订阅

多平台阅读

微信订阅

杂志

申请纸刊赠阅

订阅每日电邮

移动应用

专栏 - 日月谈

干预式管理为何失效?

莫拉•法伦 2012年10月24日

莫拉·法伦,财富中文网专栏作家,曾经担任联信及霍尼韦尔亚太分公司学习发展部主管;她在“软技巧”领域的真知灼见引人入胜。“日”和“月”,两者互为对立。一个热烈似火,一个冷清如水。在汉字里,又恰好组成了一个“明”字。公司和人的问题亦是如此:对立起来,两者都有缺憾;唯有相辅相成,才能阴阳调和。点击查看莫拉的过往作品。
在西方,直接的干预式管理效果显著,而在东方,为什么人们更偏爱“留面子”的婉转管理方式?高效的领导者需要了解这其中的东西方文化差异。

    西方的人才发展和管理方式往往在我们这里失去了作用。在中日韩等地区,有很多地方都需要相应作出调整才能更好适应当地的文化实践和企业行为。我在这里简要列出了一些值得深思的、有普遍意义的问题。此外,还需要仔细观察一个国家特有的行为模式。在这方面,每个国家不一样,每个人也不一样。

    • 宗教 — 在亚洲不同的国家和地区,精神信仰对当地人为人处世的方式影响重大。

    •(思维方式)改变的速度 – 在亚洲一些地区似乎更慢一些。(新观念)往往需要更多的时间才能赢得人们的一致认同。

    • 家庭观念 – 家庭是最基本的社会单位。在这方面,大家庭、家族、语言或方言群体都很重要。高效的职业经理人往往会了解团队成员的个人生活,帮助每个人在家庭生活中同样取得成功。

    • 学习方式 – 人们更多是靠死记硬背,缺少“创造性学习”的引导。原因是在中国、日本和韩国,人们在学习如何读书写字的同时也被灌输了一个这样的理念:先学好、学精,再谈创造。

    • 商业、经济和政治环境 – 亚洲各国家和地区之间差异极大:每个国家有不同特点,即使同一国家不同区域之间也有差别。

    价值观:

    • 集体观 – 集体往往比个人更重要。个人需要服从集体,因此变革的潜力也蕴藏于集体之中。

    • 社会层级制度 – 上级和年长者都会受到尊重。这些人的面子问题就是集体的面子问题。一方面,上级应该关心下级;而同时,下级遵照上级的意见行事是天经地义的。所以,职业经理人会发现很难向下“放权”,很难让下属按照他们自己的方式去行事。在我们这里,职位是一个更为重要的符号。

    • 关系导向 –构建自己的关系网并通过关系网实现目标。比如,人们会建立自己的圈子(工作小组、工厂、校友会)并强化归属感,激发人们做事的动力。新入职或初次引荐时就需要为每个人在圈子中定好位,从而建立一种可信赖关系,为将来的成功打下基础。

    • 一致与和谐 – 很重要的一点是要让每个人都贡献想法、理解相互的观点,最终还要遵照主导性意见来统一行动。

    • 面子 – 给人面子,也要给自己留面子。除了简单地说“不”,还要想想其他更婉转的方式。避免让一个犯了错误的人,还不得不在其他人面前显得愚蠢。

    无论是在留人方面,还是在员工的职业学习和发展方面,在别处有效的干预式管理要想继续发挥效力,都需要考虑当地国家这些各不相同的价值观。

    Western management and people-development practices often don’t work well in Asia. There are a number of areas to modify to fit better with local cultural practices and behavior when working in East Asia. I’ve outlined some generic areas for consideration. It’s also important to look at country-specific norms. Each country is different and each individual is also different.

    • Religion — Spiritual beliefs are central to the ways of doing things in many parts of Asia.

    • Pace of change – Slower in Asia. More time is needed to get people aligned.

    • Family – The family unit is the primary unit. The extended family, the clan, the language or dialect group are all important. Effective managers know about the personal lives of their team members and help each person to be successful in family life.

    • Learning style – More rote learning than ‘creative learning.’ In China, Japan and Korea, learning how to read and write characters inculcated a mastery of technical aspects prior to creativity.

    • Business, economic and political environment – Extremely varied in Asia. Each country is different and often localities are also different.

    Values:

    • Collective – the group is more important than the individual. People norm to the group. Transformative potential is in the group.

    • Hierarchy – Seniors and elders are respected and their face is the face of the group. Seniors are expected to take care of juniors. Juniors norm to the views of seniors. Managers find it harder to ‘empower’ people and tend to want things to be done their way. Titles are important symbols and give people face.

    • Relationship orientation – People form relationships and through them accomplish tasks. Establishing group networks and reinforcing a sense of belonging to groups (the workgroup, a factory, alumni groups) motivates people. Position people when they are new to roles or are being introduced. Building trusting relationships is the foundation for success.

    • Consensus and harmony – it’s important for everyone to give input, understand and then norm to the prevailing view.

    • Face – give and maintain face. Find alternatives so that people can decline without saying ‘no.’ Don’t put anybody in a position where they might be in the wrong or look foolish in front of others.

    Interventions that work, from projects to retention practices to learning and development initiatives, tend to take Asian values into account.

我来点评

最新文章:

中国煤业大迁徙

500强情报中心

财富专栏