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拜登内阁的三位女将,将如何助力美国经济复苏?

拜登内阁的三位女将,将如何助力美国经济复苏?

Katica Roy 2021年03月25日
女性在美国总统拜登的内阁中占到半数。

从左到右:美国小企业管理局局长伊莎贝尔·古兹曼、财政部部长珍妮特·耶伦、商务部部长吉娜·雷蒙多。图片来源:PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY FORTUNE; JIM WATSON—AFP/GETTY IMAGES; DEMETRIUS FREEMAN—THE WASHINGTON POST VIA GETTY IMAGES;CHIP SOMODEVILLA—GETTY IMAGES

尽管在过去的两届美国国会选举中女性议员数量有了一定的增长,但美国人口的女性比例与国会女议员的比例之间仍然有24%的差距。然而,这一差距在拜登总统任命的内阁成员中并不存在,因为其中的半数都是女性。

拜登内阁成员的性别均等十分重要,有两个原因,但这两个原因都与公平或社会公正无关。

首先,如果当权者的比例能够精确地体现其所管理人口的比例,代议民主制便可以发挥最大的作用。如果政治领导层的代表比例不够,公共政策便会偏向与统治阶层长相类似或生活方式相似的人群。然而,那些未得到统治阶层代表人群的需求则会遭到忽视。

第二,拜登内阁的性别均等将推动平等经济的繁荣。在经济遭到新冠疫情肆虐的背景下,这意味着政治的性别均等将提振我们的恢复举措。

让我们来近距离审视一下拜登任命的三位女性内阁成员(所有三人都已经得到确认),以及她们如何在未来几年中促进经济发展。

珍妮特·耶伦及其性别预算编制

自1970年以来,女性通过提升其劳动参与率,为美国经济添加了2万亿美元的贡献。布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)的研究显示,在过去40年中,中产阶级家庭超过90%的总收入增量直接源于女性。

尽管存在这些增量,但由于存在诸多难以逾越、令人生畏的障碍,女性一直无法完全参与经济。财政部部长珍妮特·耶伦已经意识到了这些障碍,并警告说这些障碍将为美国“经济的生产能力带来巨大损失,然而在眼下,人口的老龄化和疲软的生产力增速已经对经济增长造成了不利影响。”

为了消除女性经济参与的障碍,耶伦一直专注于解决结构性失衡问题,例如过去50年出现的工资套利。

自1970年以来,制造业薪资每增长1美元便意味着教育成本会上涨2.33美元,房屋成本会增长1.85美元,以及自负医疗成本增长1.42美元。就在这类差异出现的同时,持续和顽固的性别薪资差距导致职场女性平均每年失去了超过1万美元的收入。[美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)的调查显示,由于疫情的影响,性别薪资差距进一步扩大了五个百分点。]

作为财政部部长,耶伦将担任拜登总统经济问题的首要顾问,而且能够建议其如何通过采取性别公平的举措来纠正结构性失衡问题。此类方法必须包含基于性别的预算编制举措,或通过跨性别的视角来制定财政政策。

基于性别的预算编制意味着要问以下问题,比如:在某一领域的投资会对不同的性别带来哪些不同的影响?基于性别的预算编制(甚至更好的、带有种族视角的跨性别预算编制)将确保美国人口中不同的群体在政治领袖决定如何分配资源之后不会掉队。

耶伦对此类方式持接纳的态度。她在担任美联储(Federal Reserve)主席期间发表的一篇演讲中提到,如果美国要提振女性的劳动参与率,那么就应该考虑推出公共政策,“让女性和男性更加容易地去实现家庭和职业的双丰收”。她举了多个例子,包括改善我们的儿童看护基础设施,并为员工提供更多获得带薪探亲假的机会。

