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疫情过后,2000万适龄女中学生将永远无法再接受教育

疫情过后,2000万适龄女中学生将永远无法再接受教育

乐文澜(Michal Lev-Ram) 2020年10月07日
公众受教育程度越高,将有助于人们抵御风暴——无论下一场风暴会以何种形式出现。

现在正值返校季,让我们想想那些可能再也无法重返教室的女孩们吧。根据马拉拉基金会(Malala Fund)去年春天发布并于今年7月更新的一份报告,即使等新冠疫情过去,将有2000万适龄女中学生永远无法再接受教育了。为什么?原因有很多,首先是早婚和少女怀孕。这个问题的影响十分深远,不仅会对女孩面临重大风险的重点地区产生影响,而且会对全球产生影响。

巴基斯坦的著名活动家马拉拉·优萨福扎伊是同名非营利组织的联合创始人,她认为,公众受教育程度越高,就意味着社会能够更好地应对全球危机。因为这意味着人们对病毒和疫苗的了解更深入,更懂得如何减缓流行疾病的传播。也意味着经济更稳定,这有助于人们抵御风暴——无论下一场风暴会以何种形式出现。

《财富》杂志最近采访了马拉拉——这位历史上最年轻的诺贝尔和平奖得主,聊一聊她的基金会及其合作伙伴正如何努力减轻女孩教育事业当前面临的威胁,这个问题为什么对企业很重要,以及她本人在疫情期间经受的挑战。出于篇幅和清楚叙述的考虑,下面的采访内容经过了编辑。

《财富》:我们经常听到病毒对美国教育造成的破坏,因为很多情况下要采用远程教学。你能给我们拓展一下吗?讲一讲世界各国的情况,特别是那些无法重返学校的女孩所面临的风险。

马拉拉:坦率地说,新冠已经动摇了全球经济和健康体系,撼动了我们当前的世界。以前,我认为未来一定是会进步的,事情会随着时间的推移得到改善。但当新冠肺炎疫情开始蔓延,马拉拉基金会研究了疫情对女孩教育的影响,我们发现它可能会对2000万女孩造成影响,她们将永远无法重返课堂。这让我加深了对当前社会体系的认知,也让我意识到世界可能会发生意想不到的事情。我们要确保女童教育不被忽视,要保持对这项事业的关注。

你能解释一下为什么这份报告的判断显示,女孩受到的影响这么不成比例得高?

马拉拉基金会的报告(参考了)埃博拉危机中的洞见。尽管埃博拉影响的范围较小,但它能够给我们提供一些信息,因为它告诉我们在危机之前有多少女孩在上学,之后有多少女孩返回了学校,关于那些没有返校的,背后的原因是什么。原因是,女孩待在家里时,她们往往会成为童婚的受害者。学校对她们来说是一个安全屋,而不仅仅是一个学习的地方。第二大原因是,她们会成为家庭的主要经济支柱之一。还有其他一些原因,比如说,通常情况下,如果一家人可以送一个孩子上学,他们会选男孩。

在马拉拉基金会运营的许多地区,技术基础设施已经成为了一个重要问题。目前,技术会在多大程度上帮助或妨碍教育?

技术是当前保证学生不会错失教育机会的一个关键性工具。但这取决于我们说的具体是哪个地方。很难一概而论。在不同地区,我们会给当地人提供他们需要的支持。例如,尼日利亚活动人士的关注点是收音机授课。(巴基斯坦教育创业家)哈龙·亚森在巴基斯坦重点关注的是手机和国家电视台。重点是要跳出思维定势,使用现成的技术。

你想向商界传达什么信息?他们为什么要关心女孩教育事业面临的风险?

(我注意到)这段时间缺少资助。这似乎违反直觉,因为教育是保护我们自己免受未来危机影响的最佳方式。如果女孩能够去上学,经济会增长,公共卫生会改善。想象一下,在当前疫情中,如果我们的社会受教育程度更高,就可以更容易应对这场危机。正是教育让社会能够保护人们的健康和安全,让人们拥有对卫生、病毒和疫苗效果的认知。

就你个人而言,在整个疫情中,对你来说最困难的是什么?

