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商业 - 科技

什么是Libra,有什么用?

如果这种新的数字货币流行起来,有可能会改变人们储蓄、消费和转账的方式,或将给科技和银行业带来重大颠覆。

经过数月猜测,Facebook终于在周二上午宣布了新加密货币的细节。这种数字货币名为“Libra”,明年开始向Messenger、WhatsApp和Instagram等Facebook服务的数十亿用户提供。

如果这种新的数字货币流行起来,有可能会改变人们储蓄、消费和转账的方式,或将给科技和银行业带来重大颠覆。

以下是有关Libra的一些问题及解答,以及对普通人意味着什么。

Facebook的Libra加密货币的意义何在?

如果公司和用户接受,Libra可以变成更方便的在线支付方式。Facebook很可能计划在Instagram和WhatsApp上出售产品,但其他网站也可能将该加密货币用于电子商务。

除了电子商务之外,Libra还能够被用作储值和汇款手段,而且无需支付高额费用,尤其对缺少银行基础设施的发展中国家人民来说用处更大。因此如果想把钱汇到另一个国家,与现有的汇款方式相比,用Libra可能更廉价。

Facebook的Libra和比特币有关系吗?

Libra的交易会记录在区块链上,区块链是多台计算机上运行的防篡改账簿,比特币和其他加密货币使用的也是该项技术。所以,确有相似之处,比如资金转移和创建安全的交易记录都很便捷等。

但两者也有一些重要的不同之处。举例来说,Libra的价格比比特币更稳定,因为Libra背后有储备基金提供支持,而比特币的价格会随意浮动。

此外,比特币被记录在公共区块链上,任何人都可以在区块链上开发。另一方面,如果有开发者想在Libra的区块链上开发功能,必须先向Facebook以及负责管理Libra的合作伙伴申请。

隐私问题呢?Facebook会知道我的交易记录吗?

看具体情况。Facebook将成立一家独立公司运作新的Calibra数字钱包应用,并承诺除非获得允许,否则不会把通过该应用收集的用户数据共享给Facebook和Instagram等其他应用。因此从理论上来说,只有Calibra才会知道交易记录。但许多Calibra的用户可能会使用应用里整合的查找Facebook好友功能,这样一来数据就会被合并。

Libra可以存入其他公司开发的数字钱包应用,从而加强隐私保护。

Libra值多少钱?

Facebook及其合作伙伴将用真实世界中的资金为Libra提供支持,向用户承诺该数字货币可以换到现金。Libra以三条波浪线为货币符号,每日价格锚定美元、英国英镑、欧元和瑞士法郎组成的一篮子货币平均价格。

Calibra 数字钱包会显示用户拥有多少Libra,以及按本币计算的实际价值是多少(下图以墨西哥比索为例):

After months of speculation, Facebook finally announced details about its new cryptocurrency on Tuesday morning. The digital currency, called Libra, will be available starting next year to the billions of people who use Facebook services like Messenger, WhatsApp, and Instagram.

If the new currency catches on, it has the potential to change how people save, spend, and send money, and could disrupt big parts of the tech and banking industries.

Here is a Q&A about Libra, and what it means for you.

What’s the point of Facebook’s Libra cryptocurrency?

If adopted by companies and users, Libra can become a more convenient way to pay online. Facebook likely plans to sell products on Instagram and WhatsApp, but other websites could also use the cryptocurrency for e-commerce.

But beyond e-commerce, especially for people in developing countries that lack a banking infrastructure, Libra could be useful for storing and transferring money, without paying high fees. So, if you want to send money to another country, Libra may be a cheaper way to do it than what’s currently available.

Does Facebook’s Libra have anything to do with Bitcoin?

Libra transactions will be recorded on a blockchain—a tamper-proof ledger that runs across multiple computers. This is the same technology that Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are built on. So, yes, there are some similarities, including the ease of moving money and creating secure transaction records.

But there are also key differences. For instance, the price of Libra is more stable than Bitcoin, since Libra is backed by a reserve fund, while the value of Bitcoin just floats.

Also, Bitcoin is recorded on a public blockchain that allows anyone to build on it. On the other hand, to build on many features of Libra’s blockchain, developers must seek permission from Facebook and its partners who administer it.

What about privacy? Will Facebook know what I’m spending?

That depends. Facebook is setting up its new Calibra wallet as a separate company, and is promising not to combine user data with its other apps, like Facebook and Instagram—unless you give it permission. So, in theory, only Calibra will have a record of your transactions. But many Calibra users may decide to use its integrated Facebook friend-finding feature, and if they do, their data will be combined.

Libra may be stored in competing digital wallet apps built by other companies that provide higher levels of privacy.

How much are Libra worth?

Facebook and its partners are backing Libra with a pool of real world money, promising users that they will always be able to trade the cryptocurrency in for cash. The day-to-day value of Libra, which uses the monetary symbol of three waves, is pegged to the average value of a basket of world currencies, made up of U.S. dollars, U.K. pounds, euros, and Swiss francs.

Calibra’s wallet shows how many Libra users have, as well as their value is in the local currency (in this case Mexican pesos):

怎么才能使用Libra?

还要等上一段时间才行,因为Facebook表示要到2020年中期才会推出,届时用户可以下载Calibra并关联银行账户来进行购买,Calibra的实际使用方式很像Venmo。

需要指出的重要一点是,Facebook 的Calibra并非购买和消费Libra的唯一途径。Facebook已经与PayPal和Coinbase等数十家公司达成合作,预计多家合作伙伴都将开发自己的数字钱包。以下图表列出了所有的初始合作伙伴:

How do I get my hands on some Libra?

You’ll have to wait awhile as Facebook says the new digital money will only be ready by mid-2020. When it’s ready, users can download Calibra—which will work a lot like Venmo—and buy some by connecting your bank account.

It’s important to note that Facebook’s Calibra is not the only option for obtaining and spending Libra. Facebook is working with dozens of partners, including PayPal and Coinbase, many of which are expected to build digital wallets of their own. Here is a diagram that shows all of the initial partners:

各家公司都将允许用户兑现Libra,未来几个月中预计还将有很多公司加入。

此外,当Facebook在2020年中期实际出Libra时,很可能还会向用户少量赠送以做推广。(财富中文网)

译者:艾伦

审校:夏林

All of these companies will also let users convert Libra into regular cash, and many other companies are expected to join the coming months.

In addition, there is a very good chance Facebook will give away some small amounts of Libra to its users to promote the currency when it launches in mid-2020.

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