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梅琳达•盖茨:2021年,女性可能拯救经济

梅琳达•盖茨:2021年,女性可能拯救经济

 Emma Hinchliffe 2021年01月04日
2020年,女性就业遭受了前所未有的打击,不仅失业比例畸高,照顾家庭的责任也越发繁重。

图片来源:Katherine Frey—The Washington Post/Getty Images

2020年,女性就业遭受了前所未有的打击,不仅失业比例畸高,照顾家庭的责任也越发繁重。两种情况相结合,过去几年乃至数十年来女性在劳动力市场上取得的进步基本丧失。

但随着新一年到来,新总统上任,以及新冠疫苗面世,2021年女性就业有没有机会恢复?

从梅琳达•盖茨到女权组织Time’s Up首席执行官陈远美等六位专家均参与了讨论。各位专家都强调解决关键的差距非常重要,比如无障碍托儿服务和带薪探亲假等。但具体到各方面,从游说国会、跟企业合作以更好地服务女性,再到分析经济数据等,每个人对新一年观点不尽相同。

以下内容为她们各自对2021年的预测、希望和目标:

金伯利•彻奇斯,美国大学女性协会首席执行官

图片来源:Courtesy of AAUW

今年我们真正认识到,不仅要维持工作与生活平衡,工作与生活融合也很关键。2021年我们将发现最明显的趋势将是提升办公场所的灵活性。要想度过危机并看到真正的复苏,就一定要帮助女性度过难关。

随着第117届国会成立,将有更多关于透明度的法案出台:关于薪酬公平,关于办公室增加灵活性的实践,以及托儿服务,例如《工资公平法》和《家庭法》等。

不过,种种法案均在疫情之前就已制定。所以我认为很多组织、官员和政策制定者将努力确保在后疫情时代的世界里继续适用。我认为,相关法案会经过一些修改和调整,从而更符合办公室的发展方向,因为各项法案均支持多样性、公平性和包容性,毕竟今年相关经验教训都很丰富。

梅琳达•盖茨,比尔和梅琳达•盖茨基金会联合主席,Pivotal Ventures创始人,《女性的时刻》作者

图片来源:Michael Short—Bloomberg/Getty Images

2020年经济衰退中女性受创最为严重。2021年经济复苏中女性同样可能受到最大打击。

一个很大的原因是女性需要照顾很多人。即便在疫情之前,女性为照顾家庭而辞职的可能性也几乎是男性的三倍。现在,离开劳动力市场的女性数量创下纪录。最近一项调查发现,多达四分之一的女性正考虑降低工作节奏或辞职,原因就是疫情期间需要花更多时间照顾家庭。

一想到企业重新开门时,很多之前属于女性的办公桌将变得空空荡荡,我就寝食难安。如果立法者不能切实关注照顾家庭引发的危机,我恐惧的场面就会变成现实。首先,我们需要全国性的带薪探亲和病假政策。美国是工业国家当中唯一没有相关政策的国家。还需要联邦政府采取行动稳定动荡的托儿行业,将更多资源用于长期照顾服务和支持,让生病和年老的成年人除了依靠母亲或女儿之外,还有其他选择。

如果继续忽视相关需求,衰退将进一步加深,拖累所有人恢复的进程。如果认识到照顾是基础设施并相应地投资,女性就可能拯救经济。

C•尼科尔•梅森,女性政策研究所所长兼首席执行官

图片来源:Courtesy of Institute of Women's Policy Research

明年一季度的短期内,预计会有更多女性离职,特别是如果学校仍然关闭而日托机构也不开放的话。估计不少女性只能被迫选择。明年二季度由于照顾需求可预期,情况稳定后女性将能重返职场。未来还有很长的路要走。

我认为恢复不会很快。就是感觉不会快,可能会很慢。而且,在居家隔离令100%取消之前,当前趋势还可能加速。消失的一些工作岗位不会很快出现。我认为,从疫情前女性就业水平考虑,要完全恢复还需要几年时间。但我相信会出台类似2008年的强劲复苏计划。希望能提振经济,也能帮助受影响最严重的女性员工。

陈远美,Time’s Up总裁兼首席执行官

图片来源:Courtesy of Tina Tchen

12年前我还在白宫时,曾经参与推出复苏法案希望刺激经济,对我们来说这是一项非常重要的工作。当时,推动经济复苏的工作由副总统拜登主导。我预计,刚当选总统的拜登还会这么做,他组建的经济工作团队也深知这一点。

