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当食物分享成为一种奢望……

当食物分享成为一种奢望……

Michal Lev-Ram 2020年07月24日
分享型消费能够提升陌生人之间的合作,然而食物在个人或职场领域都已不再是公共分享物品。

我两岁的孩子不大愿意与他人分享。打开一袋Goldfish零食,运气好的话,自己能吃到一两块。然而幸运的是,由于我儿子大部分时间都在家里呆着,因此与以前相比,他基本上无需进行分享。

我儿子的湾区看护中心在3月中旬关闭,离开群体的他,对于分享的学习和应用机会也随之烟消云散。这对于幼童来说是重要的一课。然而最近我一直在思考:疫情及其给人们生活带来的所有新限制,如何削减了我们成年人学习分享的机会。例如,作为曾几何时分享得最多的必需品之一,食物在个人或职场领域都已不再是公共分享物品。

在线企业餐饮服务公司ezCater市场负责人黛安•斯文特表示:“办公室不会再摆放玻璃瓶装的大罐小熊软糖。”这家总部位于波士顿的公司一开始因众多州分店的关闭而受到冲击,如今正努力重振其业务。上个月,ezCater推出了Relish这项服务,它以无接触交付方式派送独立包装食品,继而让各大公司能够继续在公司内部或远程为员工提供餐饮。这对于餐饮公司来说一个明智之举,同时也显示了用餐习惯随之发生的必要转变,它已不再是以往在众多公司食堂和午餐餐厅常见的那种家庭共享式餐饮和自助餐。

的确,疫情不只是影响了办公室员工的用餐习惯。与朋友的用餐聚会也受到了冲击,至少在美国很多地区都是如此,那种并肩齐坐的红酒品尝或酒吧小酌亦未能幸免于难。

食品并非是人们唯一分享的东西,然而用餐是分享活动方面的一个典型案例,因为它是不可或缺的,而且我们一生都在跟餐饮打交道,这一点可能与搭积木不一样。此外,它也是我们参与的最具社交性的活动之一,而且从孩提时代一直贯穿至老年,既涵盖私下的聚会,又包括职场的聚餐。(孩提时代经常和我在一起的祖父母曾对我说,我不能带朋友来这里,因为“家里没有肉”。我努力解释说,我8岁的朋友并非是来吃烤肉的,但依然遭到了反对。)

除了让身体获取营养之外,分享食物到底对我们带来了多大的影响,我们又从中学到了什么?研究人员凯特琳•乌利和阿耶雷特•费舍巴赫在期刊《心理学科学》上发表了一篇调查,它研究了从盘中分享食物这一行为是否能够加强两个人之间的合作,并将其与个人在盘中独自用餐进行了对比。果然,调查的结果显示,“分享型消费能够提升陌生人之间的合作。”

分享食物就像是社会的粘合剂。然而,在当今这个世界上,独立包装的食品依然存在,至少在可以预见的未来不会消失。即便在疫情消失之后,个人与组织也会养成新的习惯。诚然,这些新实践的设立和执行有其正当理由,目的是为了保护我们免受伤害,但有些实践不仅仅会改变人们的用餐习惯,也会深远地改变人们的互动方式。

协作服务公司Slack人事高级副总裁罗比•科沃克在最近的一次采访中对我说:“我们不会再摆放那种人们能够随意伸手去抓的零食。”停止在办公室摆放零食听起来可能也并不是什么重大新闻(说实话,这种做法可能早就该叫停了)。但在餐厅中和陌生人共用一个餐桌的机会也就没了,而且也无法品尝朋友的食物,因为我们现在对卫生问题非常在意。

诚然,食品并非是唯一拥有分享潜力的商品。由佐伊•利伯曼和亚历克斯•肖开展的另一项调查审视了分享秘密对于儿童的影响。事实证明,孩子们可从分享秘密中推断出很多东西,主要原因在于,与分享曲奇这类实物相比,将秘密告诉他人甚至更能彰显双方的紧密关系。(是的,曲奇是调查的一部分。)

该研究的合著者、加州大学圣芭芭拉分校副教授利伯曼说:“如果你看到人们从同一个碗里分享同样的食物,你就能推断出他们之间的关系。然而,我们还从非实物的分享中了解到了很多东西,例如分享时间和秘密。”(不幸的是,我并没有太多的时间和秘密。)

这些无形的事物也可以教导我们去如何分享。这也是为什么视频会议服务Zoom得以兴起的原因。亚马逊自有的游戏玩家流媒体平台Twitch亦是因此而崛起。我们都觉得需要与外界沟通,去分享,即便如今人们不能一起用餐亦无法改变这一事实。

加州大学圣芭芭拉分校的利伯曼说:“人类是一种难以置信的社会激励型生物。”

