立即打开
人工智能如何帮助美国应对教育危机

人工智能如何帮助美国应对教育危机

YJ Jang 2020年07月21日
这些软件系统能给所有学生个性化的关注,一对一授课可以推广开来。

目前,美国的教育行业面临危机。美国老师工资低、学校融资与财产税挂钩、缺少全国统一的课程表,这些因素导致美国的初级教育一盘散沙。今年的新冠疫情则让这种情况进一步恶化,老师们措手不及,无奈只能远程授课。

在高等教育领域,即使在新冠疫情爆发之前,学费高涨已经导致入学人数减少。新冠疫情只是加快了这个趋势。

图片来源:Photo: Aping Vision / STS via Getty Images

因此,美国教育行业需要新的范式,而人工智能则是解决问题的答案之一。

人类自古以来都知道,由经验丰富的教育工作者进行一对一授课才是最好的教育。但这种教育过程成本高昂,劳动强度大,无法扩大规模。结果就是课堂授课尽管有明显的缺点,但依旧延续了几个世纪。

四十年前,基于专家系统的所谓自适应学习的出现令人激动不已。这种概念采用精心设计的“if-then”决策树,学生可以按照课程专家编制的内容进行学习。但构建专家系统需要的知识基础,会耗费大量时间而且成本高昂,因此也无法推而广之。

从自适应学习诞生至今,人工智能技术已经有了长足的进步。因此研究人员开始了解大脑的学习方式,并将这种知识应用到能够自主学习的算法网络。这些方法反过来被用来开发软件,以方便学生学习,提升学生的参与度。学生可以在线上与人工智能教师互动。这些软件系统能给所有学生个性化的关注。突然之间,一对一授课可以推广开来。

人工智能教师非常有耐心。而且人工智能授课不是靠猜测或直觉,而是基于数据。学习算法能够发现每一位学生的学习模式,伴生算法则会相应地优化教学策略。

诞生于斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的初创公司Kidaptive有一个面向儿童的自适应学习平台。该平台会生动地描绘学习者的技能、兴趣爱好和在不同产品上的活动。这些信息与实时评估相结合,用于提供个性化的教育内容,例如在iPad或其他触屏设备上通过动画故事进行交互式授课。

我创立的公司Riiid通过人工智能辅导应用程序Santa,帮助100万学生准备英语等级考试。我们正在为美国、南美洲、中东和亚洲等地的教育公司、校区和国家政府开发人工智能驱动平台。其他公司也准备在未来几个月发布人工智能辅导系统。

研究发现,这些系统对学生成绩的提升效果优于传统课堂授课,甚至超过接受家庭教师辅导的效果。

生成式对抗神经网络的发展和人工智能驱动的动画,能生成逼真的形象,很快将为人工智能教师换上一副友好的面孔。智能音箱也将提供由人工智能驱动的课程。如今美国家庭里的智能音箱已经多达数百万台。这并不是幻想或者科幻小说。虽然这一切才刚刚起步,但转变正在发生。

未来,老师不会消失,但繁重的教学工作大部分将不复存在。人工智能驱动的应用程序不仅可以用于评分(每一位老师最讨厌的事),还能收集在普通教学模式中会消失的有用数据。

人工智能平台Bakpax利用计算机视觉技术阅读学生的家庭作业并自动评分。Gradescope可以将家庭作业转换为数字格式,通过快速评分等工具为教师提供辅助。这两个系统都会采集学生表现数据。在传统教学模式中,这些数据最终会被扔到垃圾桶。而人工智能系统对这些数据进行分析后,能够发现有用的规律,老师可以利用这些规律调整授课方法或教学大纲,从而优化教学效果。

最重要的是,人工智能教师向教育民主化迈进了一步。最终,任何家长只要可以上网,就能给孩子有效的、个性化的学习体验,不受地域的限制。

人工智能还有助于设计高等教育课程,以提高毕业生成功就业的几率,而保证毕业生顺利找到工作也是吸引学生和证明高学费物有所值的关键指标。

因此,现在的教育比以前任何时候都需要这种解决方案。目前新冠疫情仍在肆虐,而且今年秋天感染人数可能激增,所以未来仍旧要以在线授课为主。

一些知名大学推出的网上课程可以免费上课,或者只需要支付很少的学费,而且能够授予四年学位。项目组合将取代学术能力,成为许多潜在雇主最看重的指标。近几年,许多学校依靠国际学生支付的全额学费支撑着脆弱的财务状况,但疫情减少了这部分收入。

有分析师预测,随着规模较小的学校合并或关闭,高校将迎来合并潮。目前美国约有4,000所高校,未来十年这个数量可能减半。

教育管理者需要探索人工智能驱动的可用解决方案,提供优质教育,同时保护教职人员和学生;完善课程,根据政府和私营行业的需求提供教育内容;并优化学校的预算,制定学校维持生存的长期计划。同时,家长对此也需要重视起来。

