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拜登政府对人工智能而言意味着什么?

拜登政府对人工智能而言意味着什么?

Jonathan Vanian 2020年11月11日
增加对人工智能研究的投入及对面部识别软件采取更强硬的立场或将成为焦点。

如果人工智能的研究人员和企业对特朗普总统的人工智能政策感到失望,那么在拜登当选总统之后,失望或许会消散,希望的曙光出现了。

当前美国人工智能政策的一个主要痛处在于特朗普政府拨给非军事人工智能相关研究的资金数额。今年2月,白宫表示,到2022年将把对非国防相关人工智能的投资增加到每年20亿美元。一些分析人士认为,考虑到研发尖端人工智能所需的巨额资金,这一数字少得可怜。

尽管拜登政府还没有详细说明人工智能研究的具体计划,但民主党的竞选团队表示,他们认为科学研究和发展对美国至关重要。拜登提议在四年内将联邦研发支出增加到3000亿美元。与此同时,作为特朗普总统2021年预算的一部分,白宫计划在联邦研发方面投入1422亿美元。

拜登的竞选团队表示,“联邦研发支出下降导致美国中产阶级被掏空”。拟议中的投资将惠及“关键技术”,例如5G、人工智能、先进材料、生物技术以及清洁汽车。

各家公司和研究人员正在等待,静观拜登政府将如何分配其提议的资金给予与人工智能相关的项目。由于对新冠肺炎疫情、系统性种族主义和经济等热点问题的关注太多,在激烈的政治斗争中,拜登和特朗普都没有把人工智能作为国家关注的重要领域。

不过,拜登政府之前的声明和举措让我们有机会了解他们是如何看待人工智能和面部识别等相关技术的。

副总统当选人贺锦丽(Kamala Harris)此前曾经呼吁人们关注在刑事司法系统中使用人工智能的潜在问题。许多研究人员和活动人士担心,面部识别软件在白人男性身上比在女性和有色人种身上更有效,并且有种族歧视历史的警察部门可能会导致人脸识别的滥用。

去年12月,贺锦丽和包括新泽西州民主党参议员科里·布克、马萨诸塞州民主党参议员埃德·马基在内的其他立法者也呼吁美国住房和城市发展部(U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development)审查有关在联邦住房援助中使用人脸识别软件的政策。

贺锦丽和其他议员担心:“面部识别技术在联邦政府资助的住房领域的扩大应用,会给边缘化社群带来风险,为威胁不受约束的公民权利的政府监控打开大门。”

当然,活动人士批评贺锦丽在担任检察官期间对犯罪的强硬态度,认为其导致了对黑人的过度监禁。

但从她目前的言论和行动来看,拜登新政府可能会提议在禁止联邦政府使用面部识别方面实行更严格的举措。至于拜登政府在企业使用面部识别方面有什么计划,还有待观察。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

如果人工智能的研究人员和企业对特朗普总统的人工智能政策感到失望,那么在拜登当选总统之后,失望或许会消散,希望的曙光出现了。

当前美国人工智能政策的一个主要痛处在于特朗普政府拨给非军事人工智能相关研究的资金数额。今年2月,白宫表示,到2022年将把对非国防相关人工智能的投资增加到每年20亿美元。一些分析人士认为,考虑到研发尖端人工智能所需的巨额资金,这一数字少得可怜。

尽管拜登政府还没有详细说明人工智能研究的具体计划,但民主党的竞选团队表示,他们认为科学研究和发展对美国至关重要。拜登提议在四年内将联邦研发支出增加到3000亿美元。与此同时,作为特朗普总统2021年预算的一部分,白宫计划在联邦研发方面投入1422亿美元。

拜登的竞选团队表示,“联邦研发支出下降导致美国中产阶级被掏空”。拟议中的投资将惠及“关键技术”,例如5G、人工智能、先进材料、生物技术以及清洁汽车。

各家公司和研究人员正在等待,静观拜登政府将如何分配其提议的资金给予与人工智能相关的项目。由于对新冠肺炎疫情、系统性种族主义和经济等热点问题的关注太多,在激烈的政治斗争中,拜登和特朗普都没有把人工智能作为国家关注的重要领域。

