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编辑要失业了?这款AI编辑工具或引发写作革命

编辑要失业了?这款AI编辑工具或引发写作革命

Jeremy Kahn 2020年10月29日
以色列初创公司AI21 Labs目前推出了一款人工智能编辑工具,据说完全能够替代人工。

目前,编辑工作仍然由人工完成。Microsoft Word内置软件或Grammarly等拼写和语法检查软件,可以找出语法和拼写错误或标点错误。但此类软件并不能够告诉用户如何用完全不同的句子来表达相同的意思。

以色列初创公司AI21 Labs目前推出了一款人工智能编辑工具,完全可以做到这一点。这款工具能够为用户推荐不同长度以及不同语气的句子,并帮助用户针对特定语境选择最合适的词语。该公司由两位著名的机器学习研究专家和某以色列军事情报机构的几位退役军人共同创立。

AI21的联合创始人之一奥里•戈申称:“我们正在开发一款真正的书写伴侣,一个共同撰写人,而不是文本编辑器。”

以特朗普总统在2016年总统大选期间发表的词不达意的言辞为例:“我知道词语。我会运用最好的词语。”AI21 Labs开发的软件可以推荐用不同的句子来表达相同的意思,但使用的词语甚至在原文中都没有出现。例如,较为正式的表达:“我是一个文字大师,拥有令人印象深刻的词汇量。”而更简单但比原文更清晰的表达是:“我的词汇量非常丰富。”该软件还能够推荐更冗长的措辞:“我的词汇量很大,并且善于针对不同的语境选择最合适的词语。”

这款产品名为Wordtune,是谷歌浏览器(Google Chrome)的免费扩展程序,可以在Google Docs、Gmail和Sheets等程序中编辑句子,也能够在Facebook和推特(Twitter)等社交媒体网站上进行编辑。Wordtune目前还不能兼容Microsoft Word,但该公司希望可以很快将Wordtune与Microsoft Word集成在一起。

戈申曾经多次创业,他也是以色列国防军8200部队(以色列主要军事信号情报机构)的退伍军人。他说,还有几名8200部队的退伍军人也在该公司工作。

2017年,他与以色列两位最著名的人工智能专家共同创立了AI21 Labs:一位是前斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的人工智能研究员约阿夫•肖汉姆,他将之前的两家初创公司卖给了搜索巨头谷歌(Google),并在谷歌工作了两年;另一位是阿姆侬•沙苏亚,他是希伯来大学(Hebrew University)的计算机科学家,同时也是Mobileye(英特尔的子公司,为自动驾驶汽车和汽车工业研发人工智能软件)的首席执行官。该公司还有一位来自以色列希伯来大学的著名机器学习研究员,沙伊•沙莱夫-施瓦茨。

肖汉姆表示,该公司的远大目标是利用人工智能“从根本上变革我们的读写方式”。

Wordtune就是在过去两年自然语言处理快速发展中出现的一款人工智能工具,它能够操纵并在一定程度上“理解”语言。这些进步得益于两大发展:其一是新型神经网络设计的出现,这是一种大致基于人脑的机器学习,称为Transformer;其二是大量语言模型的出现,这些模型有数百亿个变量,并用大量文本塑造而成。

可以自动撰写或改写文本的书写工具有很多,而且还在不断增加,AI21 Labs正在推出的Wordtune就是其中之一。竞争对手之一Quillbot由芝加哥一家初创公司开发,能够提供改写建议,并可以重写整个段落。谷歌正在逐步将更复杂的自动完成功能融入Gmail等产品中。微软公司(Microsoft)在Microsoft Word中推出的一个功能,能够使用人工智能来提供其他句子表达方式。OpenAI创建了最大语言模型之一GPT-3,并且已经授权一家名为OthersideAI的初创公司使用该软件,该软件可以根据一些要点自动生成电子邮件。

肖汉姆表示,与GPT-3不同,AI21 Labs开发的系统是基于神经网络的语言模型与一种较早人工智能形式的融合体,它用图形结构来表达人类认知,如词汇和词义。与一些基于超大语言模型的纯统计方法相比,这种融合系统在某种程度上能够让Wordtune更好地理解一段文字所要表达的含义。

该公司还对大型语言模型的工作原理进行了基础性研究,并取得了一些突破性进展。今年早些时候发布的一项成果是对谷歌发明的一个大型语言模型BERT所作的改进。BERT是随机掩盖大文本中的词语,然后让人工智能系统预测掩盖的词语。AI21 Labs进一步完善了该系统,创建了一个名为SenseBERT的人工智能语言模型,在该模型中,掩盖并非完全随机,而是会权衡句子中对表达思想最重要的部分。肖汉姆表示:“它可以捕捉到句子的真实含义。”

该公司还建立了一个名为Haimke系统的研究项目,与OthersideAI构建的系统一样,Haimke能够将要点转换成文字。另一个系统名为Haim,其工作原理有点类似GPT-3,可以根据几句话写出一长段连贯的文字。但Haim又不同于GPT-3,因为Haim的用户能够编写一系列“导航”句子来帮助引导人工智能创建文本。肖汉姆称,该软件用新的文字填补了这些导航句之间的空白,而这些导航句则是逻辑路标,因此该软件不太可能“偏离意思”并生成无意义的文字。目前,这两款系统均未上市。(财富中文网)

