when it comes to revenue growth, employee retention, productivity, innovation, resilience, agility, customer service, employee engagement, and more.

Our New Methodology

Until now, our methodology has remained relatively unchanged, but the original formula of only focusing on trust, pride, and camaraderie doesn’t work anymore. The way we do business—and work—has changed. And we realized that we needed to re-discover the magic—how each Great Place to Work For All uses its organizational culture as a key ingredient for success. So for this year’s ranking, we’ve added a few new metrics to help us take a more accurate reading of how a company’s great workplace culture translates to its growth and corporate excellence.

Some business basics remain as true today as they have for decades. A successful company must have a sound business model, a smart strategy, and savvy financial management. But these fundamentals of a business school education are no longer sufficient. Business leaders’ paths to success are quickly evolving. Changes happen faster, information moves rapidly with more transparency than ever before, and technology gives any customer or employee the power to be heard worldwide in an instant. These are the unique challenges of our times. And the best leaders are responding.

So what’s needed to succeed in the new business frontier? A Great Place to Work For All has six components we now measure: Values, Innovation, Financial Growth, Leadership Effectiveness, Maximizing Human Potential, and Trust. The key to business success is maximizing human potential, accomplished through leadership effectiveness, values, and trust. Get those pieces right, and you will see innovation and financial growth. To determine the rankings for this year’s list of the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For, we scored each company on these six components after reviewing their employee surveys and culture audit.

Central to our new approach is Maximizing Human Potential: we now assess how well companies create a consistently positive experience for all employees, no matter who they are or what they do for the organization. We did this to reflect the reality of the world today, and to recognize and learn from the inclusive organizations that are setting the pace. Not just for moral reasons, but for business reasons. Our most recent research shows companies that rate most highly according to our new “For All” standard grow revenue three times faster than their less-inclusive rivals. In other words, while trust fuels business performance at great workplaces, “For All” accelerates it.

In a separate study, we found the organizations scoring highest using our new “For All” methodology grew their revenue about 10 percent faster over the same period than the companies that scored best according to our old methodology, which simply measured average levels of Trust, Pride, and Camaraderie. It makes sense that “For All” organizations race ahead. Because now, business success relies on developing all your human potential. Every employee matters in an economy that is about connectivity, innovation, and human qualities like passion, character, and collaboration. The upshot is, in the emerging economy, the Best Workplaces can do better–much better. And they must. They have to work in new ways and with new behaviors to create an outstanding culture for everyone, no matter who they are or what they do for the organization. The same is true for all organizations. To survive and thrive in the future, organizations have to build Great Places to Work For All.

版权所有:Salesforce

新的榜单冠军

将这种“适合所有人”的评判机制应用到《财富》最适宜工作的100家公司榜单上,也就导致了各公司的排名变化。由于Salesforce努力为所有人营造优秀的工作环境,致力于慈善事业(例如,员工每年可以获得56个小时的带薪志愿活动时间),在全球营造具有凝聚力的文化(在这份榜单之外,该公司也登上了我们制作的澳大利亚、印度、爱尔兰、日本、新加坡和英国最适宜工作的公司榜单),该公司七年来第一次占据榜首。

Salesforce的董事长和首席执行官马克·贝尼奥夫表示:“我们价值观中的重点——信赖、成长、创新和平等——以及我们的行动,营造了家庭般的文化。这种文化是我们的一切行为——包括慈善、工作场所、活动、产品和在线学习平台Trailhead——的核心。”

Workday(榜单排名第7)的共同创始人和首席执行官安尼尔·布斯里,是上榜公司中“适合所有人”的领导者中的最佳榜样。他请我们查询全球数据库,并根据这种新评判机制下全球排名前10%的优秀领袖设立一个标准。他并非想了解内部排名,而是要用这个极高的门槛来评估他的领导者,并奖励那些超过了这一顶级水准的人。没有获奖的领导者的反应则令人惊讶:他们当场站起来,为这些得到认可的人鼓掌庆贺。现在,这里是适合所有人的卓越职场了。

文化潮流正在涌动

借助社交媒体,更多不同背景的人开始大声发表自己的意见,并得到了人们的倾听。千禧一代是美国劳动人口中占比最大的一部分,他们希望雇主展现出决心、公平,并提供职业发展路径。女性员工与来自各种人种与民族团体的人士也发出了自己的声音,分享了他们经历的职场歧视,要求被公平对待。#MeToo行动就曝光了一批人力资源政策失败的公司,带来了立竿见影的变化,随着越来越多的女性要求公平,呼吁薪酬平等的声音变得更加强大。