不过,拜登政府之前的声明和举措让我们有机会了解他们是如何看待人工智能和面部识别等相关技术的。

副总统当选人贺锦丽(Kamala Harris)此前曾经呼吁人们关注在刑事司法系统中使用人工智能的潜在问题。许多研究人员和活动人士担心,面部识别软件在白人男性身上比在女性和有色人种身上更有效,并且有种族歧视历史的警察部门可能会导致人脸识别的滥用。

去年12月,贺锦丽和包括新泽西州民主党参议员科里·布克、马萨诸塞州民主党参议员埃德·马基在内的其他立法者也呼吁美国住房和城市发展部(U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development)审查有关在联邦住房援助中使用人脸识别软件的政策。

贺锦丽和其他议员担心:“面部识别技术在联邦政府资助的住房领域的扩大应用,会给边缘化社群带来风险,为威胁不受约束的公民权利的政府监控打开大门。”

当然,活动人士批评贺锦丽在担任检察官期间对犯罪的强硬态度,认为其导致了对黑人的过度监禁。

但从她目前的言论和行动来看,拜登新政府可能会提议在禁止联邦政府使用面部识别方面实行更严格的举措。至于拜登政府在企业使用面部识别方面有什么计划,还有待观察。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

If artificial intelligence researchers and companies were disappointed with President Donald Trump’s A.I. policies, they might be more hopeful about the future of A.I. now that Joe Biden has been elected President.

One of the major sore points with current federal A.I. policy was the amount of funding that the Trump administration has allocated for nonmilitary A.I.-related research. In February, the White House said it would bump non–defense-related A.I. investment to $2 billion annually by 2022, which was seen by some analysts as paltry considering the staggering amount of money that’s needed to produce cutting-edge A.I. research.

Although the Biden administration has not detailed its exact plans for A.I. research, the Democrat’s campaign indicated that it considers general scientific research and development to be crucial to the nation. Biden has proposed to increase the amount of federal R&D spending to $300 billion over four years. Meanwhile, the White House planned to spend $142.2 billion on federal R&D as part of President Trump’s 2021 budget.

The Biden campaign said that “declines in federal R&D spending have contributed to a hollowing out of the American middle class,” and that its proposed investment would benefit “key technologies” like “5G, artificial intelligence, advanced materials, biotechnology, and clean vehicles.”

Companies and researchers will have to wait to see how exactly the Biden administration divvies its proposed funding to A.I.-specific initiatives. With so much attention on hot-topic issues like COVID-19, systemic racism, and the economy, both Trump and Biden paid little attention to A.I. as an important area for the nation to focus on during their heated political battles.

Still, previous statements and initiatives give us a window into how the new administration views A.I. and related technologies like facial recognition.

Vice President–elect Kamala Harris has previously called attention to the potential problems of using A.I. in the criminal justice system. Numerous researchers and activists are concerned about facial recognition software’s tendency to work better on white males than women and people of color, and its potential misuse by police departments with a history of racism.

Last December, Harris and other lawmakers like Sen. Cory Booker (D-N.J.) and Sen. Ed Markey (D-Mass.) also called on the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to review policies governing the use of facial recognition software in federally assisted housing.

Harris and the other lawmakers were concerned “that the expansion of facial recognition technology in federally assisted housing properties poses risks to marginalized communities, including by opening the door to unchecked government surveillance that could threaten civil rights.”

Of course, Harris has been criticized by activists for her tough-on-crime approach during her stint as a prosecutor that they claim resulted in the over-incarceration of Black people.

But judging by her rhetoric and actions so far, it’s possible the new Biden administration may propose tougher bans on federal use of facial recognition. As for what the Biden administration plans for corporate use of facial recognition, that remains to be seen.

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