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全球竞争力之争:货币战不是出路

Dinesh Paliwal 2011年09月29日

无论是国家还是公司,要赢得真正的竞争优势,都必须在教育、创新和生产力上下功夫,进而提供差异化的产品或服务。尽管欧美国家一直批评中国操纵汇率以提高国际贸易中的竞争力,但中国在三方面都取得了长足的进步,这些努力正在帮助中国赢得真正的国际竞争力。

包利华

    许多西方政客不断怪罪进口的低成本货物,将其作为本国经济问题的替罪羊,这种言论让我深感困惑。这些政客中到底有几个人真正希望辛勤工作的选民面临从电视机到网球鞋的各种产品出现价格全面飙升的局面?不管喜欢与否,我们都深深依赖于进口商品富有吸引力的价格,而出现这种低价的部分原因就是新兴市场的崛起。

    我认为,要解决这一复杂的经济难题,答案可以归结为三个缺一不可的要素:教育、创新与生产力。

    值得表扬的是,中国用更高的教育水平武装国民,使他们能胜任全新的职责,中国在这方面甚至超过了许多西方国家。进入中国大学或学院的中国学生中,有97%最起码拿到了学士学位,这一比例令人惊叹;而在美国,进入大学的学生中拿到学位的才刚刚超过一半;在多数西欧国家,完成学业的比例更是只有40%左右。必须提高这一比例。

    说到创新,全球市场在这方面的竞争更加公平,因为当今世界大量卓越非凡的科技成果是开放的,人人都可以加以利用。只有打破常规,倾听顾客的意见,同时在内部精诚合作,拿出超过消费者预期的产品或服务,才能成为市场的赢家。举例来说,中国正在实现从模仿者到真正创新者的转型。

    说到这里,我们可以进入下一个问题的讨论,谈谈跨国公司要取得成功所需的最后一个关键支柱:生产力。许多西方国家通过自动化和运营上的精益求精取得了长足进步,而发展中国家则依赖于不断增加的劳动力。不管是哪种模式,都必须检验运营中的各个生产要素,提高现有资源的利用效率,只有这样才能加强竞争力,以更低的成本创造真正的价值。

    全球“货币战”很可能还将延续下去,因为合情合理的货币平衡政策与损人利己的贸易操纵行为之间的界限并不明显。可是,人为操纵汇率的做法没有实际或长远的价值。无论是国家还是公司,要赢得真正的竞争优势,都必须在教育、创新和生产力上下功夫,进而提供差异化的产品或服务。

    包利华是哈曼国际(Harman International)首席执行官、总裁兼董事长,该公司是一家全球性的音响与电子设备制造商。

    译者:小宇

    I am baffled by many Western politicians who continually blame low-cost imported goods for their own economic challenges. How many of these individuals would wish upon their hard-working constituents a rapid increase in the price of products ranging from televisions to tennis shoes? Like it or not, we are all hooked on the attractive prices of these imports, driven in part by the phenomenon of emerging markets.

    I believe the answer to this complex economic challenge lies in focusing on a troika of principles: education, innovation, and productivity.

    To its credit, China has far outpaced many Western nations by equipping its citizens with higher education, allowing them to accept new job responsibilities. An astounding 97% of Chinese students who enroll in the nation's colleges or universities go on to complete at least a Bachelor's Degree. In the U.S., just over half of enrolled students earn their diplomas, while most Western European nations have a completion rate around 40%. This ratio must improve.

    With regard to innovation, the playing field is somewhat more level across the global marketplace. Today's remarkable technologies are open to all for exploitation, but the winners will be those who think outside the box by listening to customers, collaborating, and delivering beyond expectations. China, for instance, has been evolving from being an imitator to a real innovator.

    This brings me to the final critical pillar of success for multinational companies – productivity. Many Western nations have made significant gains through automation and operational excellence, while emerging markets rely on ever-increasing numbers of workers. Each will improve their competitive position only by examining every element of operations to make existing resources more efficient, and to deliver real value at lower cost.

    The global "currency wars" are likely here to stay, due to the fine line between legitimate monetary balancing and sometimes self-serving trade manipulation. But these artificial mechanisms lack tangible or lasting value. The real competitive advantage will come to countries and companies who differentiate their offerings through education, innovation and productivity.

    Dinesh Paliwal, is the CEO, president and chairman of Harman International, a global manufacturer of audio and electronic equipment.

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