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美国最新驱逐禁令出台,房东急了

美国最新驱逐禁令出台,房东急了

Michael Casey, Anne D'Innocenzio, 美联社 2021年09月06日
不管是大房东还是小房东,都表示对“暂停驱逐令”愤怒不已,他们认为这是一项非法的禁令。

早在2017年,瑞安·大卫购买了三套用于出租的房产,当时他预计每月扣除各种费用后的1000美元,可以成为退休后的固定收入来源。

大卫在宾夕法尼亚州杜邦区也有房产,他还指望那里的租金收入能够弥补去年年初买卖不良房产造成的现金缺口。

然而新冠疫情突然来袭,联邦政府和州政府出台“暂停驱逐令”。于是,拖欠房租的房客越来越多。后来,就在他认为最坏情况要结束时,美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)宣布了一项新禁令,表示“暂停驱逐令”将延期至10月3日。8月中旬,一名联邦法官驳回了阻止这项驱逐禁令的请求。

大卫有个两岁半的孩子,正在期待另一个孩子的降临,他担心自己被拖欠的2000美元房租很快会攀升至数千美元。

最新颁布的禁令“是压死骆驼的最后一根稻草”,39岁的大卫还表示,现在计划卖掉这些公寓。“我的内心一直来回挣扎,晚上甚至会失眠。现在我决定卖掉这些房产,然后走人。”

阿斯彭研究所(Aspen Institute)的数据显示,自早期疫情爆发以来,大多数房客已经不会因为拖欠房租而被驱逐,现在大约有1500万以上的家庭拖欠租金,数额高达200亿美元。

根据美国租赁房屋委员会(National Rental Home Council)的一项调查,大多数独栋出租房屋的业主深受新冠疫情影响,50%的业主表示自己的租户在疫情期间未交房租。

美国房地产经纪人协会(National Association of Realtors)的数据则显示,少于四套房产的小房东受到的打击尤其严重,这些房东往往没有大业主的融资,他们表示至少多达58%的房客拖欠房租。小房东被拖欠租金的情况占到全美一半以上。

不管是大房东还是小房东,都表示对“暂停驱逐令”愤怒不已,他们认为这是一项非法的禁令。许多房东认为,如果不是因为这条禁令,一些租户本来可以支付租金。联邦政府本来应允发放470亿美元的租金援助帮助大家渡过难关,但却迟迟没有兑现。截至7月,首批租金援助250亿美元中也只有30亿美元到账。

大卫表示,两名房客在整个新冠疫情期间均有工资收入,他们不但没有支付房租,也没有下功夫去申请租屋津贴。其他房东则指出很多违约租户,明明还开着豪车、点着外卖或是去度假。

加里·扎伦巴说:“收不到租,只能退出不干了。”由于暂停驱逐租客,扎伦巴卖掉了自己在俄亥俄州的40套房产,在剩下的百户公寓里,仍然有四分之一的租客为支付房租而为难万分。他表示,自己已经帮助一些房客申请了租屋津贴。

扎伦巴称:“这就像一家没有顾客的餐厅。拿不到房租,也就付不起维修工的工资,于是不得不解雇他们。那么我也无法进行维修或良好维护,因此,这意味着房屋情况会变得更糟。我也交不起税了。”

扎伦巴在纽约市也拥有几套房产,他把自己的一些独栋住宅出售给了购房者,把一些多户商业公寓楼卖给了小型投资者。

许多房东背负着数万美元的租金损失,这些钱本应用于退休、大学基金储蓄或是投资,他们自己也在寻求一种安全的投资方式。现在,这些房东要么刷爆信用卡,要么动用储蓄来支付房地产税、雇员工资、保险费、水费和维修费等。

“我一直在想,我什么时候才能够拿到租金?”马修·海恩斯说,他和妻子在美国得克萨斯州的达拉斯-沃斯堡都会区拥有253套公寓,被拖欠的租金超过30万美元。他将其中25万美元移交给了征收机构处理。

这对夫妻自己拿出5万美元,避免解雇7名全职雇员和3名兼职雇员。为了节省支出,海恩斯还会自己动手维修,比如修修空调或更换泳池灯具。那些投资这些房产的退休人员,年回报率通常在7%到9%之间,结果去年由于租户拖欠房租,投资的两套多户公寓一无所获,第三套公寓的回报率也只有3%。

“我们竭尽全力帮助那些苦不堪言的租客。我们没有赶走任何试图与我们合作的房客,尽管有些人已经拖欠七、八、九个月的房租。”他还指出,“我们还在努力做正确的事情,但变得不太现实。”

