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美国第四剂加强针开打,只有这一类人有资格接种

美国第四剂加强针开打,只有这一类人有资格接种

Brett Haensel 2021年10月28日
目前,除了免疫缺陷组外,任何其他组的人群都不允许注射第四剂疫苗

根据美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control)的最新指南,美国一些完全接种过疫苗的免疫力低下人群,现在可以接受第四针新冠疫苗。

该中心称,如果已经接受了Moderna或者辉瑞(Pfizer)的系列疫苗,免疫系统中度或严重受损的成年人现在有资格在接受第三剂疫苗的六个月后再接受第四剂疫苗。其实,早在今年8月,美国食品和药品管理局(Food and Drug Administration)就为免疫力低下者开了绿灯,允许他们在接种第二针后四周接种第三针。

美国疾病控制与预防中心表示,免疫系统受损的人能够接受任何授权的新冠疫苗增强剂,Moderna、辉瑞和强生(Johnson & Johnson)都可以,无论他们最初接种的是哪种疫苗。但是,第四次选择注射Moderna疫苗的人只能够注射一半的剂量(即50微克,通常第一、第二和第三次注射的剂量为100微克)。

另外,该中心建议,最初接受单剂量强生公司疫苗的免疫力低下者,在接种第一剂疫苗至少两个月后,只需要一次来自任一品牌的加强剂。也就是说,在这种情况下,免疫力低下者应该只接受两针新冠疫苗——一开始的强生疫苗和加上任何品牌的加强针——而不是四针。

免疫力低下人群大约占美国成年人口的3%。根据美国疾病控制与预防中心引用的研究,他们都更容易受到新冠病毒的感染,而且更难以从最常见的两剂疫苗中获得与免疫功能正常的人相同水平的免疫力。

另一项研究则表明,在导致住院治疗的突破性病例中,完全接种疫苗的免疫功能低下者占到了大约44%。

该中心的名单显示,符合免疫力低下条件者包括活跃的癌症患者、器官移植接受者、在过去两年内接受过干细胞移植的人、患有晚期或未经治疗的艾滋病毒者,以及服用可能抑制免疫系统的药物者等。

目前,除了免疫缺陷组外,任何其他组的人群都不允许注射第四剂疫苗。

根据美国疾病控制与预防中心的说法,新冠病毒的高风险人群——65岁及以上的个人,以及18至64岁有潜在疾病或工作、生活状况使其处于高风险的人,只要他们的免疫系统正常,就不需要注射第四剂疫苗。但是,该中心和美国食品和药品管理局建议他们在完全接种疫苗6个月后(如果最初接种的是强生疫苗,则是两个月)注射加强剂。

目前,该中心“并未建议免疫缺陷人群”接受第四剂疫苗。其在指南中指出:“患者的临床团队最适合确定适当的疫苗接种时机。”

相反,目前美国疾病控制与预防中心的建议是,免疫缺陷的个体在完成mRNA疫苗系列28天之后,只接受第三剂疫苗。更新后的指南给了这组患者第四次注射的“选择”,而非“建议”。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

根据美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control)的最新指南,美国一些完全接种过疫苗的免疫力低下人群,现在可以接受第四针新冠疫苗。

该中心称,如果已经接受了Moderna或者辉瑞(Pfizer)的系列疫苗,免疫系统中度或严重受损的成年人现在有资格在接受第三剂疫苗的六个月后再接受第四剂疫苗。其实,早在今年8月,美国食品和药品管理局(Food and Drug Administration)就为免疫力低下者开了绿灯,允许他们在接种第二针后四周接种第三针。

美国疾病控制与预防中心表示,免疫系统受损的人能够接受任何授权的新冠疫苗增强剂,Moderna、辉瑞和强生(Johnson & Johnson)都可以,无论他们最初接种的是哪种疫苗。但是,第四次选择注射Moderna疫苗的人只能够注射一半的剂量(即50微克,通常第一、第二和第三次注射的剂量为100微克)。

另外,该中心建议,最初接受单剂量强生公司疫苗的免疫力低下者,在接种第一剂疫苗至少两个月后,只需要一次来自任一品牌的加强剂。也就是说,在这种情况下,免疫力低下者应该只接受两针新冠疫苗——一开始的强生疫苗和加上任何品牌的加强针——而不是四针。

