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奥米克戎来袭,口罩应该怎么选?

奥米克戎来袭,口罩应该怎么选?

Chris Morris 2022年01月13日
布口罩或许可以用来表达个性,也可能更加便利,但它对于阻断奥米克戎变异毒株的传播却没有太大效果。

布口罩或许可以用来表达个性,也可能更加便利,但它对于阻断奥米克戎变异毒株的传播却没有太大效果。

随着新冠病毒不断变异,美国的卫生官员强烈建议人们重新考虑口罩的选择。三层口罩避免感染的效果更佳。(当然,你能够在一个三层口罩外面再戴一个布口罩。卫生官员只是呼吁民众不要仅配戴布口罩。)

这条建议以及奥米克戎感染者的症状(例如发烧、咳嗽、鼻塞、身体疼痛等)与流感症状之间的相似之处,使N95口罩和KN95口罩再次引起关注。但这也让许多人感到不解。以下是在更换口罩时需要考虑的一些事项。

布口罩、医用口罩和N95/KN95口罩之间有哪些区别?

N95口罩(和部分KN95口罩)可以过滤人体吸入的大型和小型颗粒物。而布口罩主要用于防止配戴者呼出呼吸道飞沫(但布口罩的效果不一)。

选择口罩时需要考虑两个因素:层数和贴合度。N95口罩和部分KN95口罩提供五层防护。医用口罩有三层。部分布口罩只有一层。

此外还需要注意戴口罩时的缝隙。N95口罩和KN95口罩与脸部皮肤贴合最紧密,因此密封效果更好。大多数人在医用口罩外加一层布口罩能够改善口罩的面部贴合度。

KN95口罩与N95口罩有什么区别?

N95口罩的防护效果最强。参与疫情防控的一线医护人员需要配戴N95口罩,因为它们尤其能够有效阻止病毒在空气中的传播,可以过滤至少95%的小型颗粒物。

KN95口罩主要从中国进口,由于不受美国官方监管,因此未获得医学应用批准。但恰当配戴KN95口罩阻止病毒传播的效果,依旧优于布口罩或一次性外科口罩。

获得美国国家职业安全与健康研究所批准的口罩有哪些?

N95口罩从多年前就已经投入使用。自2018年以来,由美国国家职业安全与健康研究所(National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health)和美国食品与药品管理局(Food and Drug Administration)共同负责口罩审批。(KN95口罩不受监管,因此未获得美国国家职业安全与健康研究所的批准。)

不过,批准制造商名单不断变化,因此无论商家是否标榜其产品“获得美国国家职业安全与健康研究所批准”,消费者都应该向主管部门确认,因为有些公司曾经获得的批准已经失效,但并没有在市场营销中更新最新信息。

美国现在能否买到N95口罩?

大约在两年前,有许多零售商拒绝向非医护人员出售N95口罩,而是将口罩预留给一线医护人员。如今,情况早已发生了变化。

现在通过亚马逊(Amazon)等网站就能够轻松地购买到N95口罩。只是要做好支付更高价格的准备。(卫生官员建议最好不要购买带呼吸阀的口罩。)(财富中文网)

译者:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

布口罩或许可以用来表达个性,也可能更加便利,但它对于阻断奥米克戎变异毒株的传播却没有太大效果。

随着新冠病毒不断变异,美国的卫生官员强烈建议人们重新考虑口罩的选择。三层口罩避免感染的效果更佳。(当然,你能够在一个三层口罩外面再戴一个布口罩。卫生官员只是呼吁民众不要仅配戴布口罩。)

这条建议以及奥米克戎感染者的症状(例如发烧、咳嗽、鼻塞、身体疼痛等)与流感症状之间的相似之处,使N95口罩和KN95口罩再次引起关注。但这也让许多人感到不解。以下是在更换口罩时需要考虑的一些事项。

布口罩、医用口罩和N95/KN95口罩之间有哪些区别?

N95口罩(和部分KN95口罩)可以过滤人体吸入的大型和小型颗粒物。而布口罩主要用于防止配戴者呼出呼吸道飞沫(但布口罩的效果不一)。

选择口罩时需要考虑两个因素:层数和贴合度。N95口罩和部分KN95口罩提供五层防护。医用口罩有三层。部分布口罩只有一层。

此外还需要注意戴口罩时的缝隙。N95口罩和KN95口罩与脸部皮肤贴合最紧密,因此密封效果更好。大多数人在医用口罩外加一层布口罩能够改善口罩的面部贴合度。

KN95口罩与N95口罩有什么区别?