这一切开始的时候,刚好是我大学最后一个学年。我们回家过复活节,之后就再也没有回来过。我不得不在家参加考试和毕业典礼。我原本对毕业以后的设想是四处旅行,和我们的声援者(由女孩教育活动家和倡导者组成的网络,由马拉拉基金会支持)见面。现在却完全无法做这些。人们对接下来会发生什么充满了不确定性和困惑。

但与此同时,我在想,也许这是一个机会,让我们对世界进行重新设置,而不仅仅是回归正常。我希望,这段时间,我们能够真正思考当下的社会和制度。世界并不完美,有种族主义、性别歧视、全球不平等等诸多问题。要做的事很多。我们充满乐观,继续我们的事业。(财富中文网)

译者:Agatha

现在正值返校季,让我们想想那些可能再也无法重返教室的女孩们吧。根据马拉拉基金会(Malala Fund)去年春天发布并于今年7月更新的一份报告,即使等新冠疫情过去,将有2000万适龄女中学生永远无法再接受教育了。为什么?原因有很多,首先是早婚和少女怀孕。这个问题的影响十分深远,不仅会对女孩面临重大风险的重点地区产生影响,而且会对全球产生影响。

巴基斯坦的著名活动家马拉拉·优萨福扎伊是同名非营利组织的联合创始人,她认为,公众受教育程度越高,就意味着社会能够更好地应对全球危机。因为这意味着人们对病毒和疫苗的了解更深入,更懂得如何减缓流行疾病的传播。也意味着经济更稳定,这有助于人们抵御风暴——无论下一场风暴会以何种形式出现。

《财富》杂志最近采访了马拉拉——这位历史上最年轻的诺贝尔和平奖得主,聊一聊她的基金会及其合作伙伴正如何努力减轻女孩教育事业当前面临的威胁,这个问题为什么对企业很重要,以及她本人在疫情期间经受的挑战。出于篇幅和清楚叙述的考虑,下面的采访内容经过了编辑。

《财富》:我们经常听到病毒对美国教育造成的破坏,因为很多情况下要采用远程教学。你能给我们拓展一下吗?讲一讲世界各国的情况,特别是那些无法重返学校的女孩所面临的风险。

马拉拉:坦率地说,新冠已经动摇了全球经济和健康体系,撼动了我们当前的世界。以前,我认为未来一定是会进步的,事情会随着时间的推移得到改善。但当新冠肺炎疫情开始蔓延,马拉拉基金会研究了疫情对女孩教育的影响,我们发现它可能会对2000万女孩造成影响,她们将永远无法重返课堂。这让我加深了对当前社会体系的认知,也让我意识到世界可能会发生意想不到的事情。我们要确保女童教育不被忽视,要保持对这项事业的关注。

你能解释一下为什么这份报告的判断显示,女孩受到的影响这么不成比例得高?

马拉拉基金会的报告(参考了)埃博拉危机中的洞见。尽管埃博拉影响的范围较小,但它能够给我们提供一些信息,因为它告诉我们在危机之前有多少女孩在上学,之后有多少女孩返回了学校,关于那些没有返校的,背后的原因是什么。原因是,女孩待在家里时,她们往往会成为童婚的受害者。学校对她们来说是一个安全屋,而不仅仅是一个学习的地方。第二大原因是,她们会成为家庭的主要经济支柱之一。还有其他一些原因,比如说,通常情况下,如果一家人可以送一个孩子上学,他们会选男孩。

在马拉拉基金会运营的许多地区,技术基础设施已经成为了一个重要问题。目前,技术会在多大程度上帮助或妨碍教育?

技术是当前保证学生不会错失教育机会的一个关键性工具。但这取决于我们说的具体是哪个地方。很难一概而论。在不同地区,我们会给当地人提供他们需要的支持。例如,尼日利亚活动人士的关注点是收音机授课。(巴基斯坦教育创业家)哈龙·亚森在巴基斯坦重点关注的是手机和国家电视台。重点是要跳出思维定势,使用现成的技术。

你想向商界传达什么信息?他们为什么要关心女孩教育事业面临的风险?

(我注意到)这段时间缺少资助。这似乎违反直觉,因为教育是保护我们自己免受未来危机影响的最佳方式。如果女孩能够去上学,经济会增长,公共卫生会改善。想象一下,在当前疫情中,如果我们的社会受教育程度更高,就可以更容易应对这场危机。正是教育让社会能够保护人们的健康和安全,让人们拥有对卫生、病毒和疫苗效果的认知。

就你个人而言,在整个疫情中,对你来说最困难的是什么?