如今我希望的是,甚至比12年前还要希望个体企业自行制定政策并投资劳动力加以应对,这样劳动力投资方式才能真正发生变化,比如建立协助看护的基础设施。

蕾切尔•托马斯, LeanIn.org联合创始人兼CEO

图片来源:Patrick T. Fallon—Bloomberg/Getty Images

专家们谈论“工作的未来”时,经常指的是人工智能或自动化或机器人技术。疫情则将人类推向不同的方向,即女性工作的未来。很明显,远程办公将继续存在;90%的公司都认为疫情之后,更多的工作将远程完成。

从积极的方面来看,女性很可能充分利用远程办公的机会,尤其是身为母亲和照顾者的女性。但至关重要的是,我们要创造包容远程办公的文化,不能抱有偏见。

如果不考虑长期转向远程办公,最终可能会出现两类员工:一类是不用承担太多照顾责任的人,将有很多机会跟管理者见面;另一类则是要承担照顾责任的人,主要是女性,此类人可能因为远程办公而机会变少,不仅跟高层领导见面的时间减少,晋升机会也更少。

杰思敏•塔克,国家女性法律中心研究主任

图片来源:Courtesy of National Women’s Law Center

如果本次经济衰退跟过去一样,2021年女性将面临失业。大萧条后,黑人女性失业率曾连续60个月达到两位数,期间白人男性失业率从未达到两位数。

我们发现220万女性已完全离开工作岗位。一个月就能抹去十年女性就业取得的进展,现在劳动力参与率又回到30多年前的情况。

如今每个空缺岗位都有两个人应聘,雇主就会对新招的人很挑剔。我不想承认,但现实一遍又一遍上演。雇主经常有种族主义倾向、性别歧视还有年龄歧视。他们不会雇佣有色人种女性,即便雇佣也只提供报酬较低的工作。年长女性可能根本没法重返劳动力市场。

对黑人和拉美裔女性来说,工资差距剥夺了她们储蓄的能力。重返劳动力市场时,很可能一发现工作机会后就立刻接受,待遇往往比之前从事的工作更低。而拥有更多储蓄和资源的白人也许能再等一段时间。

女性就业受到的冲击漫长而艰难。如果现在不采取行动,女性就没法挽回弥补损失。(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

2020年,女性就业遭受了前所未有的打击,不仅失业比例畸高,照顾家庭的责任也越发繁重。两种情况相结合,过去几年乃至数十年来女性在劳动力市场上取得的进步基本丧失。

但随着新一年到来,新总统上任,以及新冠疫苗面世,2021年女性就业有没有机会恢复?

从梅琳达•盖茨到女权组织Time’s Up首席执行官陈远美等六位专家均参与了讨论。各位专家都强调解决关键的差距非常重要,比如无障碍托儿服务和带薪探亲假等。但具体到各方面,从游说国会、跟企业合作以更好地服务女性,再到分析经济数据等,每个人对新一年观点不尽相同。

以下内容为她们各自对2021年的预测、希望和目标:

金伯利•彻奇斯,美国大学女性协会首席执行官

今年我们真正认识到,不仅要维持工作与生活平衡,工作与生活融合也很关键。2021年我们将发现最明显的趋势将是提升办公场所的灵活性。要想度过危机并看到真正的复苏,就一定要帮助女性度过难关。

随着第117届国会成立,将有更多关于透明度的法案出台:关于薪酬公平,关于办公室增加灵活性的实践,以及托儿服务,例如《工资公平法》和《家庭法》等。

不过,种种法案均在疫情之前就已制定。所以我认为很多组织、官员和政策制定者将努力确保在后疫情时代的世界里继续适用。我认为,相关法案会经过一些修改和调整,从而更符合办公室的发展方向,因为各项法案均支持多样性、公平性和包容性,毕竟今年相关经验教训都很丰富。

梅琳达•盖茨,比尔和梅琳达•盖茨基金会联合主席,Pivotal Ventures创始人,《女性的时刻》作者

2020年经济衰退中女性受创最为严重。2021年经济复苏中女性同样可能受到最大打击。

一个很大的原因是女性需要照顾很多人。即便在疫情之前,女性为照顾家庭而辞职的可能性也几乎是男性的三倍。现在,离开劳动力市场的女性数量创下纪录。最近一项调查发现,多达四分之一的女性正考虑降低工作节奏或辞职,原因就是疫情期间需要花更多时间照顾家庭。

一想到企业重新开门时,很多之前属于女性的办公桌将变得空空荡荡,我就寝食难安。如果立法者不能切实关注照顾家庭引发的危机,我恐惧的场面就会变成现实。首先,我们需要全国性的带薪探亲和病假政策。美国是工业国家当中唯一没有相关政策的国家。还需要联邦政府采取行动稳定动荡的托儿行业,将更多资源用于长期照顾服务和支持,让生病和年老的成年人除了依靠母亲或女儿之外,还有其他选择。