N95口罩的防护效果最强。参与疫情防控的一线医护人员需要配戴N95口罩,因为它们尤其能够有效阻止病毒在空气中的传播,可以过滤至少95%的小型颗粒物。

KN95口罩主要从中国进口,由于不受美国官方监管,因此未获得医学应用批准。但恰当配戴KN95口罩阻止病毒传播的效果,依旧优于布口罩或一次性外科口罩。

获得美国国家职业安全与健康研究所批准的口罩有哪些?

N95口罩从多年前就已经投入使用。自2018年以来,由美国国家职业安全与健康研究所(National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health)和美国食品与药品管理局(Food and Drug Administration)共同负责口罩审批。(KN95口罩不受监管,因此未获得美国国家职业安全与健康研究所的批准。)

不过,批准制造商名单不断变化,因此无论商家是否标榜其产品“获得美国国家职业安全与健康研究所批准”,消费者都应该向主管部门确认,因为有些公司曾经获得的批准已经失效,但并没有在市场营销中更新最新信息。

美国现在能否买到N95口罩?

大约在两年前,有许多零售商拒绝向非医护人员出售N95口罩,而是将口罩预留给一线医护人员。如今,情况早已发生了变化。

现在通过亚马逊(Amazon)等网站就能够轻松地购买到N95口罩。只是要做好支付更高价格的准备。(卫生官员建议最好不要购买带呼吸阀的口罩。)(财富中文网)

译者:刘进龙

审校:汪皓

Cloth masks may allow you to express your personal style and may be more convenient, but when it comes to the Omicron variant, they’re not doing you a lot of good.

Health officials are strongly suggesting people reconsider their mask options as the COVID-19 virus continues to mutate. And a three-ply mask is much more effective in shielding people from infection. (You can, of course, wear a cloth mask on top of one of those. Officials are just urging people to not rely on cloth masks alone.)

That advice—and the similarity between Omicron symptoms (such as fever, coughs, congestion, and body aches) and those of the flu—is once again renewing interest in N95 and KN95 masks. But it’s also resulting in a lot of confusion. Here are some things to consider as you upgrade your mask.

What’s the difference between a cloth mask, a medical mask and a N95/KN95 mask?

N95s (and some KN95s) are a type of respirator, filtering out both larger and smaller particles you inhale. Cloth masks, on the other hand, largely prevent the wearer from expelling respiratory droplets (though some are more effective than others).

There are two factors to consider: layers and fit. N95 and some KN95 masks have five layers of protection. A medical mask has three. And some cloth masks only have one.

You’ll also want to keep an eye out for gaps as you wear them. N95 and KN95 masks generally offer the closest fit, and therefore the better seal. Double masking, with a medical mask covered by a cloth mask improves the fit against most people’s faces for those options.

What’s the difference between KN95 and N95 masks?

N95 masks are the pinnacle of the face-covering world. They’re the ones used by medical professionals who are on the front line of COVID, as they’re especially effective in blocking airborne viruses, filtering out at least 95% of very small particles.

KN95 masks are largely imported from China and aren’t approved for use in medical settings, since they’re not regulated by U.S. officials. But a well-fitted KN95 is still more effective in stopping the virus than a cloth or disposable surgical mask.

What is a NIOSH-approved mask?

N95 masks have been around for years. And since 2018, the National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) has worked with the Food and Drug Administration to approve the respirators. (KN95 masks are not regulated, so don’t carry NIOSH approval.)

It’s an ever-changing list of approved manufacturers, so, regardless of whether the sales listing boasts “NIOSH approved,” you’ll want to confirm that with the agency—since some companies that were once approved no longer are, but haven’t updated their marketing.

Can I buy an N95 mask now?

It was almost two years ago when many retailers refused to sell N95 masks to nonmedical personnel, reserving them for frontline workers. Things have changed since then.

You can now purchase an N95 mask fairly easily via Amazon and other sites. Just be prepared to pay a bit more for them. (And you’ll want to avoid the ones that have a ventilator, as health officials discourage use of those.)

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