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专栏 - 人间烟火

困境时激励员工五大法宝

查大伟 2015年05月01日

查大伟(David Chard)是一位领导力培养顾问,在亚太地区拥有30年的从业经验。作为联心管理顾问有限公司(EngagingMinds)的创始人,他全身心致力于通过领导力和领导策略实现个人和组织向敬业型转变。他普通话流利,经常来往中国。他的联系方式是:info@engagingminds.biz
经济形势不好时,公司往往很难满足员工的涨薪要求,一些员工可能选择离职。为了留住优秀员工,你需要很好地平衡内在和外在的激励因素。你要想明白,“做点什么,总比什么都不做更好一些。”

    最近,有几位财富中文网的读者提出如下问题:

    “现在经济形势不好,我们很难满足员工涨薪的要求。怎么用其他办法来激励他们,避免他们离职呢?”

    对领导层来说,这是个需要考虑的好问题。其实更好的问法是:“在公司里,除了钱以外,还有什么能够真正地激励员工?”

    考虑是否给员工调薪时,出色的工作表现是需要被肯定的。有时候,为了维系企业的生存,老板必须得勒紧腰带,用其他办法来肯定员工的优秀业绩。大家都喜欢钱,但事实上,很少有人工作纯粹是为了赚钱。我曾经在一份自己很喜欢的工作上干了4年,拿的报酬相对较低,只是因为很享受这份工作。这份工作的性质、津贴及工作环境都让我觉得干下去很值,那时我也是公认的顶级员工。换言之,当时“内在”奖励和激励因素很强,所以我并不怎么在意“外在”激励因素。大家有可能对这两个词不太熟悉,故以下略作阐释:

    内在意味着“事物本身”。换言之,内在动机发自内心,而非身外。比如价值观、与老板和同事的密切关系、工作环境、对工作的喜爱及它在一些重要方面带来的满足感。薪水确实不属于内在动机因素。我们只是从个人层面出发,感觉工作和工作环境令人满意。

    外在意味着“来自身外”。外在动机可能包括薪水、奖金、公众认可、工作福利,以及其他来自公司的奖励。

    要留住优秀员工,需要很好地平衡内在和外在的激励因素。以下这五种方法可增强激励因素,或可在经济形势不佳时挽留员工。不过它们中没有哪个是一定灵验的,但你需要体现你对优秀员工的真诚欣赏,“做点什么,总比什么都不做更好一些。”

    1. 表扬。认可某个员工的突出贡献可以有很多办法。比如:

    • 请他们吃午饭,让他们知道你多么看重他们的表现,并衷心感谢他们的忠诚。

    • 公开表彰某人的业绩,详细介绍他们的工作,对出色完成的工作表示感激。

    • 给那些“对企业和组织做出突出贡献”的人颁发“荣誉证书”。最好是在年会或户外拓展时颁发,这样获奖者会在同侪面前露脸。

    2. 即时奖金。如果没法擢升理应升职的员工,至少应该按升职后年薪的20%给他们发奖金。让他们本人清楚,你是希望能发得更多的,这是在业务形势转好之前你最大的诚意了。也许还应该附送一个印有他们姓名的小礼物,体现你的感激之情。很多人都会对这类即时奖金表示感激。这样一来,他们也不至于过于失望。

    3. 动机氛围。审视一下公司的工作环境,尽量让它变得令人愉悦。各种装饰物,更好的工作空间和办公桌,装备齐全、免费提供咖啡和茶的茶水间,更长的工间休息,早晨茶水间的甜点,更大的员工休息区……有很多办法花钱不多,又能大大改善工作环境,还能让那些每天要在办公室呆上8-10小时的员工心怀感激。如果吃不准该怎么做,那就问问员工,要改善工作氛围,他们需要些什么,然后在预算内尽力满足他们的要求。让大家清楚,在生意变好之前,你这么做是为了‘认可大家的突出贡献’。

