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他们是当今美国最成功的10大企业

《财富》 2016年06月07日

来看看2015年美国最赚钱的公司。

如果成功的标准用赚了多少钱来衡量,那这些公司无疑都是顶尖的。

《财富》杂志公布了2016年美国500强榜单,今年的美国500强占全美GDP的三分之二,总收入达12万亿美元,利润为8400亿美元,市值17万亿美元,全球员工数达2790万。苹果公司首次跻身三甲,沃尔玛收入略减但仍蝉联榜首,美国电话电报公司(AT&T)重返十佳。下面就是排名前10的美国公司榜单:

1. 沃尔玛(Walmart)

《财富》美国500强排名:第1名

2015年营业收入:4821亿美元

进入21世纪以来,沃尔玛在贯彻超级零售商策略方面进展迅速,如今已成为美国第二大在线零售商,仅次于亚马逊。沃尔玛提高了员工工资,大手笔升级技术,其美国公司改进了客户服务质量,2015年每个季度的销售额都明显增加。沃尔玛还打算重整占销售额一半的食品业务,定位有机和生鲜食品,与curbside合作提供网络下单自提服务。沃尔玛在转型科技巨头的道路上也充满自信,已经在美国推出移动支付服务Walmart Pay。但对这家全球最大的公司来说,挑战仍然不小。首先,转型电商的步伐落后于主要对手。山姆会员店的业务还在努力追赶好市多(Costco)。此外,由于美元持续坚挺,海外业务的利润受到侵蚀。2015年沃尔玛总销售额第一次出现下滑。

2. 埃克森美孚(Exxon Mobil)

《财富》美国500强排名:第2名

2015年营业收入:2462亿美元

按市值来算,埃克森美孚是油气领域全球最大的上市公司(按收入来算要排在中石化和荷兰壳牌后面)。如今埃克森美孚已经摆脱了油价暴跌的阴影,在纵向整合业务之后,下游业务的收益覆盖了油价低迷期上游业务的损失。从盈利能力到安全标准,埃克森美孚在方方面面仍然是行业标杆,不过在气候变化方面的争议是其知名软肋。纽约和加利福尼亚的州检察官都已经下令,调查埃克森美孚在气候变化导致的商业风险方面是否有误导投资者的行为。此外,还有人指控埃克森美孚打压对其不利的科研活动,不过埃克森美孚已经否认。

3.苹果公司(Apple)

《财富》美国500强排名:第3名

2015年营业收入:2337亿美元

近十年来苹果不断推陈出新,从流行一时的iPod到风靡全球的iPhone,业绩也稳健增长。如今苹果终于遇到瓶颈。尽管苹果仍是全世界最赚钱的上市公司,但2015年年底推出的新升级款iPhone 6S and 6S Plus勉强超过前作,iPad平板电脑销量持续下滑。2015年4月,苹果新推出了智能手表,市场评价不一,销量也不温不火。此外,随着中国经济放缓,苹果在中国的业务情况略有争议。2015年8月,苹果CEO蒂姆•库克还罕见地写邮件给CNBC电视主持人吉姆•克莱默,声称去年夏天在中国的销量并无下滑。但去年苹果在中国的表现并不出彩。近来人们又开始希望新款iPhone引发换机热潮,关注的焦点转向了印度,因为苹果在印度的市场份额还很小。不过虽然市场担心其增长前景,苹果在2015年还是有重大的突破。苹果打算造出先进的电动汽车,进军汽车市场,目前名为泰坦的计划已经启动,成员都是之前从事汽车行业的专家,正式推出可能还得几年。一旦新车成功问世,库克和苹果定会大出风头。

4.伯克希尔-哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway)

《财富》美国500强排名:第4名

2015年营业收入:2108亿美元

沃伦•巴菲特掌管的保险和投资集团伯克希尔-哈撒韦公司在挣脱巴菲特光环方面又有进展。过去这家公司靠巴菲特高超的投资技巧赚得大钱。但2016年年初,伯克希尔完成了对Precision Castparts公司的收购,涉及320亿美元。目前伯克希尔旗下的数十家公司涉猎广泛,从汽车保险公司Geico到内衣品牌鲜果布衣(Fruit of the Loom),再到铁路巨头伯灵顿北方公司(Burlington Northern)。伯克希尔还跟私募股权公司3G一同持有食品巨头卡夫亨氏公司的大笔股份。如今伯克希尔收入中近四分之三来自非于财务投资,而是经营业务,这是好事。尤其是近来巴菲特在股市的大手笔投资,例如IBM和美国运通表现都不怎么样。