作为参考,在直接用于应对新冠疫情的2万亿美元经济刺激方案中,没有1美元在分配时考虑了性别问题,这意味着联邦层面对疫情的响应并未考虑疫情对女性的巨大冲击。

伊莎贝尔·古兹曼以及为女性领导的企业提供资助

美国小企业管理局(Small Business Administration)是唯一的内阁级别联邦机构,专门致力于确保美国小企业获得成功。其存在的唯一目的就是帮助企业家追寻其美国梦。

有鉴于15%的小企业因为疫情而倒闭,伊莎贝尔·古兹曼(拜登美国小企业管理局执掌者的提名人选,已经在本周得到了确认)面临的将是一份艰巨的工作。好消息在于,曾经在奥巴马政府时期供职于小企业管理局、最近担任加州小企业支持者办公室(California’s Office of the Small Business Advocate)主任的古兹曼,对美国小企业团体在疫情后存活和兴旺所需的一切了如指掌。这些小企业需要的是在获取救济金、拨款(非贷款)以及联邦合约方面拥有公平的机会。

关键在于公平的机会。古兹曼在最近的一次参议院听证会上亲口说道:“很多社区难以接触到资本,或面临着历史种族主义或障碍,而这些问题一直妨碍着他们积累其在接触资本时所需的财富。”

例如,纽约联邦储备银行(Federal Reserve Bank of New York)的调查显示,尽管有15%的小企业都因为新冠疫情而倒闭,但其中倒闭的有色人种经营的小企业却远高于这一水平:在新倒闭的小企业中,有26%为黑人所有,19%为拉美裔所有,21%为亚洲人所有。

疫情还对女性所有的企业带来了毁灭性打击,其倒闭率高达25%,这个数字占到了2020年倒闭企业总数的近一半。

这个不成比例的冲击源于根植于美国经济系统的偏见。正是因为存在这些偏见,女性和有色人种收到的资助少于白人男性,也让他们难以消化经济下行带来的冲击。更糟糕的是,当新冠疫情危机这类经济下行事件发生时,未得到代表的企业主在获得援助方面更加困难。去年,仅有5%的企业收到了《薪资保护计划》资金,而且这些企业的所有者均为女性。

作为美国小企业管理局的主任,古兹曼将负责美国商务部(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)在其最近的一封信中所描述的“美国历史上最大的小企业救助计划”。通过从性别和种族角度出发来谋划小企业救助计划,古兹曼可以把创新、公平和活力注入美国经济的未来。

借助此举,我们将收获女性所有者企业(占美国企业总数的42%)为经济创造的效益。美国运通(American Express)的研究显示,疫情前,女性所有者企业聘请了940万员工,创造了1.9万亿美元的年营收,而且其增速是全美所有企业增速的两倍。

吉娜·雷蒙多与性别关税差距

商务部的一个主要目标就是推动美国经济增长。该部门通过管理商标、发放专利、收集人口数据,以及支持技术创新来实现这一目标。它还通过提振美国出口和外贸,助推美国经济的增长。

为了执行这一策略重点,拜登的商务部部长吉娜·雷蒙多将需要重建与美国贸易伙伴之间的关系。随着她实施这一策略,雷蒙多能够利用其担任罗德岛州长的经验,消除我所谓的性别关税差距。(是的,即便是进口税也存在性别歧视。)

美国国际贸易委员会(U.S. International Trade Commission)称,服装产品占到美国家庭总关税负担的约75%。Mosbacher Institute称,2015年,男性服装的关税平均税率为11.9%,而女性服装的关税平均税率则为15.1%。就2015年的总支出而言,被划分为“女性服饰”的产品为消费者带来了58亿美元的关税,而“男性服饰”产品关税为31亿美元。换句话说,女性本来就因为性别薪酬差距而挣的更少,但却因为性别关税差距而多花钱。

雷蒙多可以迅速采取措施,通过支持取消按性别划分的产品关税税差,来消除美国关税税率中的这个漏洞。此前,她在薪酬公平方面有着亮眼的过往业绩:在罗德岛,雷蒙多设立了一个匿名举报热线,供人们举报基于性别的薪酬差距,她还主导了平等薪酬认证标识举措,并推动了薪资历史禁问令。雷蒙多对实现跨性别平等的经济重要性有着深刻的认识。

