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苹果牌自动驾驶汽车,至少要等5年

苹果牌自动驾驶汽车,至少要等5年

Mark Gurman, 彭博社 2021年01月08日
苹果汽车将与特斯拉及老牌汽车公司产品展开竞争,但差异点在于,拥有整合其自动驾驶系统的能力。

据知情人士透露,由于研发工作仍然处于早期阶段,距离苹果公司(Apple)推出自家自动驾驶电动汽车,至少还要等上五年。

据悉,苹果拥有一个由硬件工程师组成的小团队,负责开发驱动系统、汽车内外车身设计,而最终目标只有一个:造车。与前几年相比,现在这一目标更具野心——几年之前,该项目仅专注于创建自动驾驶系统,而不是整车。苹果为助力这个项目,还拉拢了特斯拉(Tesla)的前高管们加入。

尽管苹果公司已经加快了步伐,但参与该项目的一些工程师认为,如果按照计划进行,公司将在五到七年后才能推出新产品。一些不愿透露姓名的知情人士称,苹果汽车距离投产还很远;不过他们也表示,时间线可能发生变化。目前,苹果团队的大部分成员或在家工作,或仅在有限的时间内到办公室工作。因此公司开发整车的能力被迫削弱。对此,苹果发言人拒绝置评。

苹果汽车将与特斯拉的电动汽车、新兴公司Lucid Motors以及戴姆勒(Daimler AG)旗下的梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)和通用汽车(General Motors Co.)旗下的雪佛兰(Chevrolet)等老牌汽车产品展开竞争。苹果和其他车企相比有一个关键的差异点:苹果拥有整合其自动驾驶系统的能力——这一特性相当“烧钱”,苹果必须得开发自己的软件、传感器硬件和芯片技术。据熟悉该项目的人士透露,苹果的目标是:让用户输入目的地之后,在几乎零参与的情况下被准确无误地送到那里。

苹果一般不会参与自家产品的组装生产,在汽车上,苹果或许也会采取同样的做法。目前尚不清楚哪家公司将负责组装苹果汽车。大约五年前,苹果首次尝试与大型汽车合约制造商麦格纳国际公司(Magna International Inc.)的工程师合作。据路透社最近报道,苹果计划最早于2024年开始生产汽车。

知情人士表示,苹果一直以来所研究的自动驾驶汽车系统服务的对象,是第三方合作车企,而不是苹果自己。因此,苹果最终有可能会再次放弃自家汽车研发工作,回到原来的路子上。

苹果最初于2014年开始制造电动汽车,为此还雇佣了数百名硬件工程师。2016年左右,苹果又大刀阔斧地对这一项目进行裁减,专注于自动驾驶汽车系统。从2016年到2019年,苹果团队裁减了数百名员工。但是,苹果还是保留了一些在汽车零部件方面具有专业知识的硬件工程师,他们或留在汽车项目中,或投入到其他项目的研发。

几个月前,苹果将一名在汽车内外结构方面都有所成就的高管调入汽车团队,这或许表明,苹果已经重启了电动汽车的开发。2019年,苹果聘请了特斯拉的前工程副总裁史蒂夫•麦克马纳斯,但其最初参与的项目并非与造车相关。据知情人士透露,现在麦克马纳斯领导着一个由几名员工组成的开发小组,专注于汽车内部结构、面料、汽车测试和汽车制造。据悉,他的上司是特斯拉的前首席汽车工程师道格•菲尔德,目前也在苹果汽车部门工作。

苹果最近还聘请了宝马(BMW AG)、特斯拉及Alphabet Inc.旗下Waymo公司的汽车工程师乔纳森•赛维担任汽车项目的高级经理。2019年,苹果聘用了特斯拉负责驱动系统的前副总裁迈克尔•施维库施,越来越多的特斯拉前员工们加入了苹果汽车部门。

据知情人士透露,2020年下半年,苹果还聘请了特斯拉的另一位前副总裁:斯图尔特•鲍尔斯。据LinkedIn的资料显示,2019年年中之前,鲍尔斯一直在领导特斯拉的自动驾驶技术团队,他还曾经在风险投资公司Greylock Partners担任常驻高管。

