2. 埃克森美孚（Exxon Mobil）
近十年来苹果不断推陈出新，从流行一时的iPod到风靡全球的iPhone，业绩也稳健增长。如今苹果终于遇到瓶颈。尽管苹果仍是全世界最赚钱的上市公司，但2015年年底推出的新升级款iPhone 6S and 6S Plus勉强超过前作，iPad平板电脑销量持续下滑。2015年4月，苹果新推出了智能手表，市场评价不一，销量也不温不火。此外，随着中国经济放缓，苹果在中国的业务情况略有争议。2015年8月，苹果CEO蒂姆•库克还罕见地写邮件给CNBC电视主持人吉姆•克莱默，声称去年夏天在中国的销量并无下滑。但去年苹果在中国的表现并不出彩。近来人们又开始希望新款iPhone引发换机热潮，关注的焦点转向了印度，因为苹果在印度的市场份额还很小。不过虽然市场担心其增长前景，苹果在2015年还是有重大的突破。苹果打算造出先进的电动汽车，进军汽车市场，目前名为泰坦的计划已经启动，成员都是之前从事汽车行业的专家，正式推出可能还得几年。一旦新车成功问世，库克和苹果定会大出风头。
沃伦•巴菲特掌管的保险和投资集团伯克希尔－哈撒韦公司在挣脱巴菲特光环方面又有进展。过去这家公司靠巴菲特高超的投资技巧赚得大钱。但2016年年初，伯克希尔完成了对Precision Castparts公司的收购，涉及320亿美元。目前伯克希尔旗下的数十家公司涉猎广泛，从汽车保险公司Geico到内衣品牌鲜果布衣（Fruit of the Loom），再到铁路巨头伯灵顿北方公司（Burlington Northern）。伯克希尔还跟私募股权公司3G一同持有食品巨头卡夫亨氏公司的大笔股份。如今伯克希尔收入中近四分之三来自非于财务投资，而是经营业务，这是好事。尤其是近来巴菲特在股市的大手笔投资，例如IBM和美国运通表现都不怎么样。
美国最大的医疗保险公司联合健康集团这一年里出现了大变故。由于认为业内最大的贸易组织——美国医疗保险计划（America’s Health Insurance Plans，AHIP）采取的新措施“不适合本集团和多元产品”，联合健康集团脱离了AHIP。最近，联合健康集团称由于损失惨重，将撤出奥巴马医改中的全国个人保险市场。两项决定都透露出联合健康想单干的打算。这么做也有道理，毕竟联合健康规模庞大、业务触角广泛，目前在全球已有超过1亿客户。联合健康旗下的医疗服务平台Optum和药品福利业务OptumRx发展迅速，还斥资128亿美元收购了竞争对手Catamaran。
7.CVS Health公司（CVS Health）
由于2015年主营业务遇到问题，美国电话电报公司已经启动转型。重整业务后的无线运营商T-Mobile不断打击AT&T，抢走了近200万的包月移动用户。传统的固话业务加速萎缩，收入同比减少了10%。首席执行官兰达尔•史蒂芬森推出了两项大胆举措，未来几年有可能奏效，也有可能失败。首先，他斥资近500亿美元收购了卫星电视提供商DirecTV，还顺便收购了有线电视接收机Uverse，瞬间变身为全球最大的电视运营商之一，在美国有2600万用户，还有1900万海外用户。AT&T还花不到50亿美元收购了墨西哥运营商Nextel Mexico和Iusacell，然后把两家公司合并起来，提高墨西哥的光电基础设施水平。如果拉美地区能保持超过世界均速的增长，AT&T很有可能从中获利。 (财富中文网)
If success is measured by how much money you generate, these companies are riding high.
Fortune has unveiled its annual ranking of the biggest revenue generators in corporate America. This year’s Fortune 500 companies represent two-thirds of the U.S. GDP, with $12 trillion in revenues, $840 billion in profits, $17 trillion in market value, and 27.9 million employees worldwide. Apple climbs to its highest rank ever at No. 3, and Walmart holds onto the No. 1 spot despite a slip in revenues, while AT&T returns to the top 10. Here are this year’s top 10 moneymakers:
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 1
2015 Revenue: $482.1 billion
Walmart is making a lot of progress in adapting its big-box approach to the 21st century and has become the second largest online retailer in the U.S. after Amazon. By giving workers raises and investing heavily in tech, its U.S.
division has improved customer service and saw comparable sales rise each quarter in 2015. It is hoping to build on that with a major reset of its food business, which accounts for more than half of its sales, with a bigger focus on organic and fresh food, and by offering curbside order pick up. The retailer has also proven it can hold its own with the tech giants, rolling out Walmart Pay across the U.S. But huge challenges remain for the world’s largest company. Its e-commerce growth lags that of its main rivals. Its Sam’s Club unit is struggling to keep up with Costco. What’s more, its international division is being buffeted by a strong U.S. dollar that is eating into profits. Total sales fell for the first time in 2015.
2. Exxon Mobil
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 2
2015 Revenue: $246.2 billion
Exxon Mobil, the world’s largest publicly-traded oil and gas company by market value (China’s Sinopec and Royal Dutch Shell are larger by revenue), has ridden out the collapse in crude prices better than most, its vertically-integrated model allowing downstream businesses to capture the value that upstream operations lose when oil prices are low. ExxonMobil remains the industry benchmark for everything from profitability to safety standards, but its rocky relationship with climate change remains its Achilles’ heel. State attorneys in both New York and California have opened probes into whether it misled investors over the risks to its business from climate change, against a background of allegations (which it denies) that it suppressed scientific research that came to inconvenient conclusions.