教育是健康经济的基础。教育公平对于保证社会凝聚力至关重要。解决美国教育制度问题的工具已经出现。现在只是缺少相关的计划。(财富中文网)

本文作者YJ Jang是人工智能教育公司Riiid的首席执行官兼创始人。该公司开发的系统可支持线上和线下学习。

译者:Biz

目前,美国的教育行业面临危机。美国老师工资低、学校融资与财产税挂钩、缺少全国统一的课程表,这些因素导致美国的初级教育一盘散沙。今年的新冠疫情则让这种情况进一步恶化,老师们措手不及,无奈只能远程授课。

在高等教育领域,即使在新冠疫情爆发之前,学费高涨已经导致入学人数减少。新冠疫情只是加快了这个趋势。

因此,美国教育行业需要新的范式,而人工智能则是解决问题的答案之一。

人类自古以来都知道,由经验丰富的教育工作者进行一对一授课才是最好的教育。但这种教育过程成本高昂,劳动强度大,无法扩大规模。结果就是课堂授课尽管有明显的缺点,但依旧延续了几个世纪。

四十年前,基于专家系统的所谓自适应学习的出现令人激动不已。这种概念采用精心设计的“if-then”决策树,学生可以按照课程专家编制的内容进行学习。但构建专家系统需要的知识基础,会耗费大量时间而且成本高昂,因此也无法推而广之。

从自适应学习诞生至今,人工智能技术已经有了长足的进步。因此研究人员开始了解大脑的学习方式,并将这种知识应用到能够自主学习的算法网络。这些方法反过来被用来开发软件,以方便学生学习,提升学生的参与度。学生可以在线上与人工智能教师互动。这些软件系统能给所有学生个性化的关注。突然之间,一对一授课可以推广开来。

人工智能教师非常有耐心。而且人工智能授课不是靠猜测或直觉,而是基于数据。学习算法能够发现每一位学生的学习模式,伴生算法则会相应地优化教学策略。

诞生于斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的初创公司Kidaptive有一个面向儿童的自适应学习平台。该平台会生动地描绘学习者的技能、兴趣爱好和在不同产品上的活动。这些信息与实时评估相结合,用于提供个性化的教育内容,例如在iPad或其他触屏设备上通过动画故事进行交互式授课。

我创立的公司Riiid通过人工智能辅导应用程序Santa,帮助100万学生准备英语等级考试。我们正在为美国、南美洲、中东和亚洲等地的教育公司、校区和国家政府开发人工智能驱动平台。其他公司也准备在未来几个月发布人工智能辅导系统。

研究发现,这些系统对学生成绩的提升效果优于传统课堂授课,甚至超过接受家庭教师辅导的效果。

生成式对抗神经网络的发展和人工智能驱动的动画,能生成逼真的形象,很快将为人工智能教师换上一副友好的面孔。智能音箱也将提供由人工智能驱动的课程。如今美国家庭里的智能音箱已经多达数百万台。这并不是幻想或者科幻小说。虽然这一切才刚刚起步,但转变正在发生。

未来,老师不会消失,但繁重的教学工作大部分将不复存在。人工智能驱动的应用程序不仅可以用于评分(每一位老师最讨厌的事),还能收集在普通教学模式中会消失的有用数据。

人工智能平台Bakpax利用计算机视觉技术阅读学生的家庭作业并自动评分。Gradescope可以将家庭作业转换为数字格式,通过快速评分等工具为教师提供辅助。这两个系统都会采集学生表现数据。在传统教学模式中,这些数据最终会被扔到垃圾桶。而人工智能系统对这些数据进行分析后,能够发现有用的规律,老师可以利用这些规律调整授课方法或教学大纲,从而优化教学效果。

最重要的是,人工智能教师向教育民主化迈进了一步。最终,任何家长只要可以上网,就能给孩子有效的、个性化的学习体验,不受地域的限制。

人工智能还有助于设计高等教育课程,以提高毕业生成功就业的几率,而保证毕业生顺利找到工作也是吸引学生和证明高学费物有所值的关键指标。

因此,现在的教育比以前任何时候都需要这种解决方案。目前新冠疫情仍在肆虐,而且今年秋天感染人数可能激增,所以未来仍旧要以在线授课为主。

一些知名大学推出的网上课程可以免费上课,或者只需要支付很少的学费,而且能够授予四年学位。项目组合将取代学术能力,成为许多潜在雇主最看重的指标。近几年,许多学校依靠国际学生支付的全额学费支撑着脆弱的财务状况,但疫情减少了这部分收入。

有分析师预测,随着规模较小的学校合并或关闭,高校将迎来合并潮。目前美国约有4,000所高校,未来十年这个数量可能减半。

教育管理者需要探索人工智能驱动的可用解决方案,提供优质教育,同时保护教职人员和学生;完善课程,根据政府和私营行业的需求提供教育内容;并优化学校的预算,制定学校维持生存的长期计划。同时,家长对此也需要重视起来。

教育是健康经济的基础。教育公平对于保证社会凝聚力至关重要。解决美国教育制度问题的工具已经出现。现在只是缺少相关的计划。(财富中文网)

本文作者YJ Jang是人工智能教育公司Riiid的首席执行官兼创始人。该公司开发的系统可支持线上和线下学习。

译者:Biz

U.S. education is in crisis. Poorly paid teachers, funding tied to property taxes, and the lack of a national curriculum have produced a fractured national landscape for primary education. The ongoing coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated that situation, forcing unprepared teachers to teach remotely.

