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商界领袖最担心的问题不再是赚钱?

商界领袖最担心的问题不再是赚钱?

Chris Morris 2021年01月14日
他们更担心的是科技问题。

图片来源:GETTY IMAGES

世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)在2020年12月中旬发布的一项企业高管调查显示,从日益激烈的竞争到治理动态以及技术问题,商界领袖对诸多领域的担忧正在加剧。世界经济论坛的《全球竞争力报告》(Global Competitiveness Report)共采访了来自126个国家的11,866位商业领袖。

高管们最担心的两个热点问题是:一、网络服务领域的竞争状况;二、世界不同地区在信息通信技术采用方面日益扩大的差距。随着公司被迫调整工作模式,员工也不得不在厨房和客厅里工作,因此网络提供商的实力成倍增长。这种趋势未来可能会带来企业合并或者权力转移。

报告称:“将2020年商界领袖的观点与他们在之前三年的观点进行对比后发现,自新冠疫情爆发以来,发达经济体的服务(网络服务、专业服务和零售服务)竞争明显减少,潜在的原因是自疫情爆发以来对平台的过度依赖,进一步刺激了这些国家业已增长的‘赢者通吃’的经济。”

商业专家表示,网络提供商的市场未来可能会出现某种形式的萎缩。这当中自然存在一些危险,但要防止这些危险的发生,还有一个权宜措施,那就是发挥美国联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission)的作用。

埃默里大学(Emory University)戈伊祖塔商学院(Goizueta Business School)的副院长拉姆纳特•切拉帕说:“在科技行业,企业的合并是不可避免的,无论是通过创新、收购还是兼并等形式。在科技行业有一种现象名为网络效应,使企业合并能够带来巨大的好处,即合并后的整体效益大于各部分之[和]。然后正如我们所看到的那样,垄断行为构成了巨大威胁,所以政府开始介入。”

一段时间以来,全球的数字化产业经历了爆炸式增长,但它在疫情期间迎来了更快的发展速度。自2010年以来,全球互联网用户翻了一番,现在已经超过了全球人口的50%;并且所有商业部门都采用了数字技术。

在2020年数字化的飞速增长中,受益最大的是电商行业。从2019年7月至2020年7月,电子商务增长了24%,亚马逊(Amazon)、沃尔玛(Walmart)等大型在线零售商的客户数量激增。相比之下,电子商务从2010年到2019年的平均年增长率只有10%。

与此同时,在线学习、视频会议和在线娱乐也迎来了大幅增长。

然而这些数字技术的快速应用,却导致疫情之前已经存在的数字鸿沟进一步扩大。企业高管们表示,他们预计明年“无论是各国之间和国家内部,还是不同行业或公司之间及其内部的”数字鸿沟还将进一步扩大。

在网络不够普及的地区,创业文化尤其可以感受到这种差异所带来的影响。但这并不意味着硅谷将迎来新的黄金时代。报告指出,虽然过去一年创业文化有显著增长,但突破性技术的研发却出现了停滞。世界经济论坛表示,初创公司未能提供能源消耗或排放等问题的解决方案,也没有满足对包容性社会服务的需求。

为了满足这些需求,政府需要增加对研发的公共投资,并激励私营部门的风险资本一起支持研发。报告还建议制定激励措施,鼓励对研究、创新、发明和多元化与包容性等方面的投资,以创造“未来市场”,包括教育科技、数据和护理服务等。

报告还称:“引导创新和技术扩散,将成为当前经济复兴的重中之重。政府在利用优惠融资条件设计雄心勃勃的经济支持政策时,既要考虑到直接结果的紧迫性(尤其是在创造就业方面),同时还要面向未来市场,着手准备更广泛的经济转型。”(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)在2020年12月中旬发布的一项企业高管调查显示,从日益激烈的竞争到治理动态以及技术问题,商界领袖对诸多领域的担忧正在加剧。世界经济论坛的《全球竞争力报告》(Global Competitiveness Report)共采访了来自126个国家的11,866位商业领袖。

高管们最担心的两个热点问题是:一、网络服务领域的竞争状况;二、世界不同地区在信息通信技术采用方面日益扩大的差距。随着公司被迫调整工作模式,员工也不得不在厨房和客厅里工作,因此网络提供商的实力成倍增长。这种趋势未来可能会带来企业合并或者权力转移。

报告称:“将2020年商界领袖的观点与他们在之前三年的观点进行对比后发现,自新冠疫情爆发以来,发达经济体的服务(网络服务、专业服务和零售服务)竞争明显减少,潜在的原因是自疫情爆发以来对平台的过度依赖,进一步刺激了这些国家业已增长的‘赢者通吃’的经济。”

商业专家表示,网络提供商的市场未来可能会出现某种形式的萎缩。这当中自然存在一些危险,但要防止这些危险的发生,还有一个权宜措施,那就是发挥美国联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission)的作用。

埃默里大学(Emory University)戈伊祖塔商学院(Goizueta Business School)的副院长拉姆纳特•切拉帕说:“在科技行业,企业的合并是不可避免的,无论是通过创新、收购还是兼并等形式。在科技行业有一种现象名为网络效应,使企业合并能够带来巨大的好处,即合并后的整体效益大于各部分之[和]。然后正如我们所看到的那样,垄断行为构成了巨大威胁,所以政府开始介入。”