翻译:郝秀

审校:汪皓

目前,编辑工作仍然由人工完成。Microsoft Word内置软件或Grammarly等拼写和语法检查软件,可以找出语法和拼写错误或标点错误。但此类软件并不能够告诉用户如何用完全不同的句子来表达相同的意思。

以色列初创公司AI21 Labs目前推出了一款人工智能编辑工具,完全可以做到这一点。这款工具能够为用户推荐不同长度以及不同语气的句子,并帮助用户针对特定语境选择最合适的词语。该公司由两位著名的机器学习研究专家和某以色列军事情报机构的几位退役军人共同创立。

AI21的联合创始人之一奥里•戈申称:“我们正在开发一款真正的书写伴侣,一个共同撰写人,而不是文本编辑器。”

以特朗普总统在2016年总统大选期间发表的词不达意的言辞为例:“我知道词语。我会运用最好的词语。”AI21 Labs开发的软件可以推荐用不同的句子来表达相同的意思,但使用的词语甚至在原文中都没有出现。例如,较为正式的表达:“我是一个文字大师,拥有令人印象深刻的词汇量。”而更简单但比原文更清晰的表达是:“我的词汇量非常丰富。”该软件还能够推荐更冗长的措辞:“我的词汇量很大,并且善于针对不同的语境选择最合适的词语。”

这款产品名为Wordtune,是谷歌浏览器(Google Chrome)的免费扩展程序,可以在Google Docs、Gmail和Sheets等程序中编辑句子,也能够在Facebook和推特(Twitter)等社交媒体网站上进行编辑。Wordtune目前还不能兼容Microsoft Word,但该公司希望可以很快将Wordtune与Microsoft Word集成在一起。

戈申曾经多次创业,他也是以色列国防军8200部队(以色列主要军事信号情报机构)的退伍军人。他说,还有几名8200部队的退伍军人也在该公司工作。

2017年,他与以色列两位最著名的人工智能专家共同创立了AI21 Labs:一位是前斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的人工智能研究员约阿夫•肖汉姆,他将之前的两家初创公司卖给了搜索巨头谷歌(Google),并在谷歌工作了两年;另一位是阿姆侬•沙苏亚,他是希伯来大学(Hebrew University)的计算机科学家,同时也是Mobileye(英特尔的子公司,为自动驾驶汽车和汽车工业研发人工智能软件)的首席执行官。该公司还有一位来自以色列希伯来大学的著名机器学习研究员,沙伊•沙莱夫-施瓦茨。

肖汉姆表示,该公司的远大目标是利用人工智能“从根本上变革我们的读写方式”。

Wordtune就是在过去两年自然语言处理快速发展中出现的一款人工智能工具,它能够操纵并在一定程度上“理解”语言。这些进步得益于两大发展:其一是新型神经网络设计的出现,这是一种大致基于人脑的机器学习,称为Transformer;其二是大量语言模型的出现,这些模型有数百亿个变量,并用大量文本塑造而成。

可以自动撰写或改写文本的书写工具有很多,而且还在不断增加,AI21 Labs正在推出的Wordtune就是其中之一。竞争对手之一Quillbot由芝加哥一家初创公司开发,能够提供改写建议,并可以重写整个段落。谷歌正在逐步将更复杂的自动完成功能融入Gmail等产品中。微软公司(Microsoft)在Microsoft Word中推出的一个功能,能够使用人工智能来提供其他句子表达方式。OpenAI创建了最大语言模型之一GPT-3,并且已经授权一家名为OthersideAI的初创公司使用该软件,该软件可以根据一些要点自动生成电子邮件。

肖汉姆表示,与GPT-3不同,AI21 Labs开发的系统是基于神经网络的语言模型与一种较早人工智能形式的融合体,它用图形结构来表达人类认知,如词汇和词义。与一些基于超大语言模型的纯统计方法相比,这种融合系统在某种程度上能够让Wordtune更好地理解一段文字所要表达的含义。

该公司还对大型语言模型的工作原理进行了基础性研究,并取得了一些突破性进展。今年早些时候发布的一项成果是对谷歌发明的一个大型语言模型BERT所作的改进。BERT是随机掩盖大文本中的词语,然后让人工智能系统预测掩盖的词语。AI21 Labs进一步完善了该系统,创建了一个名为SenseBERT的人工智能语言模型,在该模型中,掩盖并非完全随机,而是会权衡句子中对表达思想最重要的部分。肖汉姆表示:“它可以捕捉到句子的真实含义。”

该公司还建立了一个名为Haimke系统的研究项目,与OthersideAI构建的系统一样,Haimke能够将要点转换成文字。另一个系统名为Haim,其工作原理有点类似GPT-3,可以根据几句话写出一长段连贯的文字。但Haim又不同于GPT-3,因为Haim的用户能够编写一系列“导航”句子来帮助引导人工智能创建文本。肖汉姆称,该软件用新的文字填补了这些导航句之间的空白,而这些导航句则是逻辑路标,因此该软件不太可能“偏离意思”并生成无意义的文字。目前,这两款系统均未上市。(财富中文网)

翻译:郝秀

审校:汪皓

Today, editing is a manual, human process. Spelling and grammar checking software, such as the one built into Microsoft Word or the grammar checker Grammarly, can suggest when a word is incorrectly used or a comma misplaced. But it can't recommend an entirely different way of writing a sentence to convey the same idea.

