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特斯拉:生物武器防御模式可清洁车外空气

Kirsten Korosec 2016年05月09日

特斯拉的Model X和新款Model S标配HEPA空气过滤系统,不仅可以净化车辆内部的空气,还能减少汽车周围的污染。

近日,特斯拉公司将一辆Model SUV放在一个达到极端污染程度的大气球内。按照美国环境保护署的“良好”空气质量指数上限,每立方米空气中细微颗粒物不超过12毫克,而气球内的细微颗粒物比这一标准高出约8,200%。之后,测试人员关上车门,按下“生物武器防御模式”按钮,这一特别设定可以使过滤器达到医疗级过滤效果。

The company placed a Model X SUV in a large bubble with extreme levels of pollution, approximately 8,200% above the EPA’s “good” air quality index limit of 12 micrograms per cubic meter of air of fine particulate matter. Testers then closed the doors and hit the “bioweapon defense mode” button, a special setting activating a medical-grade level of the filter.

据特斯拉表示,在不到两分钟内,HEPA过滤系统便完成了对Model X内部空气的净化,将污染水平降低到了公司仪器无法检测的程度。公司表示,虽然气球内仍充满了污染物,但测试人员可以在汽车里摘下防毒面具,呼吸到新鲜空气。

特斯拉在博客中解释称,过滤系统配有三个碳吸附层,可去除空气中的花粉、细菌和污染物,还可以对汽车外部的空气进行真空抽气,将细微颗粒物污染水平降低40%。特斯拉称,测试结果证明“生物武器防御模式并非营销噱头,而是真实的功能。如果遭遇军事级生物攻击,坐在汽车里理论上是能够幸存的。”公司还提供了一张图表(见下文)解释了过滤过程。

In less than two minutes, the HEPA filtration system had scrubbed the air in Model X, bringing pollution levels down to levels so low that they were undetectable by the company’s instruments, according to Tesla. Testers were able to remove their gas masks and breathe fresh air while sitting inside a bubble of pollution, the company says.

The filtration system, which has three carbon absorption layers strip the air of pollen, bacteria, and pollution, then began to vacuum the air outside the car as well, reducing fine particulate pollution levels by 40%, the company explains in a blog post. Tesla posits the results prove “the bioweapon defense mode is not a marketing statement, it is real. You can literally survive a military grade bio attack by sitting in your car.” The company also provided a graph, below, charting out the progress.

细微颗粒物或PM 2.5包括微小的颗粒物和液滴,由酸、有机化学物、金属和土壤或尘粒组成。这种颗粒物会降低能见度,随着污染水平提高,空气会变成灰蒙蒙的一片。由于它们的体积非常小,因此会进入肺部,造成各种呼吸问题,如加重哮喘,导致心律不齐,甚至造成心脏病或肺病患者过早死亡等。北京年均PM 2.5水平为每立方米空气56毫克(毫克/立方米),墨西哥城为25毫克/立方米,洛杉矶为20毫克/立方米。

不过,对于这款过滤系统的功能,生物武器专家表示怀疑。需要注意的是,此次测试由特斯拉进行,目的可能是为了平息外界的批评。在中国污染严重的地区,一款具备这种功能的过滤器,肯定对日常通勤者颇具吸引力。特斯拉目前也在大力开发中国市场。公司或许也急于提供证据,证明该系统确实具备其声称的效果。

此外,特斯拉表示其也在空气质量较差的户外对过滤系统进行了测试,如高峰时段的加州高速公路、垃圾填埋场和加州中部峡谷的养牛场,以及中国的主要城市等。

特斯拉在博客中指出,该款系统的灵感来自医院、绝对无尘室和太空行业所用的空气过滤系统。事实表明,这种想法最早来源于谷歌(Google)联合创始人拉里•佩奇。特斯拉CEO埃隆•穆斯克在周一发布了一条赞扬佩奇的推文,称赞是佩奇最初让他知道了颗粒物过滤的健康好处。

特斯拉公布的另外一条有趣的细节是:其空气过滤器还不是最终成品。公司表示,正在努力完善可替换的一级和二级过滤器的防御功能。(财富中文网)

译者:刘进龙/汪皓

Fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5, is a mix of tiny particles and liquid droplets that are made up from acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil, or dust particles. This is the stuff reducing visibility and causing the air to appear hazy when levels are elevated. They’re small enough to become embedded in the lungs, causing a slew of health problems, including aggravated asthma, irregular heartbeat, and premature death in people with heart or lung disease. Average annual PM 2.5 levels reach 56 micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m3) in Beijing, 25 µg/m3 in Mexico City, and 20 µg/m3 in Los Angeles.

Bioweapons experts have cast doubts on the capability of the filter. This test—which it should be noted was conducted by Tesla—might be an attempt to silence critics. A filter with this kind of capability would be an attractive feature for anyone who commutes every day in heavily polluted areas like China, a market Tesla is trying to reach. The company might be anxious to provide evidence that it really does work as it claims.

The car maker also says it tested the filtration system outside the lab in areas known for poor air quality, such as California freeways during rush hour, landfills, and cow pastures in the central valley of California as well as major cities in China.

Tesla notes in the blog post that it was inspired by the air filtration systems used in hospitals, clean rooms, and the space industry. It turns out that the early seeds of the idea were planted by Google co-founder Larry Page. Tesla CEO Elon Musk sent out a tweet Monday giving Page credit for initially educating him about the health benefits of filtering particulates.

Another interesting details revealed by Tesla: it isn’t finished with the air filter. The company says it is trying to improve the defenses in the primary and secondary filters, which are replaceable.

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