目前,苹果的汽车团队由数十名特斯拉硬件和自动驾驶汽车前工程师组成。苹果总共有数百名工程师在该项目工作,其中大多数人负责开发的是自动驾驶汽车系统,而非整车。

去年年底,苹果将汽车项目移交给了人工智能主管约翰•詹安德里亚,这表明,该项目的大部分开发工作仍然停留在底层的自动化软件上。

该项目的小硬件团队正致力于研究和开发车辆动力学、驱动系统、安全力学和电池技术。据悉,苹果还试图重新设计汽车内部结构,以适应未来被动驾驶时代的情境。

最近几个月,苹果公司发布的招聘信息显示,汽车团队的岗位正在增加。苹果正在寻找一名首席工程师,将“音频驱动程序、调谐器、扬声器、麦克风、有线总线、电源、无线通信和天线”集成到自动系统中。

另一份招聘启事在寻找拥有LED照明经验的工程师,以提供“经过全面验证、可以量产的系统”。这也表明苹果的自动化研发最终将走向量产的目标。此外,苹果还公布了研发“高压”电池系统的工程师名单,这是电动汽车的关键部件。

知情人士说,苹果由约翰尼•斯洛基领导的芯片部门也在苹果汽车的开发中发挥了作用。自2018年以来,斯洛基的团队一直在开发基于ARM的定制芯片,重点关注机器学习处理,为底层的自动驾驶汽车系统提供支持。

自2017年以来,苹果一直在公共道路上测试自动驾驶技术。2019年,苹果的测试车辆平均行驶了约118英里,之后才交由人类驾驶员进行安全控制。根据加州机动车管理局(California Department of Motor Vehicles)的数据,这一数字要高于2018年的每行驶1英里就发生一次脱离的记录。数据显示,苹果拥有66辆汽车,高于2018年年中获得许可的55辆汽车。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

据知情人士透露,由于研发工作仍然处于早期阶段,距离苹果公司(Apple)推出自家自动驾驶电动汽车,至少还要等上五年。

据悉,苹果拥有一个由硬件工程师组成的小团队,负责开发驱动系统、汽车内外车身设计,而最终目标只有一个:造车。与前几年相比,现在这一目标更具野心——几年之前,该项目仅专注于创建自动驾驶系统,而不是整车。苹果为助力这个项目,还拉拢了特斯拉(Tesla)的前高管们加入。

尽管苹果公司已经加快了步伐,但参与该项目的一些工程师认为,如果按照计划进行,公司将在五到七年后才能推出新产品。一些不愿透露姓名的知情人士称,苹果汽车距离投产还很远;不过他们也表示,时间线可能发生变化。目前,苹果团队的大部分成员或在家工作,或仅在有限的时间内到办公室工作。因此公司开发整车的能力被迫削弱。对此,苹果发言人拒绝置评。

苹果汽车将与特斯拉的电动汽车、新兴公司Lucid Motors以及戴姆勒(Daimler AG)旗下的梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)和通用汽车(General Motors Co.)旗下的雪佛兰(Chevrolet)等老牌汽车产品展开竞争。苹果和其他车企相比有一个关键的差异点:苹果拥有整合其自动驾驶系统的能力——这一特性相当“烧钱”,苹果必须得开发自己的软件、传感器硬件和芯片技术。据熟悉该项目的人士透露,苹果的目标是:让用户输入目的地之后,在几乎零参与的情况下被准确无误地送到那里。

苹果一般不会参与自家产品的组装生产,在汽车上,苹果或许也会采取同样的做法。目前尚不清楚哪家公司将负责组装苹果汽车。大约五年前,苹果首次尝试与大型汽车合约制造商麦格纳国际公司(Magna International Inc.)的工程师合作。据路透社最近报道,苹果计划最早于2024年开始生产汽车。

知情人士表示,苹果一直以来所研究的自动驾驶汽车系统服务的对象,是第三方合作车企,而不是苹果自己。因此,苹果最终有可能会再次放弃自家汽车研发工作,回到原来的路子上。