这些变化意味着公司在打造人人欢迎的文化上,必须达到更高的标准。例如,我们的研究显示,那些感觉自己无法与领导展开坦率交流的女性员工,工作体验可能会下降,跳槽可能性会增加。另一方面,千禧一代的员工如果认为自己的公司是个很棒的工作场所,他们计划留下并据此长期规划的可能性是那些不这么认为的员工的20倍。

去年,高管们提出了“首席执行官多元与包容行动”(CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion),来自埃森哲(Accenture)、波士顿咨询公司(BCG)、德勤美国(Deloitte US)、高管领导委员会(The Executive Leadership Council)、安永(EY)、泛大西洋集团(General Atlantic)、毕马威(KPMG)、纽约人寿保险(New York Life)、宝洁(P&G)和普华永道(PwC)的首席执行官和领导者还组建了关于该行动指导委员会。我们要为委员会中上榜公司的高管们喝彩,他们分别是:普华永道美国区总裁和高级合伙人蒂姆·瑞恩、埃森哲北美区首席执行官朱莉·斯威特、德勤首席执行官凯茜·恩格波特、波士顿咨询公司北美区董事长乔·戴维斯、安永美国区董事长和美洲管理合伙人小史蒂芬·豪,以及毕马威美国区董事长和首席执行官林恩·道泰。

毫无疑问,上榜的优胜者都是推进职场平等的先锋。因此,我们将在2018年3月7日至9日旧金山举办的“适合所有人的卓越职场”年度峰会上表彰这些公司的女性高管。获奖者包括达美航空(Delta Air Lines,今年榜单第98位)的首席人力资源官乔安妮·史密斯。她通过推动公司签署白宫同工同酬承诺(White House Equal Pay Pledge,这份承诺鼓励美国公司采取措施促进男女薪酬平等),让达美航空的工作环境更具包容性。还有美国运通(American Express,今年榜单第23位)的副总裁和销售总经理莫妮卡·辛格。她的业绩创造了历史纪录,带领的小组中,员工对于工作体验给出了顶级的评价。另外还包括马里奥特国际(Marriott International,今年榜单第35位)的首席商务官史蒂芬妮·林纳茨,她负责了这家宴会公司营销、数字技术和品牌管理部门的转型工作。在我们表彰上榜公司的多位女性领导者时,欢迎读者们加入到我们和《财富》编辑的队伍中一起喝彩。

首席执行官要成为社会活动家

我们看到,如今有越来越多的商界领袖涉足社会和政治问题。由于之前所述的千禧一代社会意识强烈,如今的首席执行官意识到了发声的重要性,尤其是在这个时代,许多政府领导人缺乏道德权威,公众对美国企业的信任度不足。在这个竞争激烈的劳动力市场,领导者需要表明自己的公司是良好的世界公民,借以吸引最优秀的人才。

有一句俗语叫“改变始于上层”,但这并不完全准确。即使你不是商业领袖,也可以在文化转型的浪潮中起到积极的作用。无论你是首席执行官、中层领导还是小时工,我们都邀请你帮助公司成为适合所有人的卓越职场。我们坚信,这对于公司、员工,乃至于世界都大有裨益。为此,我们甚至更新了自己的使命:帮助各机构成为适合所有人的卓越职场,从而构造一个更美好的世界。我们还设立了实现目标的最后期限,希望在2030年之前帮助全球的每一家公司做到这一点。加入到我们的使命中来吧!无论激励你前进的是什么,我们殊途同归。

本文作者迈克尔·C·布什和莎拉·路易斯-库林是卓越职场研究所的首席执行官和副总裁。该公司是《财富》最适宜工作的100家公司年度榜单和其他优秀职场榜单的长期合作研究伙伴。卓越职场研究所也在六大洲的超过50个国家为企业、非营利机构和政府机构提供高管顾问和文化咨询服务。(财富中文网)

本文源自将于2018年3月由贝雷特-科勒出版社(Berrett-Koehler Publishers)出版的作品《适合所有人的卓越职场》(A Great Place to Work For All)。本文的缩减版将登载于《财富》2018年3月1日刊。

A New No. 1

Applying this new “For All” methodology to the Fortune 100 Best Companies list has produced somewhat different results in the rankings. For the first time in 7 years, there’s a new No. 1. Salesforce tops this year’s list, thanks to its efforts to create a Great Place to Work For All, its commitment to philanthropy (employees get paid 56 hours per year to volunteer, for example), and for creating a globally-cohesive culture (in addition to this list, it also ranks on each of our national best workplaces lists in Australia, India, Ireland, Japan, Singapore, and the U.K.)