Now AI21 Labs, an Israeli startup cofounded by two well-known machine learning researchers and several veterans of an elite Israeli military intelligence unit, has debuted an A.I.-enabled editing tool that does exactly that. It can suggest variations of different lengths and tones, as well as help users find the best word to use in a particular circumstance.

"We are developing a true writing companion, a cowriter as opposed to a copy editor," Ori Goshen, one of AI21's cofounders, said.

Take the infamously inarticulate statement from President Trump, uttered when he was still a candidate during the 2016 presidential election campaign: “I know words. I have the best words.” The software AI21 Labs has created can suggest a range of ways to rewrite the sentence to capture the same intent, but using words that don't even appear in the original. These include the more formal, "I am a master wordsmith and possess an impressive vocabulary," as well as a version that's simpler but still more articulate than the original, "I have a wonderfully rich vocabulary." It can also suggest a more verbose phrasing: "I have an extensive vocabulary, and am skilled at choosing the most appropriate term to express myself in a given situation."

The product, called Wordtune, is a free Google Chrome browser extension that can edit sentences in programs like Google Docs, Gmail, and Sheets, as well as within social media sites like Facebook and Twitter. Wordtune does not yet work with Microsoft Word, but the company hopes to integrate it with the well-known word-processing software sometime soon.

Goshen is a serial entrepreneur as well as a veteran of the Israeli Defense Forces’ Unit 8200, the main signals intelligence division of the Israeli military. Several other veterans of the unit also work for the company, he said.

He cofounded AI21 Labs in 2017 with two of Israel's best known A.I. experts: Yoav Shoham, a former Stanford University artificial intelligence researcher who sold two previous startups to Google and worked for the search giant for two years, and Amnon Shashua, a computer scientist at Hebrew University who is also the chief executive at Mobileye, a subsidiary of Intel that makes artificial intelligence software for self-driving cars and the automotive industry. Shai Shalev-Shwartz, another well-known Israeli machine learning researcher at Hebrew University, also does work for the company.

Shoham said that the company's lofty goal is to use A.I. "to fundamentally transform how we read and write."

Wordtune is an example of the rapid advances in natural language processing—a kind of A.I. that can manipulate and to some extent "understand" language—that have occurred in the past two years. These advances have been driven by two developments: a new kind of design for a neural network, a kind of machine learning loosely based on the brain, called a Transformer, and the advent of massive language models that take in tens of billions of variables and are trained on colossal amounts of text.

AI21 Labs is launching Wordtune into an increasingly crowded field of competing writing tools that can automatically compose or rephrase text. A competing system called Quillbot, built by a Chicago startup, suggests paraphrasing and can rewrite whole paragraphs. Google is increasingly incorporating more sophisticated auto-complete functions into its products, including Gmail. Microsoft has launched a feature in Microsoft Word that uses A.I. to suggest alternate ways to phrase a sentence. OpenAI, which has created one of the largest language models, called GPT-3, has licensed the system to a startup called OthersideAI, which uses the software to automatically generate emails from a few bullet points.

Unlike GPT-3, AI21 Labs's system is a fusion between neural network–based language models and an older form of artificial intelligence that seeks to represent human knowledge, like vocabulary and the meaning of words, in a graph structure, Shoham said. This fusion is part of what enables Wordtune to have a much better understanding of the concepts being expressed in a piece of writing than some of the pure statistical approaches based on ultra-large language models.

The company has also made some fundamental research breakthroughs in the way large language models work. One, which it published earlier this year, is an improvement on a large language model invented by Google called BERT. BERT is based on hiding random words in a large text and then asking an A.I. system to predict the hidden words. AI21 Labs refined this system, creating an A.I. language model called SenseBERT, in which the masking is not completely random but is weighted toward the parts of the sentence that are most important for conveying meaning. "This allows it to capture the true sense of a sentence," Shoham said.

As a research project, the company also built a system, which it calls Haimke, that can, like the system built by OthersideAI, turn bullet points into prose. Another system, called Haim, works a bit like GPT-3, composing long coherent passages from a few sentences of human writing. Haim differs from GPT-3, though, in that the human using it can help guide the text the A.I. creates by writing a series of "waypoint" sentences. The software fills in the gaps between these waypoints with novel prose, but the waypoints serve as logical guideposts, so the software is less likely to "run off the rails" and generate nonsensical prose, Shoham said. Neither system has yet been turned into a commercial product.

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