苹果最初于2014年开始制造电动汽车,为此还雇佣了数百名硬件工程师。2016年左右,苹果又大刀阔斧地对这一项目进行裁减,专注于自动驾驶汽车系统。从2016年到2019年,苹果团队裁减了数百名员工。但是,苹果还是保留了一些在汽车零部件方面具有专业知识的硬件工程师,他们或留在汽车项目中,或投入到其他项目的研发。

几个月前,苹果将一名在汽车内外结构方面都有所成就的高管调入汽车团队,这或许表明,苹果已经重启了电动汽车的开发。2019年,苹果聘请了特斯拉的前工程副总裁史蒂夫•麦克马纳斯,但其最初参与的项目并非与造车相关。据知情人士透露,现在麦克马纳斯领导着一个由几名员工组成的开发小组,专注于汽车内部结构、面料、汽车测试和汽车制造。据悉,他的上司是特斯拉的前首席汽车工程师道格•菲尔德,目前也在苹果汽车部门工作。

苹果最近还聘请了宝马(BMW AG)、特斯拉及Alphabet Inc.旗下Waymo公司的汽车工程师乔纳森•赛维担任汽车项目的高级经理。2019年,苹果聘用了特斯拉负责驱动系统的前副总裁迈克尔•施维库施,越来越多的特斯拉前员工们加入了苹果汽车部门。

据知情人士透露,2020年下半年,苹果还聘请了特斯拉的另一位前副总裁:斯图尔特•鲍尔斯。据LinkedIn的资料显示,2019年年中之前,鲍尔斯一直在领导特斯拉的自动驾驶技术团队,他还曾经在风险投资公司Greylock Partners担任常驻高管。

目前,苹果的汽车团队由数十名特斯拉硬件和自动驾驶汽车前工程师组成。苹果总共有数百名工程师在该项目工作,其中大多数人负责开发的是自动驾驶汽车系统,而非整车。

去年年底,苹果将汽车项目移交给了人工智能主管约翰•詹安德里亚,这表明,该项目的大部分开发工作仍然停留在底层的自动化软件上。

该项目的小硬件团队正致力于研究和开发车辆动力学、驱动系统、安全力学和电池技术。据悉,苹果还试图重新设计汽车内部结构,以适应未来被动驾驶时代的情境。

最近几个月,苹果公司发布的招聘信息显示,汽车团队的岗位正在增加。苹果正在寻找一名首席工程师,将“音频驱动程序、调谐器、扬声器、麦克风、有线总线、电源、无线通信和天线”集成到自动系统中。

另一份招聘启事在寻找拥有LED照明经验的工程师,以提供“经过全面验证、可以量产的系统”。这也表明苹果的自动化研发最终将走向量产的目标。此外,苹果还公布了研发“高压”电池系统的工程师名单,这是电动汽车的关键部件。

知情人士说,苹果由约翰尼•斯洛基领导的芯片部门也在苹果汽车的开发中发挥了作用。自2018年以来,斯洛基的团队一直在开发基于ARM的定制芯片,重点关注机器学习处理,为底层的自动驾驶汽车系统提供支持。

自2017年以来,苹果一直在公共道路上测试自动驾驶技术。2019年,苹果的测试车辆平均行驶了约118英里,之后才交由人类驾驶员进行安全控制。根据加州机动车管理局(California Department of Motor Vehicles)的数据,这一数字要高于2018年的每行驶1英里就发生一次脱离的记录。数据显示,苹果拥有66辆汽车,高于2018年年中获得许可的55辆汽车。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

Apple will take at least half a decade to launch an autonomous, electric vehicle because development work is still at an early stage, according to people with knowledge of the efforts.

The Cupertino, Calif.-based technology giant has a small team of hardware engineers developing drive systems, vehicle interior and external car body designs with the goal of eventually shipping a vehicle. That’s a more ambitious goal than in previous years when the project mostly focused on creating an underlying self-driving system. The company has also added more ex-Tesla Inc. executives to the project.

Still, some Apple engineers on the project believe the company could release a product in five to seven years if Apple goes ahead with its plans. The car is nowhere near production stage, the people said, though they did warn timelines could change. They asked not to be identified discussing sensitive, internal work. The majority of the team is currently either working from home or at the office for limited time, slowing the company’s ability to develop a full vehicle. An Apple spokesman declined to comment.