一段时间以来,全球的数字化产业经历了爆炸式增长,但它在疫情期间迎来了更快的发展速度。自2010年以来,全球互联网用户翻了一番,现在已经超过了全球人口的50%;并且所有商业部门都采用了数字技术。

在2020年数字化的飞速增长中,受益最大的是电商行业。从2019年7月至2020年7月,电子商务增长了24%,亚马逊(Amazon)、沃尔玛(Walmart)等大型在线零售商的客户数量激增。相比之下,电子商务从2010年到2019年的平均年增长率只有10%。

与此同时,在线学习、视频会议和在线娱乐也迎来了大幅增长。

然而这些数字技术的快速应用,却导致疫情之前已经存在的数字鸿沟进一步扩大。企业高管们表示,他们预计明年“无论是各国之间和国家内部,还是不同行业或公司之间及其内部的”数字鸿沟还将进一步扩大。

在网络不够普及的地区,创业文化尤其可以感受到这种差异所带来的影响。但这并不意味着硅谷将迎来新的黄金时代。报告指出,虽然过去一年创业文化有显著增长,但突破性技术的研发却出现了停滞。世界经济论坛表示,初创公司未能提供能源消耗或排放等问题的解决方案,也没有满足对包容性社会服务的需求。

为了满足这些需求,政府需要增加对研发的公共投资,并激励私营部门的风险资本一起支持研发。报告还建议制定激励措施,鼓励对研究、创新、发明和多元化与包容性等方面的投资,以创造“未来市场”,包括教育科技、数据和护理服务等。

报告还称:“引导创新和技术扩散,将成为当前经济复兴的重中之重。政府在利用优惠融资条件设计雄心勃勃的经济支持政策时,既要考虑到直接结果的紧迫性(尤其是在创造就业方面),同时还要面向未来市场,着手准备更广泛的经济转型。”(财富中文网)

翻译:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

A survey of executives by the World Economic Forum, released in mid-December 2020, shows rising levels of concern in a number of areas, ranging from increases in competition to governance dynamics to technical concerns. All totaled, the WEF spoke with 11,866 business leaders from 126 countries as part of its Global Competitiveness Report.

Two of executives’ bigger anxiety hotspots were competition in network services and growing gaps in information and communication technology adoption in certain areas of the world. As companies have been forced to readjust their work patterns and employees have done their jobs from their kitchens and guest rooms, the strength of network providers has grown exponentially. And that could result in either consolidation or a power shift down the road.

“Comparing the views of business leaders in 2020 with their views during the previous three years it emerges that, in advanced economies since the pandemic, there has been…a marked decline in competition in services (network, professional, and retail services), possibly driven by the overreliance on platforms since the beginning of the pandemic, reenforcing an already growing winner-take-all economy in these markets,” the report reads.

Business experts say a shrinking marketplace among network providers is likely to happen, in one form or another. And there certainly are some dangers of that, but there’s also a stopgap to prevent those dangers—the Federal Trade Commission.

“Consolidation is inevitable in technology industries—be it through innovation, acquisition, or merger,” says Ramnath Chellappa, an associate dean at Emory University’s Goizueta Business School. “In the tech industry, a phenomenon called network effects allows for disproportionate benefits from consolidation—i.e., the whole is greater than the [sum] of the parts. And as we are seeing, then the threat of monopolistic practices looms large, and hence government steps in.”

Digitization has been growing at an explosive rate globally for some time, but it has seen an even bigger surge during the pandemic. Since 2010, the number of Internet users worldwide has doubled, now surpassing 50% of the world’s population. And every business sector has adopted digital technologies.

No field benefited more from that surge in 2020 than e-commerce. Companies like Amazon, Walmart, and other major online retailers saw a huge rise in customers as e-commerce climbed 24% between July 2019 and July 2020. That’s in contrast to average annual increases of just 10% from 2010 to 2019.

E-learning, videoconferencing, and online entertainment have also seen big increases.

That fast adoption, though, has widened the digital divide that already existed before the pandemic. And executives say they expect that gap to grow still wider in the next year “both across and within countries and across and within industries or companies,” said the report.

One area that could feel a particular impact from that disparity is startup culture in less-wired regions. But that doesn’t mean Silicon Valley is set for a new golden age. The report noted that though entrepreneurial culture has grown substantially in the past year, the creation of breakthrough technologies has stalled. Startups, according to the WEF, have failed to deliver solutions in energy consumption, emissions, or meeting the demand for inclusive social services.

To fill those needs, it prompted governments to expand public investment in research and development and to incentivize venture capital in the private sector. It also suggested creating incentives for investments in research, innovation, invention, and diversity and inclusion to help create the “markets of tomorrow,” which include education tech, data, and care services.

“Directing innovation and technological diffusion will be among the top priorities for the immediate revival of the economy,” reads the report. “As governments design ambitious support packages for the economy, leveraging favorable financing conditions, they will have to balance the urgency for immediate results—particularly in terms of job creation—with the need to start preparing a broader economic transformation towards the markets of tomorrow.”

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