“The intersection of our values—trust, growth, innovation, and equality—and our actions creates our Ohana culture,” said Marc Benioff, Chairman and CEO, Salesforce. “This culture of family is at the core of everything we do—including our philanthropy, spaces, events, products and Trailhead, our online learning platform.”

The best example of “For All” leadership among our list companies was demonstrated at Workday (No. 7) by co-founder & CEO Aneel Bhusri, who asked us to query our global database to establish a benchmark based on the top 10 percent of the best leaders in the world using our new methodology. Rather than a relative internal ranking, he used this extremely high bar to assess his leaders and then he gave awards to those who surpassed this Olympic-like benchmark. Most amazing was the response of the leaders in the room who did not receive an award: They gave the recognized leaders an impromptu standing ovation. Now that’s a Great Place to Work for All.

The Cultural Tides Are Turning

Thanks to social media, more people of diverse backgrounds are speaking up and being heard. The millennial generation, which represents the largest segment of the U.S. workforce, expects their employers to provide purpose, balance, and career development. Female employees, as well as those from different racial and ethnic groups, are also speaking up, sharing workplace injustices, and demanding equality. The #MeToo movement has shined a spotlight on companies’ failed HR policies, resulting in immediate changes, and the call for pay equality gets stronger and louder every day as more women demand fairness.

All these changes mean companies must clear a higher bar in creating cultures that are welcoming to everyone. Our research, for example, shows female employees who don’t feel they can have honest conversations with leaders have a lower overall workplace experience, and are more likely to jump ship. And, on the flip side, among millennial employees, those who experience their company as a great workplace are 20 times more likely to plan a long-term future there than those who do not.

Also this past year, the CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion was collectively formed and is led by a steering committee of CEOs and leaders from Accenture, BCG, Deloitte US, The Executive Leadership Council, EY, General Atlantic, KPMG, New York Life, P&Gand PwC. We’d like to applaud the steering committee’s 100 Best CEO’s: Tim Ryan, US Chairman & Senior Partner, PwC; Julie Sweet, Chief Executive Officer, North America, Accenture; Cathy Engelbert, Chief Executive Officer, Deloitte; Joe Davis, Chairman, North America, The Boston Consulting Group; Stephen Howe, JR. US Chairman and Americas Managing Partner, EY; and Lynne Doughtie, U.S. Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, KPMG LLP.

It should come as no surprise that the winners of the Fortune 100 Best Companies list are leading the march toward workplace equality. As such, we will be honoring their top women leaders at the annual Great Place to Work For All Summit in San Francisco from March 7 to 9, 2018. The honorees will include Joanne Smith, the Chief Human Resources Officer for Delta Air Lines (No. 98 on this year’s list), for helping the airline to build a more inclusive workplace by pushing it to commit to the White House Equal Pay Pledge, which encourages U.S. companies to take action to advance equal pay among men and women. Monica Singh, Vice President and General Manager of Sales and Marketing at American Express (No. 23), will be rewarded for achieving record business results while being recognized as best in class for her group’s employee experience, and Stephanie Linnartz, Chief Commercial Officer at Marriott International(No. 35) will be recognized for overseeing the transformation of the hospitality company’s marketing, digital technology, and brand management divisions. Join us and the editors of Fortune as we recognize dozens of women leaders of the 100 Best Companies.

The CEO as Social Activist

More and more, we’re seeing business leaders take a stance on social and political issues. Thanks to the aforementioned socially-aware millennial workforce, today’s CEOs realize the importance of having a voice, especially in an age in which many government leaders have squandered their moral authority and public trust in corporate America is low. And in this very competitive labor market, leaders need to show that their companies are good global citizens as a means to attract the best talent.

The adage that “change begins from the top” isn’t entirely true. Even if you’re not a business leader, you can still take an active part in a cultural transformation. Whether you’re a CEO, a mid-level manager, or an hourly employee, we invite you to help make your company a great workplace for everyone. We’re so convinced that it’s better for business, better for people, and better for the world that we’ve even updated our mission: to build a better world by helping organizations become Great Places to Work For All. And we’ve set a deadline for achieving it: we want every organization across the globe to be a Great Place to Work For All by 2030. Join us in our mission. No matter what spurs you on, the way forward is the same.

Michael C. Bush and Sarah Lewis-Kulin are CEO and vice president, ¬respectively, at Great Place to Work, the longtime research partner for the annual list of the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For, and other best workplaces lists. Great Place to Work also provides executive advisory and culture consulting services to businesses, nonprofits, and government agencies in more than 50 countries on six continents.

This article was adapted from A Great Place to Work For All, coming March 2018 by Berrett-Koehler Publishers. A shorter version appears in the March 1, 2018 issue of Fortune.

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