An Apple car would rival electric vehicles from Tesla and offerings from companies such as upstart Lucid Motors and established manufacturers like Daimler AG’s Mercedes-Benz and General Motors Co.’s Chevrolet. A key differentiator would be Apple’s ability to integrate its self-driving system, a pricey initiative that has spurred the company to develop its own software, sensor hardware and chip technologies. The goal is to let a user to input their destination and be driven there with little or no other engagement, according to the people familiar with the project.

Apple doesn’t manufacture its own products, and it will likely take the same approach with a vehicle. It’s unclear which company would assemble the car, though. In its first attempt about five years ago, Apple worked with engineers from Magna International Inc., a major auto industry contract manufacturer. Reuters recently reported that Apple is aiming to begin producing a car as early as 2024.

Apple has continued to investigate building its self-driving car system for a third-party car partner rather than its own vehicle, the people said, and it could ultimately again abandon its own car efforts in favor of this approach.

The company first set out to build an electric car in 2014, hiring hundreds of hardware engineers for the effort before rapidly paring it back around 2016 to focus on the self-driving car system. From 2016 through 2019, Apple cut hundreds of workers from the team. However, it kept some hardware engineers with expertise in car components who either stayed on the car project or worked on other initiatives.

In a sign it has now rebooted development of a vehicle, Apple in recent months shifted an executive known for his work on vehicle interiors and exteriors to its car team. In 2019, Apple hired former Tesla engineering vice president Steve MacManus, but he initially worked on projects unrelated to the car. Now MacManus leads a development group with several employees focused on car interiors, fabrics, car testing and vehicle manufacturing, people with knowledge of the matter said. He reports to Doug Field, a former top Tesla vehicle engineer who runs the Apple car project day to day.

Apple also recently hired Jonathan Sive, a vehicle engineer from BMW AG, Tesla and Alphabet Inc.’s Waymo, as a senior manager on the car project. In 2019, Apple tapped Michael Schwekutsch, Tesla’s former vice president in charge of drive systems, adding to a growing list of former Tesla employees working on the vehicle effort.

Late in 2020, Apple also hired another former Tesla vice president, Stuart Bowers, according to a person familiar with the move. He led Tesla’s self-driving technology team until mid-2019 and was an executive-in-residence at venture capital firm Greylock Partners until July, according to his LinkedIn profile.

Apple’s car team is filled with dozens of other ex-Tesla hardware and self-driving car engineers. In total, Apple has several hundred engineers working on the project, with most of them developing the self-driving car system rather than the full-fledged vehicle.

Late last year, Apple moved the project under John Giannandrea, head of artificial intelligence, suggesting most of the development work remains on the underlying autonomous software.

The smaller hardware team is working on vehicle dynamics, drive trains, safety mechanics and battery technology. It’s also trying to re-imagine a car’s interior for a future in which people ride passively rather than steer.

In recent months, Apple has posted job listings that indicate this vehicle work is ramping up. The company is seeking a lead engineer to integrate “audio drivers, tuners, speakers, microphones, wired buses, power supplies, wireless communication, and antennas” into autonomous systems.

Another job listing asks for an engineer with experience in LED lighting to deliver “a fully validated system ready for volume production,” suggesting that the company’s autonomous work is being designed to eventually be mass-produced. The company has also published listings for engineers to work on “high-voltage” battery systems, a key component of electric cars.

Apple’s chip unit, led by Johny Srouji, is playing a role in the car’s development, too, the people said. Since 2018, Srouji’s team has been developing a custom Arm-based chip with a heavy focus on machine learning processing to power the underlying self-driving car system.

The company has been testing autonomous technology on public roads since 2017. In 2019, the company’s test vehicles drove an average of about 118 miles before a human safety driver had to take control. That was up from 1 mile per disengagement in 2018, according to data from the California Department of Motor Vehicles. The company has 66 cars in its fleet, according to the California DMV. That’s up from 55 permitted vehicles as of mid-2018.

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