在纽约州北部,迈克尔·里德向一些欠租房客支付了数千美元让他们离开后,卖掉了自己的三套房子,遏制损失。在31户家庭中,里德已经为其中13户家庭支付了超过10万美元的租金,加上2万多美元的水费。里德自己申请了9万美元的房屋净值贷款,这样可以用来支付房地产税和其他账单。8月17日,他终于收到了联邦政府发放的9000美元租金援助,但也不过是杯水车薪。

“除了被拖欠的房租,我还损失了一大笔钱。”里德也是一名抵押贷款专员,这笔亏损来自于那些在纽约州宾厄姆顿和恩迪科特的欠租房客。“谢天谢地,我平常的工作收入还不错。”

一些业主正在利用大热的房地产市场,将房产出售给财力雄厚的投资者,他们愿意等待“暂停驱逐令”解除,或是出售给计划买房的家庭。越来越多的买家是外地投资者或股权基金,批评人士担心这些买家会对房屋进行翻新,然后以更高价格出售。

里德谈到与他有过沟通的数十位投资者时说:“很多房东都很反感这样。这是在做亏本买卖。大家正在退出。”

即便是那些坚持从事房地产业务的人也表示,禁令迫使他们改变了经营方式。

有些房东让公寓空置了数月之久,要么是因为没有钱翻新,要么是因为担心遇到拖欠租金的房客。只要禁令还在实施,有些人不会再购买任何新房产,另一些人则只会在较富裕的社区买房。

还有一些房东正在加强筛查过程,对疫情期间长期失业或拖欠数月租金的房客进行额外审查。

里德称:“如果有人骗走了前房东12个月、15个月或18个月的房租,那么我不会想再租给这些人。”

这可能导致驱逐禁令解除后,面临驱逐的低收入租户的租房选择减少。

“这让每个人的处境都变得更糟。尤其是对租户来说,情况更糟,因为我们将失去负担得起的住房。”斯塔西·约翰逊-科斯比表示,她和丈夫在密苏里州堪萨斯城地区拥有21套公寓。

“投资者会来买下房产、投入资金、重新装修,然后以更高的价格出租。”

里克·马丁在波士顿的多切斯特有五套房产,在卖掉两套之前就为此苦恼不已。在卖房之前,由于禁令出台,这位62岁老人大部分的房子空置已久,损失了数千美元的租金。

马丁说:“从政府颁布禁令的那一刻起,我就决定出售房产。我不想应付那些不付房租且永远摆脱不掉的房客。那会让财务状况变得更糟糕。”

马丁还表示,他对向投资者出售房产的这个决定感到恼火。其中一个买家已经把一套房产改成了公寓套房。另一个买家已经将一栋三户家庭的住宅租金提高了一倍。

他还补充说道:“老实说,这是一个非常艰难的决定。我希望我们这些小业主可以蓬勃发展。但由于这一禁令,一切都成为了泡影。”(财富中文网)

译者:三叠瀑

早在2017年,瑞安·大卫购买了三套用于出租的房产,当时他预计每月扣除各种费用后的1000美元,可以成为退休后的固定收入来源。

大卫在宾夕法尼亚州杜邦区也有房产,他还指望那里的租金收入能够弥补去年年初买卖不良房产造成的现金缺口。

然而新冠疫情突然来袭,联邦政府和州政府出台“暂停驱逐令”。于是,拖欠房租的房客越来越多。后来,就在他认为最坏情况要结束时,美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)宣布了一项新禁令,表示“暂停驱逐令”将延期至10月3日。8月中旬,一名联邦法官驳回了阻止这项驱逐禁令的请求。

大卫有个两岁半的孩子,正在期待另一个孩子的降临,他担心自己被拖欠的2000美元房租很快会攀升至数千美元。

最新颁布的禁令“是压死骆驼的最后一根稻草”,39岁的大卫还表示,现在计划卖掉这些公寓。“我的内心一直来回挣扎,晚上甚至会失眠。现在我决定卖掉这些房产,然后走人。”

阿斯彭研究所(Aspen Institute)的数据显示,自早期疫情爆发以来,大多数房客已经不会因为拖欠房租而被驱逐,现在大约有1500万以上的家庭拖欠租金,数额高达200亿美元。

根据美国租赁房屋委员会(National Rental Home Council)的一项调查,大多数独栋出租房屋的业主深受新冠疫情影响,50%的业主表示自己的租户在疫情期间未交房租。

美国房地产经纪人协会(National Association of Realtors)的数据则显示,少于四套房产的小房东受到的打击尤其严重,这些房东往往没有大业主的融资,他们表示至少多达58%的房客拖欠房租。小房东被拖欠租金的情况占到全美一半以上。