政治领域的性别均等不仅仅只是公平性的问题。它是一个2万亿美元的大规模经济机遇,其附带的效益将加速美国经济的恢复。如今,为美国未来表明立场的时刻到了。(财富中文网)

卡蒂察·罗伊是一位性别经济学家,也是软件即服务公司Pipeline的首席执行官及创始人,该公司利用人工智能,通过性别平等来发掘和推动经济效益。

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

尽管在过去的两届美国国会选举中女性议员数量有了一定的增长,但美国人口的女性比例与国会女议员的比例之间仍然有24%的差距。然而,这一差距在拜登总统任命的内阁成员中并不存在,因为其中的半数都是女性。

拜登内阁成员的性别均等十分重要,有两个原因,但这两个原因都与公平或社会公正无关。

首先,如果当权者的比例能够精确地体现其所管理人口的比例,代议民主制便可以发挥最大的作用。如果政治领导层的代表比例不够,公共政策便会偏向与统治阶层长相类似或生活方式相似的人群。然而,那些未得到统治阶层代表人群的需求则会遭到忽视。

第二,拜登内阁的性别均等将推动平等经济的繁荣。在经济遭到新冠疫情肆虐的背景下,这意味着政治的性别均等将提振我们的恢复举措。

让我们来近距离审视一下拜登任命的三位女性内阁成员(所有三人都已经得到确认),以及她们如何在未来几年中促进经济发展。

珍妮特·耶伦及其性别预算编制

自1970年以来,女性通过提升其劳动参与率,为美国经济添加了2万亿美元的贡献。布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)的研究显示,在过去40年中,中产阶级家庭超过90%的总收入增量直接源于女性。

尽管存在这些增量,但由于存在诸多难以逾越、令人生畏的障碍,女性一直无法完全参与经济。财政部部长珍妮特·耶伦已经意识到了这些障碍,并警告说这些障碍将为美国“经济的生产能力带来巨大损失,然而在眼下,人口的老龄化和疲软的生产力增速已经对经济增长造成了不利影响。”

为了消除女性经济参与的障碍,耶伦一直专注于解决结构性失衡问题,例如过去50年出现的工资套利。

自1970年以来,制造业薪资每增长1美元便意味着教育成本会上涨2.33美元,房屋成本会增长1.85美元,以及自负医疗成本增长1.42美元。就在这类差异出现的同时,持续和顽固的性别薪资差距导致职场女性平均每年失去了超过1万美元的收入。[美国国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)的调查显示,由于疫情的影响,性别薪资差距进一步扩大了五个百分点。]

作为财政部部长,耶伦将担任拜登总统经济问题的首要顾问,而且能够建议其如何通过采取性别公平的举措来纠正结构性失衡问题。此类方法必须包含基于性别的预算编制举措,或通过跨性别的视角来制定财政政策。

基于性别的预算编制意味着要问以下问题,比如:在某一领域的投资会对不同的性别带来哪些不同的影响?基于性别的预算编制(甚至更好的、带有种族视角的跨性别预算编制)将确保美国人口中不同的群体在政治领袖决定如何分配资源之后不会掉队。

耶伦对此类方式持接纳的态度。她在担任美联储(Federal Reserve)主席期间发表的一篇演讲中提到,如果美国要提振女性的劳动参与率,那么就应该考虑推出公共政策,“让女性和男性更加容易地去实现家庭和职业的双丰收”。她举了多个例子,包括改善我们的儿童看护基础设施,并为员工提供更多获得带薪探亲假的机会。