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 3
2015 Revenue: $233.7 billion
After more than a decade of solid growth fueled first by the iPod music player and then by the even more popular iPhone, Apple finally appeared to hit a wall. Still the most profitable publicly-traded company in the world, Apple’s iPhone 6S and 6S Plus upgrades barely outsold their predecessors after arriving on the market at the end of 2015, while sales of the iPad tablet computer continued to shrink throughout the year. In April 2015, the Apple Watch arrived to mixed reviews and modest sales. And though debate raged for a bit about the state of Apple’s sales in China amid a slowing economy there — including an unusual August 2015 email from CEO Tim Cook to CNBC host Jim Cramer claiming no summer slowdown — the year ended on a weak note for the company in Asia. Lately, hopes have turned to the next iPhone upgrade cycle and a push to focus on India, where Apple’s market share remains miniscule. Still, even with the growing concerns, Apple’s next big leap came into view in 2015. Dubbed Project Titan and staffed with hordes of former car industry experts, Apple’s effort to leapfrog the automobile market with an electric masterpiece likely won’t reach consumers for a few more years. But when it does, Cook and company could be riding high again.
4. Berkshire Hathaway
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 4
2015 Revenue: $210.8 billion
Warren Buffett’s insurance and investing conglomerate Berkshire Hathaway is less about Buffett than it ever was. The company used to generate the bulk of its income from Buffett investment mastery. But in early 2016, Berkshire completed its $32 billion acquisition of Precision Castparts. That adds to dozens of companies Berkshire now owns from car insurance company Geico, to under wear maker Fruit of the Loom, to railroad giant Burlington Northern. The company also owns, along with private equity firm 3G, a sizeable chunk of food giant Kraft Heinz. Berkshire now generates nearly three-quarters of its revenue from its non-financial, operating businesses, which is good news. As of late, Buffett’s big stock market investments like IBM and American Express haven’t looked so hot.
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 5
2015 Revenue: $181.2 billion
McKesson, the largest U.S. pharmaceutical distributor, is facing some major headwinds these days. After years of strong sales growth thanks to generic drug price inflation, that tailwind is expected to slow and cut into the company’s overall revenue growth this year. McKesson also recently lost a handful of customers and could potentially lose another $13 billion worth of revenue in 2018 when (or if) Rite Aid is acquired by Walgreens. Management has been working on a series of maneuvers to lessen these blows, including acquiring strategic bolt-on companies to replace lost business and implementing a restructuring plan that’s expected to generate about $180 million in savings this fiscal year.
6. UnitedHealth Group
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 6
2015 Revenue: $157.1 billion
America’s largest health insurer UnitedHealth had a year marked by notable departures. The company left the industry’s largest trade group, America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP), asserting that the association had adopted a strategy “that does not fit UnitedHealth Group and our diversified portfolio.” More recently, the company has announced that it would be leaving most of Obamacare’s statewide individual insurance marketplaces thanks to mounting losses. Both decisions speak to the insurance giant’s willingness to go it alone. That makes sense given its sheer size and the reach of its business — UnitedHealth has more than 100 million global customers. The insurer has also grown its health services platform Optum and pharmacy benefits unit OptumRx with major investments like the $12.8 billion buyout of Catamaran.
7. CVS Health
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 7
2015 Revenue: $153.3 billion
CVS Health is still feeling the pinch from its 2014 decision to drop cigarettes. But the company continues to leverage the positive PR from that move to convince more and more employers that it is truly a health care company, allowing it to win new business for its Caremark pharmacy benefits manager. And though the PBM eclipsed its retail drugstore business size a few years ago, the company has gone full steam ahead with expanding its CVS/pharmacy business, which has been grappling with declines in comparable sales.
CVS recently took over 1,700 in-store drugstores from Target and is rolling out order pickup with tech startup Curbside this year. It is also continuing to push healthier food options in its stores to burnish its image as a healthcare company and improve its beauty selection to better compete with arch-rival Walgreens.
8. General Motors
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 8
2015 Revenue: $152.4 billion
In 2015, General Motors’ most important goal was to distance itself from the ignition switch recall scandal that cast a pall over the historic brand for much of the previous year. For 2016, GM will look to continue staking its claim on a still growing U.S. auto market. The company is also inching towards the release of automated cars, a development that could potentially change the game for GM and the auto industry within the next decade.
9. Ford Motor
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 9
2015 Revenue: $149.6 billion
Last year Ford posted its best U.S. sales performance since 2006. The newly revamped F-Series Trucks were a particularly bright spot, with more than 780,000 vehicles sold. The company will look to continue that streak as the market is expected to grow again this year, thanks to low gas prices. The company will also likely continue to push into automated driving technology to keep up with increasing competition. Ford had been in talks with technology companies like Google and Uber recently, but ultimately decided not to partner with either. CEO Mark Fields noted that company culture was a big reason for this. Fields has made a lot of noise about his commitment to growing Ford as a tech company, and that should continue as the industry continues to automate.
Fortune 500 Rank: No. 10
2015 Revenue: $146.8 billion
AT&T veered into a new direction in 2015 as some of its mainstay businesses ran into trouble. A continued assault from revitalized wireless carrier T-Mobile helped strip away almost two million of AT&T’s monthly mobile subscribers. And the old legacy landline phone business accelerated its decline, losing almost 10% of its revenue from the year before. So CEO Randall Stephenson made two bold gambles that may — or may not — pay off in coming years. First, he spent almost $50 billion to acquire satellite television provider DirecTV. Along with its existing cable television offering Uverse, the move immediately made AT&T one of the largest TV subscription services in the world with 26 million U.S. customers and 19 million overseas. AT&T also acquired Nextel Mexico and Iusacell for less than $5 billion. Combining the two and upgrading its Mexican infrastructure could pay off if Latin America continues to grow faster than many other parts of the world.