5.麦克森公司(McKesson)

《财富》美国500强排名:第5名

2015年营业收入:1812亿美元

麦克森是美国最大的药品公司,近来也遇到了不少困难。多年来仿制药价格一路上涨,推送麦克森的业绩走高,但今年可能无法继续顺风顺水,收入增长的势头或出现放缓。麦克森最近已经失去不少客户,如果连锁药店来爱德(Rite Aid)被沃尔格林(Walgreen)成功收购,2018年还会损失130亿美元的收入。管理层在拼命想办法减轻冲击,具体措施包括收购其他公司代替损失的业务,以及采取业务重组方案,今年有望节省1.8亿美元开支。

6.联合健康集团(UnitedHealth Group)

《财富》美国500强排名:第6名

2015年营业收入:1571亿美元

美国最大的医疗保险公司联合健康集团这一年里出现了大变故。由于认为业内最大的贸易组织——美国医疗保险计划(America’s Health Insurance Plans,AHIP)采取的新措施“不适合本集团和多元产品”,联合健康集团脱离了AHIP。最近,联合健康集团称由于损失惨重,将撤出奥巴马医改中的全国个人保险市场。两项决定都透露出联合健康想单干的打算。这么做也有道理,毕竟联合健康规模庞大、业务触角广泛,目前在全球已有超过1亿客户。联合健康旗下的医疗服务平台Optum和药品福利业务OptumRx发展迅速,还斥资128亿美元收购了竞争对手Catamaran。

7.CVS Health公司(CVS Health)

《财富》美国500强排名:第7名

2015年营业收入:1533亿美元

直到现在,CVS Health公司还能感到2014年放弃香烟业务的隐痛。不过公司一直在利用当时的举动来开展正面的公关工作,让越来越多的员工相信这真是一家医疗保健公司,旗下的Caremark药品福利管理业务也借此增长。虽然几年前药品福利管理超越了的零售药房业务,但公司在开足马力拓展CVS/药房业务,在同店销售不断下滑时努力维持增长。CVS最近收购了塔吉特(Target)旗下1700个商场药店,今年也将同创业公司Curbside合作开展网购自提业务。店中一直在推广更健康的食品,提升卫生保健的品牌形象,还在推动护肤美容品,跟宿敌沃尔格林正面竞争。

8.通用汽车公司(General Motors)

《财富》美国500强排名:第8名

2015年营业收入:1524亿美元

2015年,通用汽车最主要的目标就是摆脱点火装置导致召回事件的阴影,此前这个历史悠久的品牌已经因为召回事件多年抬不起头。2016年,通用汽车会继续拓展美国汽车市场,同时也在努力推出新款无人驾驶汽车,如果进展顺利可能会帮助通用汽车翻身,未来十年也有可能改变汽车行业格局。

9.福特汽车公司(Ford Motor)

《财富》美国500强排名:第9名

2015年营业收入:1496亿美元

去年福特公布了在美国市场自2006年以来最好的业绩。新推出的F系列卡车是最大的亮点,销量超过78万辆。随着天然气的价格走低,今年市场可能进一步扩张,福特将努力延续佳绩。福特也有可能在无人驾驶技术上继续推进,保持竞争优势。目前福特已经跟谷歌、Uber等科技公司展开讨论,首席执行官马克•菲尔茨称之所以在科技方面较为进取,主要是因为福特的公司文化。菲尔茨一直宣称会不遗余力地推动福特转为科技公司,既然全行业都在搞无人驾驶,福特也不能落后。

10.美国电话电报公司(AT&T)

《财富》美国500强排名:第10名

2015年营业收入:1468亿美元

由于2015年主营业务遇到问题,美国电话电报公司已经启动转型。重整业务后的无线运营商T-Mobile不断打击AT&T,抢走了近200万的包月移动用户。传统的固话业务加速萎缩,收入同比减少了10%。首席执行官兰达尔•史蒂芬森推出了两项大胆举措,未来几年有可能奏效,也有可能失败。首先,他斥资近500亿美元收购了卫星电视提供商DirecTV,还顺便收购了有线电视接收机Uverse,瞬间变身为全球最大的电视运营商之一,在美国有2600万用户,还有1900万海外用户。AT&T还花不到50亿美元收购了墨西哥运营商Nextel Mexico和Iusacell,然后把两家公司合并起来,提高墨西哥的光电基础设施水平。如果拉美地区能保持超过世界均速的增长,AT&T很有可能从中获利。 (财富中文网)

If success is measured by how much money you generate, these companies are riding high.