作为参考,在直接用于应对新冠疫情的2万亿美元经济刺激方案中,没有1美元在分配时考虑了性别问题,这意味着联邦层面对疫情的响应并未考虑疫情对女性的巨大冲击。

伊莎贝尔·古兹曼以及为女性领导的企业提供资助

美国小企业管理局(Small Business Administration)是唯一的内阁级别联邦机构,专门致力于确保美国小企业获得成功。其存在的唯一目的就是帮助企业家追寻其美国梦。

有鉴于15%的小企业因为疫情而倒闭,伊莎贝尔·古兹曼(拜登美国小企业管理局执掌者的提名人选,已经在本周得到了确认)面临的将是一份艰巨的工作。好消息在于,曾经在奥巴马政府时期供职于小企业管理局、最近担任加州小企业支持者办公室(California’s Office of the Small Business Advocate)主任的古兹曼,对美国小企业团体在疫情后存活和兴旺所需的一切了如指掌。这些小企业需要的是在获取救济金、拨款(非贷款)以及联邦合约方面拥有公平的机会。

关键在于公平的机会。古兹曼在最近的一次参议院听证会上亲口说道:“很多社区难以接触到资本,或面临着历史种族主义或障碍,而这些问题一直妨碍着他们积累其在接触资本时所需的财富。”

例如,纽约联邦储备银行(Federal Reserve Bank of New York)的调查显示,尽管有15%的小企业都因为新冠疫情而倒闭,但其中倒闭的有色人种经营的小企业却远高于这一水平:在新倒闭的小企业中,有26%为黑人所有,19%为拉美裔所有,21%为亚洲人所有。

疫情还对女性所有的企业带来了毁灭性打击,其倒闭率高达25%,这个数字占到了2020年倒闭企业总数的近一半。

这个不成比例的冲击源于根植于美国经济系统的偏见。正是因为存在这些偏见,女性和有色人种收到的资助少于白人男性,也让他们难以消化经济下行带来的冲击。更糟糕的是,当新冠疫情危机这类经济下行事件发生时,未得到代表的企业主在获得援助方面更加困难。去年,仅有5%的企业收到了《薪资保护计划》资金,而且这些企业的所有者均为女性。

作为美国小企业管理局的主任,古兹曼将负责美国商务部(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)在其最近的一封信中所描述的“美国历史上最大的小企业救助计划”。通过从性别和种族角度出发来谋划小企业救助计划,古兹曼可以把创新、公平和活力注入美国经济的未来。

借助此举,我们将收获女性所有者企业(占美国企业总数的42%)为经济创造的效益。美国运通(American Express)的研究显示,疫情前,女性所有者企业聘请了940万员工,创造了1.9万亿美元的年营收,而且其增速是全美所有企业增速的两倍。

吉娜·雷蒙多与性别关税差距

商务部的一个主要目标就是推动美国经济增长。该部门通过管理商标、发放专利、收集人口数据,以及支持技术创新来实现这一目标。它还通过提振美国出口和外贸,助推美国经济的增长。

为了执行这一策略重点,拜登的商务部部长吉娜·雷蒙多将需要重建与美国贸易伙伴之间的关系。随着她实施这一策略,雷蒙多能够利用其担任罗德岛州长的经验,消除我所谓的性别关税差距。(是的,即便是进口税也存在性别歧视。)

美国国际贸易委员会(U.S. International Trade Commission)称,服装产品占到美国家庭总关税负担的约75%。Mosbacher Institute称,2015年,男性服装的关税平均税率为11.9%,而女性服装的关税平均税率则为15.1%。就2015年的总支出而言,被划分为“女性服饰”的产品为消费者带来了58亿美元的关税,而“男性服饰”产品关税为31亿美元。换句话说,女性本来就因为性别薪酬差距而挣的更少,但却因为性别关税差距而多花钱。

雷蒙多可以迅速采取措施,通过支持取消按性别划分的产品关税税差,来消除美国关税税率中的这个漏洞。此前,她在薪酬公平方面有着亮眼的过往业绩:在罗德岛,雷蒙多设立了一个匿名举报热线,供人们举报基于性别的薪酬差距,她还主导了平等薪酬认证标识举措,并推动了薪资历史禁问令。雷蒙多对实现跨性别平等的经济重要性有着深刻的认识。