In higher education, enrollments were dropping as tuition climbed even before the ongoing pandemic. COVID-19 has only accelerated that trend.

The country needs a new paradigm. Artificial intelligence is part of the answer.

Man has known since antiquity that the best education is delivered one-to-one by an experienced educator. But that is process is expensive and labor-intensive and cannot scale. The result is the classroom-based instruction that, despite its obvious drawbacks, has persisted for centuries.

Forty years ago, there was excitement about so-called adaptive learning based on expert systems, elaborate “if-then” decision trees that led students on a path through content compiled by subject experts. But building the knowledge bases required for such systems was time consuming and costly, and ultimately couldn’t scale.

A.I. has come a long way since the early adaptive-learning days. Researchers are beginning to understand how the brain learns and are applying that understanding to networks of algorithms that learn on their own. Those methods, in turn, are being used to build software that makes it easier and more engaging for students to study. These A.I. tutors, software systems that students interact with online, can give everyone individualized attention. Suddenly, one-on-one teaching can scale.

A.I. tutors are eternally patient. What’s more, their teaching is not based on guesswork or intuition, but on data. Learning algorithms uncover patterns about how individual students perform, and companion algorithms optimize teaching strategies accordingly.

Kidaptive, a startup out of Stanford University, has an adaptive-learning platform for children that paints a vivid picture of the learner’s skills, interests, and activity across products and over time. That information is used to personalize education with real-time assessment, such as interactive teaching through animated story lines delivered on iPads or other touch-screen devices.

My own company, Riiid, has prepared over a million students for English proficiency exams on our A.I. tutoring app, Santa. We are now developing A.I.-driven platforms for education companies, school districts, and national governments in the U.S., South America, the Middle East, and Asia. Other companies are also preparing to launch A.I. tutoring systems in the coming months.

Studies show that these systems can raise student performance well beyond the level of conventional classes and even beyond the level achieved by students who receive instruction from human tutors.

Advances in generative adversarial neural networks and A.I.-driven animation, meanwhile, are creating realistic avatars that will soon put a friendly face on A.I. tutors. Smart speakers, millions of which are already in people’s homes, will also deliver classes powered by A.I. This is not fantasy or science fiction. It is just getting started, but it is happening now.

Teachers will not disappear, but much of the drudge work of teaching will. A.I.-powered apps are not only taking over grading, the bugbear of every instructor, but are collecting meaningful data that would otherwise disappear.

Bakpax is an A.I. platform that uses computer vision to read student homework and grade it automatically. Gradescope assists teachers by converting schoolwork to digital form with tools to speed grading. Both systems collect data on student performance that would otherwise end up in the trash can. That data can, in turn, be analyzed by A.I. systems to uncover useful patterns, which teachers can use to adjust their methods or syllabi, forever optimizing their own performance.

Most importantly, A.I. tutors are a step toward democratizing education. Eventually, any parent with an Internet connection will be able to give his or her child an effective, personalized learning experience regardless of zip code.

A.I. can help, too, in shaping higher-education curricula to maximize the successful employment of graduates, which is itself a critical metric in attracting students and justifying high tuition fees.

Never has education needed these solutions more than now. With COVID-19 still going strong and a rise in infections projected this fall, instruction will continue to be largely online.

Top university courses can now be taken online for free or a fraction of the cost and commitment of a four-year degree. Project portfolios are replacing academic credentials as the most important metric for many prospective employers. In recent years, many schools turned to full-fee paying international students to shore up fragile finances, but the pandemic has cut that short.

Analysts are predicting a wave of consolidation as smaller schools merge or close altogether. America’s roughly 4,000 colleges and universities may shrink by as much as half that number within the next decade.

Education administrators need to explore available A.I.-powered solutions to deliver quality education while protecting faculty and students alike; streamline curricula and align educational offerings with government and private sector needs; and optimize budgets, building solid long-term plans for financial survival. Parents need to pay attention.

Education is the foundation of a healthy economy. Equity in education is crucial for a cohesive society. The tools exist to fix the U.S. education system. The only thing missing is a plan.

YJ Jang is CEO and founder of Riiid, an A.I. education company that builds systems to power online and offline learning.

最新:
  • 热读文章
  • 热门视频
活动
扫码打开财富Plus App