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奖金能激励老板培养女性和少数族裔人才吗

Anne Fisher 2013年11月01日

一项新的研究显示,女性和少数族裔很少有人能走上高管的岗位,其中一个原因是老板们没有经济动力去这么做。那么,奖金能解决这个问题吗?

    如果你的雇主是一家典型的美国大公司,你或许已注意到了这种情况。随着消费者越来越多元化(目前预计到2030年少数族裔将占到美国人口的46%,到2050年占到55%),入门级招聘比以往任何时候都更加有包容性。但管理高层和董事会的变化并不大。

    金融公司Calvert Investments最近公布的一项研究“泄漏的管道”关注从公司底层到高层的人才晋升状况。研究发现,在标准普尔500指数成分股公司中,有56家公司的最高管理层中没有女性和有色人种,75%的公司没有少数族裔董事。如今,女性已经占到美国劳动人口的一半以上,是大学毕业生的主体,在高级管理层中的比例也节节上升,但在《财富》美国500强公司中,女性董事比例一直徘徊不前,2005年以来一直保持在17%上下。

    毫无疑问,造成人才管道泄漏的原因很复杂,但部分原因可能是金钱。根据高管猎头公司Korn/Ferry的一项最新调查,很多公司的经理人都被鼓励要发掘有潜力的女性和少数族裔员工,指导他们更上一层楼,但很少有人有经济动力这么去做。

    调查显示,96%的高层经理相信“拥有多样化和包容的员工构成可以增强员工的归属感和绩效,”但只有52%的人表示,促进多样性是个人绩效评估的一项因素,而且大多数人(77%)表示,它对个人的奖金多寡没有影响。

    不言而喻的道理是,有钱能使鬼推磨,但经理们能不能没有奖金,也能培养和提拔少数族裔人才?“当然能,很多人就是这么做的,”Korn/Ferry的高级合伙人奥瑞斯•斯图尔特说。“问题是有没有责任。如果不影响薪酬,多样性政策就是个摆设。即使它是绩效评估的一项指标,也会被看成不那么重要。

    斯图尔特补充说:“大部分经理人现在都承受着太多的竞争压力,如果没有奖金等经济刺激,包容性必将让位于其他需求。”他指出,这一点尤其真切,因为培养与自己不同的员工超出了很多经理人感觉自在的范围:“通常,老板们认为,给少数族裔和女性提建设性批评过于冒险。部分原因在于,他们不想说任何可能被视为种族主义或大男子主义的话。这需要一些不同的技能,如果没有经济动力让人去学习这些技能,这样的对话往往就不会发生了。”

    此外,斯图尔特认为,在很多公司,高级职位缺少女性和少数族裔已成为一种永动循环。他说:“如果你是低级员工或中层员工,你看到像你一样的人没有一个能接近高层,你或许会怀疑,是否值得继续留在这家机构努力下去。”

    到那个时候,“女性和少数族裔员工会开始疑惑,‘在我之前来的那些人都发生了什么?为什么他们没有在这里获得成功?”他说。“他们最后通常都会离开”——进而使得人才晋升管道的多样性进一步降低。斯图尔特补充说,员工们非常清楚很多企业描绘的多样性计划总是与现实存在差距:“将多样性纳入激励性薪酬的考核指标有助于缩减这个差距。”(财富中文网)

    译者:早稻米

    If your employer is typical of big U.S. companies, you may have noticed a pattern. As consumers grow increasingly diverse (with current minorities projected to make up 46% of the population by 2030, and 55% by 2050), recruiting at the entry level is more inclusive than it's ever been. Yet, when you look at senior management and the board of directors, nothing much has changed.

    One study of the "leaky pipeline" between the bottom and the top, by financial firm Calvert Investments, found that 56 companies within the S&P 500 have no women or people of color among their highest-paid executives, and 75% have no minority directors. Women, who make up more than half the workforce and the majority of college grads, are gaining ground in senior management but, among the Fortune 500, female board membership has stayed flat, at about 17% since 2005.

    No doubt, the reasons for the leaky talent pipeline are complex, but part of the explanation may be money. Although managers in lots of companies are encouraged to spot talented women and minorities and coach them on how to move up, few of those bosses have any financial incentive to do it, according to a new poll by executive recruiters Korn/Ferry.

    While 96% of senior managers believe that "having a diverse and inclusive workforce can improve employee engagement and business performance," only 52% say promoting diversity is a factor in their own performance appraisals -- and most (77%) say it plays no part in their incentive pay.

    It's a truism that what gets rewarded gets done, but can't managers mentor minority talent without getting paid for it? "Certainly they can, and many do," says Oris Stuart, a Korn/Ferry senior partner. "The question is one of accountability. Unless it affects compensation, a diversity policy has no teeth, because -- even if it's a criterion in performance appraisals -- it's perceived as less important.

    "Most managers now are under so many competing pressures that, without a financial incentive, inclusiveness falls victim to other demands," Stuart adds. That's especially true, he notes, because coaching people unlike themselves is outside of many managers' comfort zones: "Often, bosses see giving constructive criticism to minorities and women as too risky, partly because they don't want to say anything that might seem racist or sexist. It takes a somewhat different set of skills and, without a financial reason to learn them, those conversations often just don't happen."

    Moreover, Stuart believes that, in many companies, the lack of women and minorities in senior jobs becomes self-perpetuating. "If you're at the entry level or in the middle and you see no one who looks like you anywhere near the top, you may question whether it's worth putting in the effort to get ahead in this organization," he observes.

    At that point, "female and minority employees start wondering, 'What happened to the people who came before me? Why haven't they succeeded here?'" he says. "They often end up leaving" -- which in turn makes for even less diversity in the talent pipeline. Stuart adds that employees are keenly aware of "the gap between the rhetoric and the results" of many corporate diversity programs: "Making diversity a component of incentive pay could help close it."

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