政治领域的性别均等不仅仅只是公平性的问题。它是一个2万亿美元的大规模经济机遇,其附带的效益将加速美国经济的恢复。如今,为美国未来表明立场的时刻到了。(财富中文网)

卡蒂察·罗伊是一位性别经济学家,也是软件即服务公司Pipeline的首席执行官及创始人,该公司利用人工智能,通过性别平等来发掘和推动经济效益。

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

Despite the gains that women have made in the past two congressional elections, there is still a 24-point gap between the percentage of women in the U.S. population and the percentage of women in Congress. That gap, however, does not exist among President Biden’s cabinet nominees, half of whom are women.

Gender parity in Biden’s cabinet matters for two reasons, neither of which have to do with fairness or social justice.

First, representative democracy works best when those in positions of power accurately represent the populations they govern. Without accurate representation among political leadership, public policies skew to the needs of people who look and live like the governing class. The needs of those not represented in power become invisible.

Second, gender parity in Biden’s cabinet will drive equitable economic prosperity. In the context of our pandemic-ridden economy, that means gender parity in politics will accelerate our recovery efforts.

Here’s a closer look at three women Biden has nominated to his cabinet (all three of whom have been confirmed) and how they can catalyze economic health in the coming years.

Janet Yellen and gender-based budgeting

Since 1970, women have added $2 trillion to the U.S. economy by increasing their labor force participation rate. And more than 90% of total income gains for middle-class families over the past four decades is directly attributable to women, according to a Brookings Institution study.

Despite these gains, high and formidable barriers continue holding women back from fully participating in the economy. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen has recognized these barriers, warning that they will cause the U.S. to “incur a substantial loss to the productive capacity of our economy at a time when the aging of the population and weak productivity growth are already weighing on economic growth.”

To remove the barriers to women’s economic participation, Yellen has focused on fixing structural imbalances, such as the wage arbitrage that’s occurred over the past 50 years.

Since 1970, every $1 increase in manufacturing wages has corresponded with a $2.33 increase in education costs, a $1.85 increase in housing costs, and a $1.42 increase in out-of-pocket health care costs. This divergence is happening alongside the steady and stubborn gender wage gap that causes the average working woman to miss out on over $10,000 each year. (And as a result of the pandemic, the gender wage gap has widened by five percentage points, according to research from the National Bureau of Economic Research.)

As secretary of the Treasury, Yellen will serve as the principal adviser to President Biden on economic issues and can advise him on how to take a gender-equitable approach to correct structural imbalances. Such an approach must include the practice of gender-based budgeting, or applying the intersectional gender lens to fiscal policy.

Gender-based budgeting means asking questions such as: How would an investment in “X” impact different genders differently? Gender-based budgeting (and even better, intersectional gender-based budgeting with the racial lens) ensures different cohorts of our population don’t get left behind when political leaders decide how to allocate resources.

Yellen has shown an openness to such an approach. She said in a speech during her tenure as Federal Reserve chair that the U.S., in an effort to boost women’s labor force participation rate, should consider public policies that “make it easier for women and men to combine their family and career aspirations.” She gave a handful of examples, including improving our childcare infrastructure and expanding access to paid family leave.

For reference, not a single dollar of the $2 trillion economic stimulus deployed in immediate response to COVID-19 was allocated by applying the gender lens, meaning the federal response to the pandemic didn’t account for the drastic ways women were bearing the brunt of it.

Isabel Guzman and funding for female-led companies

The Small Business Administration (SBA) is the only cabinet-level federal agency dedicated solely to ensuring the success of our nation’s small businesses. It exists for no other reason than to help entrepreneurs pursue the American dream.

