工业与组织心理学协会（Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology）对不同行业领导者的自大进行了长达四年的研究。研究显示，自大者在工作中的表现实际上更差，主要是由于他们缺乏自尊和智商偏低，他们在利用自大的行为来“掩盖自己的不足。”
This post is in partnership with Entrepreneur. The article below was originally published at Entrepreneur.com.
Leadership is a means to create value for others through self-expression. How a leader shows up is everything as it sets the tone for others to either emulate or evade.
Making the jump from manager to director to leader is never a clear-cut process. The position itself changes but the “how to lead” skills are never made clear, so what happens is newly-appointed leaders apply yesterday’s management tactics to today’s leadership demands, and the two don’t play nicely.
Before assuming your next leadership role, run through the following checklist to ensure you’re on the right track to deliver value every day:
1. Be positive, but not illusory.
Complaints go up the chain of command, not down. Whining or complaining about strategic issues in front of direct reports only undermines the other leaders in your circle and erodes any trust those subordinates had of them. It also makes your people question what you say about them in their absence.
2. Be confident, but not arrogant.
There’s a fine line between confidence and arrogance. Confidence comes from certainty and self-assurance of one’s abilities, whereas arrogance embellishes a person’s self-worth by disparaging others.
A four-year study on arrogance of various industry leaders by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology revealed that arrogant employees actually performed worse in their jobs, mainly due to low self-esteem and low intelligence, because they used arrogant behavior to “mask inadequacies.”
Bottom line: Don’t be “that guy” (or gal) that others roll their eyes and shake their heads at. Confidence speaks for itself, as does arrogance. How do you want to be spoken of?
3. Be quiet, but not “loud.”
Contrary to popular belief, leaders don’t exist to have all the right answers. Instead, they are there to create an environment where decision-making takes place at every level in the company, save only the strategic decisions a president or CEO can make.
4. Be early, but never late.
Or, at the very least, be on time. Arriving late to a meeting connotes one of two things: a lack of discipline or decisiveness in ending your previous meeting, or a lack of interest. Pick your poison.