Fortune has unveiled its annual ranking of the biggest revenue generators in corporate America. This year’s Fortune 500 companies represent two-thirds of the U.S. GDP, with $12 trillion in revenues, $840 billion in profits, $17 trillion in market value, and 27.9 million employees worldwide. Apple climbs to its highest rank ever at No. 3, and Walmart holds onto the No. 1 spot despite a slip in revenues, while AT&T returns to the top 10. Here are this year’s top 10 moneymakers:

1. Walmart

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 1

2015 Revenue: $482.1 billion

Walmart is making a lot of progress in adapting its big-box approach to the 21st century and has become the second largest online retailer in the U.S. after Amazon. By giving workers raises and investing heavily in tech, its U.S.

division has improved customer service and saw comparable sales rise each quarter in 2015. It is hoping to build on that with a major reset of its food business, which accounts for more than half of its sales, with a bigger focus on organic and fresh food, and by offering curbside order pick up. The retailer has also proven it can hold its own with the tech giants, rolling out Walmart Pay across the U.S. But huge challenges remain for the world’s largest company. Its e-commerce growth lags that of its main rivals. Its Sam’s Club unit is struggling to keep up with Costco. What’s more, its international division is being buffeted by a strong U.S. dollar that is eating into profits. Total sales fell for the first time in 2015.

2. Exxon Mobil

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 2

2015 Revenue: $246.2 billion

Exxon Mobil, the world’s largest publicly-traded oil and gas company by market value (China’s Sinopec and Royal Dutch Shell are larger by revenue), has ridden out the collapse in crude prices better than most, its vertically-integrated model allowing downstream businesses to capture the value that upstream operations lose when oil prices are low. ExxonMobil remains the industry benchmark for everything from profitability to safety standards, but its rocky relationship with climate change remains its Achilles’ heel. State attorneys in both New York and California have opened probes into whether it misled investors over the risks to its business from climate change, against a background of allegations (which it denies) that it suppressed scientific research that came to inconvenient conclusions.

3. Apple

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 3

2015 Revenue: $233.7 billion

After more than a decade of solid growth fueled first by the iPod music player and then by the even more popular iPhone, Apple finally appeared to hit a wall. Still the most profitable publicly-traded company in the world, Apple’s iPhone 6S and 6S Plus upgrades barely outsold their predecessors after arriving on the market at the end of 2015, while sales of the iPad tablet computer continued to shrink throughout the year. In April 2015, the Apple Watch arrived to mixed reviews and modest sales. And though debate raged for a bit about the state of Apple’s sales in China amid a slowing economy there — including an unusual August 2015 email from CEO Tim Cook to CNBC host Jim Cramer claiming no summer slowdown — the year ended on a weak note for the company in Asia. Lately, hopes have turned to the next iPhone upgrade cycle and a push to focus on India, where Apple’s market share remains miniscule. Still, even with the growing concerns, Apple’s next big leap came into view in 2015. Dubbed Project Titan and staffed with hordes of former car industry experts, Apple’s effort to leapfrog the automobile market with an electric masterpiece likely won’t reach consumers for a few more years. But when it does, Cook and company could be riding high again.

4. Berkshire Hathaway

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 4

2015 Revenue: $210.8 billion

Warren Buffett’s insurance and investing conglomerate Berkshire Hathaway is less about Buffett than it ever was. The company used to generate the bulk of its income from Buffett investment mastery. But in early 2016, Berkshire completed its $32 billion acquisition of Precision Castparts. That adds to dozens of companies Berkshire now owns from car insurance company Geico, to under wear maker Fruit of the Loom, to railroad giant Burlington Northern. The company also owns, along with private equity firm 3G, a sizeable chunk of food giant Kraft Heinz. Berkshire now generates nearly three-quarters of its revenue from its non-financial, operating businesses, which is good news. As of late, Buffett’s big stock market investments like IBM and American Express haven’t looked so hot.