如果继续忽视相关需求,衰退将进一步加深,拖累所有人恢复的进程。如果认识到照顾是基础设施并相应地投资,女性就可能拯救经济。

C•尼科尔•梅森,女性政策研究所所长兼首席执行官

明年一季度的短期内,预计会有更多女性离职,特别是如果学校仍然关闭而日托机构也不开放的话。估计不少女性只能被迫选择。明年二季度由于照顾需求可预期,情况稳定后女性将能重返职场。未来还有很长的路要走。

我认为恢复不会很快。就是感觉不会快,可能会很慢。而且,在居家隔离令100%取消之前,当前趋势还可能加速。消失的一些工作岗位不会很快出现。我认为,从疫情前女性就业水平考虑,要完全恢复还需要几年时间。但我相信会出台类似2008年的强劲复苏计划。希望能提振经济,也能帮助受影响最严重的女性员工。

陈远美,Time’s Up总裁兼首席执行官

12年前我还在白宫时,曾经参与推出复苏法案希望刺激经济,对我们来说这是一项非常重要的工作。当时,推动经济复苏的工作由副总统拜登主导。我预计,刚当选总统的拜登还会这么做,他组建的经济工作团队也深知这一点。

如今我希望的是,甚至比12年前还要希望个体企业自行制定政策并投资劳动力加以应对,这样劳动力投资方式才能真正发生变化,比如建立协助看护的基础设施。

蕾切尔•托马斯, LeanIn.org联合创始人兼CEO

专家们谈论“工作的未来”时,经常指的是人工智能或自动化或机器人技术。疫情则将人类推向不同的方向,即女性工作的未来。很明显,远程办公将继续存在;90%的公司都认为疫情之后,更多的工作将远程完成。

从积极的方面来看,女性很可能充分利用远程办公的机会,尤其是身为母亲和照顾者的女性。但至关重要的是,我们要创造包容远程办公的文化,不能抱有偏见。

如果不考虑长期转向远程办公,最终可能会出现两类员工:一类是不用承担太多照顾责任的人,将有很多机会跟管理者见面;另一类则是要承担照顾责任的人,主要是女性,此类人可能因为远程办公而机会变少,不仅跟高层领导见面的时间减少,晋升机会也更少。

杰思敏•塔克,国家女性法律中心研究主任

如果本次经济衰退跟过去一样,2021年女性将面临失业。大萧条后,黑人女性失业率曾连续60个月达到两位数,期间白人男性失业率从未达到两位数。

我们发现220万女性已完全离开工作岗位。一个月就能抹去十年女性就业取得的进展,现在劳动力参与率又回到30多年前的情况。

如今每个空缺岗位都有两个人应聘,雇主就会对新招的人很挑剔。我不想承认,但现实一遍又一遍上演。雇主经常有种族主义倾向、性别歧视还有年龄歧视。他们不会雇佣有色人种女性,即便雇佣也只提供报酬较低的工作。年长女性可能根本没法重返劳动力市场。

对黑人和拉美裔女性来说,工资差距剥夺了她们储蓄的能力。重返劳动力市场时,很可能一发现工作机会后就立刻接受,待遇往往比之前从事的工作更低。而拥有更多储蓄和资源的白人也许能再等一段时间。

女性就业受到的冲击漫长而艰难。如果现在不采取行动,女性就没法挽回弥补损失。(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

In 2020, working women suffered unprecedented losses, facing both disproportionate job loss and a mushrooming of caregiving responsibilities—a combination that could ultimately roll back much of the progress women have made in the workforce over the past years and decades.

But, with a new year, a new presidential administration, and a coronavirus vaccine on the horizon, do women stand a chance of recovering in 2021?

Six experts—from Melinda Gates to Time’s Up CEO Tina Tchen—weighed in on the question. All emphasized the critical importance of addressing key gaps like accessible childcare and paid family leave. But from unique perches—lobbying Congress on these issues, working with businesses to better serve female workers, and analyzing economic data—each has a different outlook for the new year.

Read their predictions, hopes, and goals for 2021 below:

Kimberly Churches, CEO, American Association of University Women

We really learned this year that it’s not work-life balance—it’s work-life blend. Increased flexibility in the workplace is going to be a real top trend we're going to see in 2021. Getting through this crisis and looking at true recovery means we have to center helping women getting through this too.

As we enter the 117th Congress, we’re going to see even more bills coming forward around transparency: on pay equity, on practices in the workplace on flexibility, and on access to care—like the Paycheck Fairness Act and the FAMILY Act.