    4. 庆功会。如果没法让每个够格的员工都升职,那就请他们参加聚会或户外拓展,为他们的出色工作开个小小的庆功会。带大家离开公司,玩上一两天,做些有趣有益的团队建设练习,让大家吃好,当着大家的面真诚表彰他们(也许可以发个荣誉证书),告诉他们,大家这么辛勤工作又忠心耿耿,你是多么感激。请大家帮你达成业务目标,这样下一次就能更实实在在地犒劳大家了。搞一些集体头脑风暴,旨在提高业绩,把创意付诸实践,对提出创意的团队表示认可。请摄影师抓拍重大瞬间,为所有人提供高品质照片,在每张照片上都签上你和其他高管“深表感激”这类话。

    Several Fortune China readers have recently asked the following question:

    “With a tough economy it is difficult to meet our employes’ expectation of salary increases. How can we motivate them in other ways to keep them from leaving the company?”

    This is an excellent question for leaders to consider. An even better question is “What really motivates people in an organization, besides money?”

    Good work deserves recognition when it comes time for salary reviews. And, there are times when, to keep the business afloat, leaders have to tighten their belts and find other ways to recognize strong performance. All of us like money, and, the truth is, few of us work for money alone. I once worked for 4 years in a job I loved, for relatively low pay, because it was so enjoyable. The nature of the work itself, the perks and the working environment made it worthwhile for me to stay in the job, and I was recognized as a top performer. In other words, the “Intrinsic” rewards and motivators were so high that I didn’t care too much about the “Extrinsic” motivators. Here is what these words mean, in case they are new to you:

    Intrinsic means “in the thing itself.” In other words, an intrinsic motivation comes from inside, not from outside. Examples could include values, rapport with boss and colleagues, working environment, we like the kind of work and it satisfies us in important ways. Salary is not really a factor in intrinsic motivation. We simply find the job and the working environment satisfying at a personal level.

    Extrinsic means “from outside.” Extrinsic motivations might include salary, bonuses, public recognition, job benefits, and other rewards that come from the organization.

    Retaining strong performers requires a good balance of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. Here are five ways to pump up motivational factors that may help with retention during tough times. None are guaranteed, however, there is always “something greater than zero” that you can do to show your sincere appreciation of good work.

    1. Recognition.Recognizing a person’s strong contributions can take many forms. Examples include:

    • Taking someone to lunch and letting them know how much you value their performance and thanking them for their loyalty.

    • Publicly recognizing someone’s performance with details of what they did and expressing gratitude for a job well done.

    • Certificates of Recognition for ‘extraordinary contributions to the business and the organization.” These are best presented at annual events or company retreats where the recipient will feel pride in the presence of their peers.

    2. Spot Bonuses.If you can’t afford to give deserving people a raise, at least give them 20% of the amount they would have received annually if they had received a raise. Let them know, personally, that you wish it could be more, and that until business is better, this is the best you can do. Perhaps add a personal gift with their name on it as another token of your gratitude. Many people will appreciate the gesture of a spot bonus and it takes some of the sting out of their disappointment.

    3. Motivational Climate.Take a look around at the work environment and do whatever you can to make it a more pleasant place. Redecoration, better work spaces and desks, a fully equipped pantry with free coffee and tea, longer breaks, pastries in the pantry in the morning, expanded employee lounges….there are many ways to upgrade a working environment that are not expensive and will be appreciated by those who spend 8-10 hours a day working there. If you aren’t sure what to do…ask your employees what they would like in terms of a better working climate, and, within your budget, do your best to accommodate their requests. Make it clear that you are doing this ‘in recognition of your strong contributions’ until the business improves.

    4. Celebrations.If you can’t afford to give every deserving employee a raise, invite them to a party or a retreat to simply celebrate their good work. Take them off-site for a day or two of fun, do some team-building exercises that are fun and motivating, feed them well, publicly recognize people with sincere praise (and perhaps Certificates of Recognition) and tell them how much you appreciate their hard work and loyalty. Ask them to help you achieve your business goals so that next time you can reward them in more tangible ways. Conduct group brainstorms on ways to increase business results and put the ideas into motion, recognizing the team for their ideas. Have a photographer capture key moments and provide high quality prints to all participants, personally signed “with gratitude” by yourself and other senior leaders.

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