With 15% of small businesses now shuttered because of the pandemic, Isabel Guzman—Biden’s nominee to lead the SBA, who was confirmed this week—is walking into a tough job. The good news: Guzman, who worked at the SBA under President Obama and most recently served as director of California's Office of the Small Business Advocate, understands what America’s small-business community needs to survive and thrive post-pandemic. And what it needs is equitable access to relief funding, grants (not loans), and federal contracts.

The key is equitable access. Guzman said it herself during a recent Senate hearing: “There are many communities that face barriers to capital or have experienced historic racism or barriers that have prevented them from building the wealth that’s needed for accessing capital.”

For instance, while 15% of all small businesses closed because of COVID-19, a disproportionate share of those businesses belonged to owners of color: More than 26% of Black-owned, 19% of Latinx-owned, and 21% of Asian-owned businesses are newly closed, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

The pandemic also wreaked havoc on women-owned businesses, 25% of which closed due to the pandemic—a figure that represents almost half of all businesses that closed in 2020.

The disproportionate damage is a result of the biases embedded in our economic system. Because of these biases, women and people of color receive less funding than white male entrepreneurs, leaving them less equipped to absorb the shocks of an economic downturn. Worse, when economic downturns like the COVID-19 crisis do occur, underrepresented business owners have greater difficulties in obtaining aid. Last year, only 5% of the businesses that both received PPP money and disclosed the gender of the owner were female-owned.

As the director of the SBA, Guzman will oversee “the largest small-business relief program in the history of the United States,” as the U.S. Chamber of Commerce described it in a recent letter. By applying the gender and racial lens to relief initiatives for small businesses, Guzman can hardwire innovation, equity, and vibrancy into America’s economic future.

In doing so, we will all reap the benefits that women-owned businesses (i.e., 42% of all U.S. businesses) bestow on the economy. Pre-pandemic, women-owned businesses employed 9.4 million workers, generated annual revenues of $1.9 trillion, and were growing at double the rate of all businesses nationwide, according to research from American Express.

Gina Raimondo and the gender tariff gap

One of the primary goals of the Department of Commerce is to help the U.S. economy grow. It achieves this goal by managing trademarks, issuing patents, collecting demographic data, and supporting technological innovation. It also supports U.S. economic growth by promoting U.S. exports and foreign trade.

To execute on this strategic priority, Biden’s commerce secretary, Gina Raimondo, will need to rebuild relationships with the nation’s trading partners. As she embarks on this initiative, Raimondo can draw on her experience as governor of Rhode Island to close what I call the gender tariff gap. (Yes, even import taxes have gender bias.)

Apparel products make up approximately 75% of the total tariff burden to U.S. households, according to the U.S. International Trade Commission. In 2015, the average tariff rate on male clothing was 11.9%, whereas the average tariff rate on female clothing was 15.1%, according to The Mosbacher Institute. In terms of total dollars spent in 2015, products categorized as “women’s apparel” cost consumers $5.8 billion in tariffs, whereas products categorized as “men’s apparel” cost consumers $3.1 billion in tariffs. In other words, not only do women have less money coming into their wallets because of the gender pay gap, they also have more money going out of their wallets because of the gender tariff gap.

Raimondo can take swift steps to close this loophole in our nation’s tariff code by supporting the removal of rate differences between gender-classified items. She comes to the job as someone with an impressive track record on matters of pay equity: In Rhode Island, Raimondo created an anonymous tip line to report gender-based wage discrepancies, spearheaded efforts for equal pay certification labels, and pushed for salary history bans. Raimondo understands the economic importance of achieving intersectional gender equity.

Gender parity in politics is more than an issue of fairness. It’s a massive, $2 trillion economic opportunity that has the added benefit of expediting our economic recovery. Now is the time to take a stand for America’s future.

Katica Roy is a gender economist and the CEO and founder of Pipeline, a SaaS company that leverages artificial intelligence to identify and drive economic gains through gender equity.

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