免疫力低下人群大约占美国成年人口的3%。根据美国疾病控制与预防中心引用的研究,他们都更容易受到新冠病毒的感染,而且更难以从最常见的两剂疫苗中获得与免疫功能正常的人相同水平的免疫力。

另一项研究则表明,在导致住院治疗的突破性病例中,完全接种疫苗的免疫功能低下者占到了大约44%。

该中心的名单显示,符合免疫力低下条件者包括活跃的癌症患者、器官移植接受者、在过去两年内接受过干细胞移植的人、患有晚期或未经治疗的艾滋病毒者,以及服用可能抑制免疫系统的药物者等。

目前,除了免疫缺陷组外,任何其他组的人群都不允许注射第四剂疫苗。

根据美国疾病控制与预防中心的说法,新冠病毒的高风险人群——65岁及以上的个人,以及18至64岁有潜在疾病或工作、生活状况使其处于高风险的人,只要他们的免疫系统正常,就不需要注射第四剂疫苗。但是,该中心和美国食品和药品管理局建议他们在完全接种疫苗6个月后(如果最初接种的是强生疫苗,则是两个月)注射加强剂。

目前,该中心“并未建议免疫缺陷人群”接受第四剂疫苗。其在指南中指出:“患者的临床团队最适合确定适当的疫苗接种时机。”

相反,目前美国疾病控制与预防中心的建议是,免疫缺陷的个体在完成mRNA疫苗系列28天之后,只接受第三剂疫苗。更新后的指南给了这组患者第四次注射的“选择”,而非“建议”。(财富中文网)

编译:杨二一

Certain fully vaccinated immunocompromised individuals in the U.S. may now receive a fourth COVID-19 shot, according to new guidance from the Centers for Disease Control.

Provided that they received their primary vaccine series from either Moderna or Pfizer, adults with moderately or severely compromised immune systems are now eligible to receive a fourth dose six months after they received a third dose, according to the CDC. Immunocompromised individuals were given the green light by the Food and Drug Administration back in August to receive a third dose four weeks after getting their second.

The CDC said those with compromised immune systems can receive any authorized COVID-19 booster—Moderna, Pfizer, or Johnson & Johnson—as their fourth dose regardless of which vaccine they originally were given. People who receive Moderna for their fourth shot, though, will be given just a half dose (50 micrograms as compared with the usual 100 micrograms given for the first, second, and third Moderna jabs).

On the other hand, the CDC recommends that immunocompromised people who originally received the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine get just one booster shot of any approved brand at least two months after receiving the primary dose. That is, in this case, immunocompromised individuals should receive just two total COVID-19 vaccine shots as opposed to four: the original Johnson & Johnson dose and the booster of any brand.

Immunocompromised individuals make up roughly 3% of the U.S. adult population, and they are both more vulnerable to COVID-19 and less likely to build the same level of immunity from a two-dose vaccine series as those who are not immunocompromised, according to studies cited by the CDC.

Other studies showed that fully vaccinated immunocompromised people made up roughly 44% of breakthrough cases that resulted in hospitalization.

Those who qualify as immunocompromised include active cancer patients, organ transplant recipients, people who have received stem cell transplants within the past two years, individuals with advanced or untreated HIV, and those taking drugs that may suppress the immune system, among others, according to a CDC list.

A fourth dose is currently not allowed for any other groups besides the immunocompromised.

Those who are at high-risk of COVID-19—individuals 65 and older as well as people ages 18 to 64 with underlying medical conditions or jobs or living situations that put them at high risk—should not receive a fourth dose as long as they have normal, functioning immune systems, according to the CDC. However, they are advised by the CDC and FDA to receive a booster shot six months after becoming fully vaccinated (two months if originally given J&J).

Currently, the CDC “does not have a recommendation for immunocompromised people” to receive a fourth dose and noted within this guidance that “a patient’s clinical team is best positioned to determine the appropriate timing of vaccination.”

Instead, the current CDC recommendation is for immunocompromised individuals to just receive a third dose 28 days after completing an mRNA vaccine series. Still, the updated guidelines give this group the option of receiving a fourth dose.

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