5. McKesson

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 5

2015 Revenue: $181.2 billion

McKesson, the largest U.S. pharmaceutical distributor, is facing some major headwinds these days. After years of strong sales growth thanks to generic drug price inflation, that tailwind is expected to slow and cut into the company’s overall revenue growth this year. McKesson also recently lost a handful of customers and could potentially lose another $13 billion worth of revenue in 2018 when (or if) Rite Aid is acquired by Walgreens. Management has been working on a series of maneuvers to lessen these blows, including acquiring strategic bolt-on companies to replace lost business and implementing a restructuring plan that’s expected to generate about $180 million in savings this fiscal year.

6. UnitedHealth Group

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 6

2015 Revenue: $157.1 billion

America’s largest health insurer UnitedHealth had a year marked by notable departures. The company left the industry’s largest trade group, America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP), asserting that the association had adopted a strategy “that does not fit UnitedHealth Group and our diversified portfolio.” More recently, the company has announced that it would be leaving most of Obamacare’s statewide individual insurance marketplaces thanks to mounting losses. Both decisions speak to the insurance giant’s willingness to go it alone. That makes sense given its sheer size and the reach of its business — UnitedHealth has more than 100 million global customers. The insurer has also grown its health services platform Optum and pharmacy benefits unit OptumRx with major investments like the $12.8 billion buyout of Catamaran.

7. CVS Health

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 7

2015 Revenue: $153.3 billion

CVS Health is still feeling the pinch from its 2014 decision to drop cigarettes. But the company continues to leverage the positive PR from that move to convince more and more employers that it is truly a health care company, allowing it to win new business for its Caremark pharmacy benefits manager. And though the PBM eclipsed its retail drugstore business size a few years ago, the company has gone full steam ahead with expanding its CVS/pharmacy business, which has been grappling with declines in comparable sales.

CVS recently took over 1,700 in-store drugstores from Target and is rolling out order pickup with tech startup Curbside this year. It is also continuing to push healthier food options in its stores to burnish its image as a healthcare company and improve its beauty selection to better compete with arch-rival Walgreens.

8. General Motors

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 8

2015 Revenue: $152.4 billion

In 2015, General Motors’ most important goal was to distance itself from the ignition switch recall scandal that cast a pall over the historic brand for much of the previous year. For 2016, GM will look to continue staking its claim on a still growing U.S. auto market. The company is also inching towards the release of automated cars, a development that could potentially change the game for GM and the auto industry within the next decade.

9. Ford Motor

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 9

2015 Revenue: $149.6 billion

Last year Ford posted its best U.S. sales performance since 2006. The newly revamped F-Series Trucks were a particularly bright spot, with more than 780,000 vehicles sold. The company will look to continue that streak as the market is expected to grow again this year, thanks to low gas prices. The company will also likely continue to push into automated driving technology to keep up with increasing competition. Ford had been in talks with technology companies like Google and Uber recently, but ultimately decided not to partner with either. CEO Mark Fields noted that company culture was a big reason for this. Fields has made a lot of noise about his commitment to growing Ford as a tech company, and that should continue as the industry continues to automate.

10. AT&T

Fortune 500 Rank: No. 10

2015 Revenue: $146.8 billion

AT&T veered into a new direction in 2015 as some of its mainstay businesses ran into trouble. A continued assault from revitalized wireless carrier T-Mobile helped strip away almost two million of AT&T’s monthly mobile subscribers. And the old legacy landline phone business accelerated its decline, losing almost 10% of its revenue from the year before. So CEO Randall Stephenson made two bold gambles that may — or may not — pay off in coming years. First, he spent almost $50 billion to acquire satellite television provider DirecTV. Along with its existing cable television offering Uverse, the move immediately made AT&T one of the largest TV subscription services in the world with 26 million U.S. customers and 19 million overseas. AT&T also acquired Nextel Mexico and Iusacell for less than $5 billion. Combining the two and upgrading its Mexican infrastructure could pay off if Latin America continues to grow faster than many other parts of the world.

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