人类还特别有创新意识。Fast Company最近的文章称,饮料纸杯便是1918年西班牙流感期间的“突破性创意”。不管相信与否,在疫情爆发之前,公共的金属杯十分常见,而且由数百人共用。很恶心,不是吗?不过话说回来,玻璃罐装的小熊软糖不也是这样吗。(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

我两岁的孩子不大愿意与他人分享。打开一袋Goldfish零食,运气好的话,自己能吃到一两块。然而幸运的是,由于我儿子大部分时间都在家里呆着,因此与以前相比,他基本上无需进行分享。

我儿子的湾区看护中心在3月中旬关闭,离开群体的他,对于分享的学习和应用机会也随之烟消云散。这对于幼童来说是重要的一课。然而最近我一直在思考:疫情及其给人们生活带来的所有新限制,如何削减了我们成年人学习分享的机会。例如,作为曾几何时分享得最多的必需品之一,食物在个人或职场领域都已不再是公共分享物品。

在线企业餐饮服务公司ezCater市场负责人黛安•斯文特表示:“办公室不会再摆放玻璃瓶装的大罐小熊软糖。”这家总部位于波士顿的公司一开始因众多州分店的关闭而受到冲击,如今正努力重振其业务。上个月,ezCater推出了Relish这项服务,它以无接触交付方式派送独立包装食品,继而让各大公司能够继续在公司内部或远程为员工提供餐饮。这对于餐饮公司来说一个明智之举,同时也显示了用餐习惯随之发生的必要转变,它已不再是以往在众多公司食堂和午餐餐厅常见的那种家庭共享式餐饮和自助餐。

的确,疫情不只是影响了办公室员工的用餐习惯。与朋友的用餐聚会也受到了冲击,至少在美国很多地区都是如此,那种并肩齐坐的红酒品尝或酒吧小酌亦未能幸免于难。

食品并非是人们唯一分享的东西,然而用餐是分享活动方面的一个典型案例,因为它是不可或缺的,而且我们一生都在跟餐饮打交道,这一点可能与搭积木不一样。此外,它也是我们参与的最具社交性的活动之一,而且从孩提时代一直贯穿至老年,既涵盖私下的聚会,又包括职场的聚餐。(孩提时代经常和我在一起的祖父母曾对我说,我不能带朋友来这里,因为“家里没有肉”。我努力解释说,我8岁的朋友并非是来吃烤肉的,但依然遭到了反对。)

除了让身体获取营养之外,分享食物到底对我们带来了多大的影响,我们又从中学到了什么?研究人员凯特琳•乌利和阿耶雷特•费舍巴赫在期刊《心理学科学》上发表了一篇调查,它研究了从盘中分享食物这一行为是否能够加强两个人之间的合作,并将其与个人在盘中独自用餐进行了对比。果然,调查的结果显示,“分享型消费能够提升陌生人之间的合作。”

分享食物就像是社会的粘合剂。然而,在当今这个世界上,独立包装的食品依然存在,至少在可以预见的未来不会消失。即便在疫情消失之后,个人与组织也会养成新的习惯。诚然,这些新实践的设立和执行有其正当理由,目的是为了保护我们免受伤害,但有些实践不仅仅会改变人们的用餐习惯,也会深远地改变人们的互动方式。

协作服务公司Slack人事高级副总裁罗比•科沃克在最近的一次采访中对我说:“我们不会再摆放那种人们能够随意伸手去抓的零食。”停止在办公室摆放零食听起来可能也并不是什么重大新闻(说实话,这种做法可能早就该叫停了)。但在餐厅中和陌生人共用一个餐桌的机会也就没了,而且也无法品尝朋友的食物,因为我们现在对卫生问题非常在意。

诚然,食品并非是唯一拥有分享潜力的商品。由佐伊•利伯曼和亚历克斯•肖开展的另一项调查审视了分享秘密对于儿童的影响。事实证明,孩子们可从分享秘密中推断出很多东西,主要原因在于,与分享曲奇这类实物相比,将秘密告诉他人甚至更能彰显双方的紧密关系。(是的,曲奇是调查的一部分。)

该研究的合著者、加州大学圣芭芭拉分校副教授利伯曼说:“如果你看到人们从同一个碗里分享同样的食物,你就能推断出他们之间的关系。然而,我们还从非实物的分享中了解到了很多东西,例如分享时间和秘密。”(不幸的是,我并没有太多的时间和秘密。)

这些无形的事物也可以教导我们去如何分享。这也是为什么视频会议服务Zoom得以兴起的原因。亚马逊自有的游戏玩家流媒体平台Twitch亦是因此而崛起。我们都觉得需要与外界沟通,去分享,即便如今人们不能一起用餐亦无法改变这一事实。

加州大学圣芭芭拉分校的利伯曼说:“人类是一种难以置信的社会激励型生物。”

人类还特别有创新意识。Fast Company最近的文章称,饮料纸杯便是1918年西班牙流感期间的“突破性创意”。不管相信与否,在疫情爆发之前,公共的金属杯十分常见,而且由数百人共用。很恶心,不是吗?不过话说回来,玻璃罐装的小熊软糖不也是这样吗。(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

My 2-year-old has a hard time sharing. Open a bag of Goldfish crackers, and good luck getting one or two for yourself. Lucky for him, now that he spends most of his time within the confines of our home, he no longer has to do nearly as much sharing as before.