这一切开始的时候,刚好是我大学最后一个学年。我们回家过复活节,之后就再也没有回来过。我不得不在家参加考试和毕业典礼。我原本对毕业以后的设想是四处旅行,和我们的声援者(由女孩教育活动家和倡导者组成的网络,由马拉拉基金会支持)见面。现在却完全无法做这些。人们对接下来会发生什么充满了不确定性和困惑。

但与此同时,我在想,也许这是一个机会,让我们对世界进行重新设置,而不仅仅是回归正常。我希望,这段时间,我们能够真正思考当下的社会和制度。世界并不完美,有种族主义、性别歧视、全球不平等等诸多问题。要做的事很多。我们充满乐观,继续我们的事业。(财富中文网)

译者:Agatha

This back-to-school season, consider the girls who may never go back to a classroom. According to a report from the Malala Fund which was issued last spring and updated in July, 20 million secondary school-aged girls could find themselves permanently out of an education even after the pandemic has passed. Why? The reasons are manifold, starting with early marriages and teen pregnancies. And the impact is far-reaching, not only in the regions where girls are most at risk but across the globe.

According to Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani activist known for cofounding her eponymous nonprofit, a more educated population translates to a society that is better equipped to handle global crises. It means that people are more knowledgeable on issues of viruses and vaccines, and how to slow the spread of a pandemic. It also means more economic stability, which helps populations weather a storm—whatever form the next one may take.

Fortune recently interviewed Yousafzai, the youngest Nobel Peace Prize winner in history, to find out more about the ways her fund and its partners are working to mitigate some of the current threats to girls’ education, why this issue should matter to businesses, and to hear about her own personal challenges throughout the pandemic. The interview below has been edited for length and clarity.

Fortune: We hear a lot about the disruption the virus is causing in education here in the United States, with much of learning being remote. Can you give us a bigger picture for what’s going on globally as a result of the virus, and in particular the risks to girls who are not going back to school?

Yousafzai: To be honest, Covid has shaken the global system of the economy and health and the world we live in. Before, all I could see in the future was progress, that things would improve with time. But as soon as this pandemic started and the Malala Fund did research on how this could affect girls education, we saw that it could impact 20 million girls who would be unable to return to the classroom forever. It made me more aware of the system we were living in, and that there could be unexpected events. We need to ensure that girls’ education is not ignored, and that we do not lose focus of this cause.

Can you explain why the estimates from this report showed such a disproportionate impact on girls?

The Malala Fund report [relied on insight from] the Ebola crisis. Even though it affected a smaller region, it gave us some information because it showed how many girls were in school before that and how many returned, and for those that did not return, why that was the case. The reasons are when girls stay home they often become victim to childhood marriages. School is a safe place for them, not just a place of learning. The second issue is that they become one of the family’s key breadwinners. There are several other reasons, including that oftentimes when there is an option of sending one child to school, families will send the boy.

Technological infrastructure was already an issue in many regions where your fund operates. How much of a role does it play in helping or hindering education now?

Technology is a key tool right now in ensuring that students do not miss out on their education. But it depends on the region we’re talking about. It’s difficult to make a generalized comment. We make sure we give the support they need in different regions. For example, activists in Nigeria are focused on giving lessons through a radio. Haroon [Yasin, a Pakistani education entrepreneur] is focused on using mobile phones and national television in Pakistan. It’s thinking outside the box and using the current technology that we already have.

What message do you want to send the business community, and why should they care about this risk to girls’ education?

[I notice the] lack of support during this time. It seems counterintuitive because education is the best way to protect ourselves from future crises. When girls go to school, economies grow and public health improves. In this time of pandemic, if you imagine a more educated society, it would allow us to more easily tackle more this crisis. It is education that gives us a society in which we can ensure that we are healthy and safe. There is an awareness of hygiene, and how viruses and vaccines work.

What has been hardest for you, on a personal level, throughout the pandemic?

I was in my final year of college when this all started. We were sent back home for Easter holiday and then never returned. I had to take my exams and do my graduation at home. The world I imagined post-graduation was that I would be traveling and meeting our champions [a network of activists and advocates of girls’ education, supported by the Malala Fund]. That is not what I see right now. Instead, there is a lot of uncertainty and confusion about what is next.

But at same time, I’m thinking that maybe this is an opportunity for us to reset the world we are living in, and not just return to normal. I hope that this is a time that we really think about society and the system that we are living in. The world is not perfect, there are issues from racism to sexism and global inequality. There is a lot that needs to be done. We continue our work with optimism.

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