These bills, though, were written prior to the pandemic. So I think you’ll see a lot of organizations, elected officials, and policymakers working to make sure that they get it right for a post-COVID-19 world. I think we’re going to see those those bills come forward with with a few edits and tweaks that can better meet where workplaces should be going as they fully embrace diversity, equity, and inclusion—especially given what we’ve learned this year.

Melinda Gates, cochair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, founder of Pivotal Ventures, and author of The Moment of Lift

Women have suffered the worst of the 2020 recession. They could suffer the worst of the 2021 recovery, too.

A big reason is caregiving. Even before COVID-19, women were nearly three times as likely as men to quit their jobs to take care of a family member. Now, they’re leaving the workforce in record numbers. A recent survey found that a staggering one in four women is considering downshifting her career or quitting her job because of increased caregiving responsibilities during the pandemic.

It keeps me up at night to think that when businesses reopen, there could be a lot of empty desks where women used to sit. That’s the path we’re headed on unless lawmakers finally give the caregiving crisis the attention it deserves. To start, we need a national paid family and medical leave policy—now. We’re the only industrialized nation without one. We also need federal action to stabilize the teetering childcare industry and to direct additional resources to long-term-care services and supports so that ill and aging adults have options besides relying on a mother or a daughter.

If we ignore these needs, it’ll deepen the recession and slow recovery for everyone. If we recognize that caregiving is infrastructure and invest in it accordingly, women may just save our economy.

C. Nicole Mason, president and CEO, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

In the short term of the first quarter of the year, I expect to see more women exiting the workforce, especially if schools remain closed and day cares remain closed. I expect to see some women having to make that choice. In the second quarter of the year, we’ll see women being able to return to the workforce because of the stability that predictable care provides. I think we have a long road ahead of us.

I don’t think recovery is going to be swift. I just don’t. I think that it’ll be slow. And it might seem accelerated at the beginning when stay-at-home orders are 100% lifted. But some of the jobs that we’ve lost will not be coming back. I think we’re still a couple years out for full recovery, in terms of pre-pandemic levels of employment for women. But I believe there’s going to be a robust recovery plan similar to the one in 2008. Hopefully, that’ll give the economy a boost, but also help women workers who were most impacted.

Tina Tchen, president and CEO, Time’s Up

When I was in the White House 12 years ago, we came out of the gate with a Recovery Act to try to stimulate the economy—that was very much job one for us. Vice President Biden, at the time, led that recovery effort. And I expect that now–President-elect Biden will do the same—and that the economic team he has put in place understands this.

I’m hopeful that, even more than we saw 12 years ago, individual companies will respond with their own policies and their own investment in the workforce—so that we can actually see change take place in how we invest in our workforce, like building a caregiving infrastructure.

Rachel Thomas, cofounder and CEO, LeanIn.org

When experts talk about the “future of work,” we’re often talking about artificial intelligence or automation or robotics. COVID-19 has pushed us in a different direction: the future of work for women. It’s really clear that remote work is here to stay; 90% of companies think more work will be done remotely after COVID-19.

On the positive side, women, particularly mothers and caregivers, are highly likely to take advantage of this option. But it’s going to be critically important that we create a culture that embraces and doesn’t stigmatize remote work.

If we’re not thoughtful about the long-term shift to remote work, it may end up creating two classes of employees: those that don’t have a lot of caregiving responsibilities and will get lots of face time with managers, and those who do have caregiving responsibilities—predominantly women—who may end up paying for working remotely with fewer opportunities, less face time with senior leaders, and fewer chances to advance.

Jasmine Tucker, director of research, National Women’s Law Center

If this recession is anything like past ones, women are going to be experiencing unemployment in 2021; Black women after the Great Recession experienced double-digit unemployment rates for about 60 consecutive months; meanwhile, white men never reached double digits.

We’ve seen 2.2 million women completely drop out of the workforce. We wiped out a decade of gains in terms of employment for women in one month; we are now 30-plus years back in our labor force participation rate.

Now there are two people looking for work for every job opening—so employers are going to be choosy about who they’re hiring. I hate to think that this is true, but we’ve seen it over and over: Employers are racist and sexist and ageist. They’re not going to hire the women of color, or they’re going to hire them for the lower-paying job. Older women might not come back to the labor force at all.

For Black women and Latinas, the wage gap has robbed them of their ability to have savings; when they reenter the workforce, they’re going to be more likely to just take the first thing that comes along—often at a lower level than where they were before. Whereas a white man who has more savings and more resources might be able to wait a little longer.

The impact is going to be long and hard. Without any action now, there’s just no way that women are going to claw back and recoup the losses.

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