When my son's Bay Area daycare shut down in mid-March, so did many of the opportunities for him to learn—and grapple with—the art and discipline of accepting that we don’t get everything to ourselves all the time. It’s an important lesson for toddlers. But lately, I’ve been thinking about how the pandemic, and all of the new restrictions the crisis has introduced into our daily life, has cut down on opportunities for us adults to learn to share as well. Case in point: Food, once the most communal of all necessities, is no longer a public good—in either the personal or the professional realm.

“Gone are the days of that big, glass jar of gummy bears in the office,” says Diane Swint, head of marketplace for ezCater, an online corporate catering service. The Boston-based company, which initially took a hit from the shuttering of offices in many states, is now trying to pivot its business. Last month, ezCater launched Relish, a service that allows companies to keep feeding employees both on site and remotely by offering individually-wrapped food distributed via contactless delivery. It’s a smart move for the catering company, but also indicative of the necessary and consequential shift away from more communal, family-style meals and buffets, once common in many corporate cafeterias and lunch rooms.

To be sure, the pandemic isn't only impacting the eating habits of office workers. Dinner parties with friends have also taken a hit, at least in many parts of the country. So have wine tastings or sitting at a bar, shoulder to shoulder with other people.

Food isn’t the only thing we share, but eating is a particularly good example of a shared activity because it’s necessary, and because we engage in it throughout our lives—unlike playing with blocks, perhaps. It’s also, inherently, one of the most social activities we partake in, from childhood to old age, in personal and professional settings. (My grandparents, whom I spent lots of time with as a child, once told me I couldn’t have a friend over because there was “no meat in the house.” I tried to explain that my 8-year-old friend wasn’t coming for the kebabs, but it didn’t go over well.)

Just how much does sharing food impact and inform us, in addition to nourishing our bodies? A study conducted by researchers Kaitlin Wooley and Ayelet Fishbach, published in the journal Psychological Science, looked at whether eating food from a shared plate, compared with eating food from individual plates, can increase cooperation between two individuals. Not surprisingly, the results of the study showed that “shared consumption increases cooperation among strangers.”

Sharing food is like glue for societies. And yet, here we are, in a world where individually packaged food is here to stay, at least for the foreseeable future. Even when the pandemic is behind us, individuals and organizations will be left with new habits. To be sure, these new practices are rightfully instituted and enforced to protect and keep us safe from harm, but some will not only change the way we eat, but profoundly alter the way we interact.

“Snacks that you have to stick your hands in to get is not gonna happen,” Robby Kwok, senior vice president of people at collaboration service Slack, told me in a recent interview. Doing away with in-office snack bowls might not sound earth-shattering (and frankly, it's probably something that should have been nixed a long time ago). But what about the missed opportunity to sit next to strangers at communal tables in restaurants? Or the inability to sample your friend’s food—another no-no now that we’re all hyper-aware of hygiene.

To be sure, food isn’t the only commodity with sharing potential. Another study, conducted by researchers Zoe Liberman and Alex Shaw, examined the impact that sharing secrets has on children. As it turns out, kids infer a lot from the sharing of secrets, primarily that passing secrets from one individual to another is an even stronger indicator of close ties than the sharing of a physical resource—like a cookie. (Yes, cookies were part of the study.)

“If you see people eating the same food from the same bowl, you make inferences around their relationships,” says Liberman, co-author of the study and an assistant professor at University of California, Santa Barbara. “But we also learn a lot from sharing non-physical things like time and secrets.”

Unfortunately, time and secrets aren’t something I have a lot of. But the point is, there are non-touchable things that can teach us about sharing. There is a reason why Zoom, the videoconferencing service, is booming. Same goes for Twitch, the Amazon-owned streaming platform for gamers. We all feel the need to connect—to share—even when breaking bread together isn’t an option.

“Humans are incredibly socially motivated,” says UC Santa Barbara’s Liberman.

Human beings are also incredibly innovative. According to this recent article from Fast Company, Dixie cups were the “breakout startup” of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic. Believe it or not, before that outbreak, communal metal cups were common, and shared by hundreds of people. Gross, right? Then again, so are in-office, glass jars of gummy bears.

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