不管是大房东还是小房东,都表示对“暂停驱逐令”愤怒不已,他们认为这是一项非法的禁令。许多房东认为,如果不是因为这条禁令,一些租户本来可以支付租金。联邦政府本来应允发放470亿美元的租金援助帮助大家渡过难关,但却迟迟没有兑现。截至7月,首批租金援助250亿美元中也只有30亿美元到账。

大卫表示,两名房客在整个新冠疫情期间均有工资收入,他们不但没有支付房租,也没有下功夫去申请租屋津贴。其他房东则指出很多违约租户,明明还开着豪车、点着外卖或是去度假。

加里·扎伦巴说:“收不到租,只能退出不干了。”由于暂停驱逐租客,扎伦巴卖掉了自己在俄亥俄州的40套房产,在剩下的百户公寓里,仍然有四分之一的租客为支付房租而为难万分。他表示,自己已经帮助一些房客申请了租屋津贴。

扎伦巴称:“这就像一家没有顾客的餐厅。拿不到房租,也就付不起维修工的工资,于是不得不解雇他们。那么我也无法进行维修或良好维护,因此,这意味着房屋情况会变得更糟。我也交不起税了。”

扎伦巴在纽约市也拥有几套房产,他把自己的一些独栋住宅出售给了购房者,把一些多户商业公寓楼卖给了小型投资者。

许多房东背负着数万美元的租金损失,这些钱本应用于退休、大学基金储蓄或是投资,他们自己也在寻求一种安全的投资方式。现在,这些房东要么刷爆信用卡,要么动用储蓄来支付房地产税、雇员工资、保险费、水费和维修费等。

“我一直在想,我什么时候才能够拿到租金?”马修·海恩斯说,他和妻子在美国得克萨斯州的达拉斯-沃斯堡都会区拥有253套公寓,被拖欠的租金超过30万美元。他将其中25万美元移交给了征收机构处理。

这对夫妻自己拿出5万美元,避免解雇7名全职雇员和3名兼职雇员。为了节省支出,海恩斯还会自己动手维修,比如修修空调或更换泳池灯具。那些投资这些房产的退休人员,年回报率通常在7%到9%之间,结果去年由于租户拖欠房租,投资的两套多户公寓一无所获,第三套公寓的回报率也只有3%。

“我们竭尽全力帮助那些苦不堪言的租客。我们没有赶走任何试图与我们合作的房客,尽管有些人已经拖欠七、八、九个月的房租。”他还指出,“我们还在努力做正确的事情,但变得不太现实。”

在纽约州北部,迈克尔·里德向一些欠租房客支付了数千美元让他们离开后,卖掉了自己的三套房子,遏制损失。在31户家庭中,里德已经为其中13户家庭支付了超过10万美元的租金,加上2万多美元的水费。里德自己申请了9万美元的房屋净值贷款,这样可以用来支付房地产税和其他账单。8月17日,他终于收到了联邦政府发放的9000美元租金援助,但也不过是杯水车薪。

“除了被拖欠的房租,我还损失了一大笔钱。”里德也是一名抵押贷款专员,这笔亏损来自于那些在纽约州宾厄姆顿和恩迪科特的欠租房客。“谢天谢地,我平常的工作收入还不错。”

一些业主正在利用大热的房地产市场,将房产出售给财力雄厚的投资者,他们愿意等待“暂停驱逐令”解除,或是出售给计划买房的家庭。越来越多的买家是外地投资者或股权基金,批评人士担心这些买家会对房屋进行翻新,然后以更高价格出售。

里德谈到与他有过沟通的数十位投资者时说:“很多房东都很反感这样。这是在做亏本买卖。大家正在退出。”

即便是那些坚持从事房地产业务的人也表示,禁令迫使他们改变了经营方式。

有些房东让公寓空置了数月之久,要么是因为没有钱翻新,要么是因为担心遇到拖欠租金的房客。只要禁令还在实施,有些人不会再购买任何新房产,另一些人则只会在较富裕的社区买房。

还有一些房东正在加强筛查过程,对疫情期间长期失业或拖欠数月租金的房客进行额外审查。

里德称:“如果有人骗走了前房东12个月、15个月或18个月的房租,那么我不会想再租给这些人。”

这可能导致驱逐禁令解除后,面临驱逐的低收入租户的租房选择减少。

“这让每个人的处境都变得更糟。尤其是对租户来说,情况更糟,因为我们将失去负担得起的住房。”斯塔西·约翰逊-科斯比表示,她和丈夫在密苏里州堪萨斯城地区拥有21套公寓。

“投资者会来买下房产、投入资金、重新装修,然后以更高的价格出租。”

里克·马丁在波士顿的多切斯特有五套房产,在卖掉两套之前就为此苦恼不已。在卖房之前,由于禁令出台,这位62岁老人大部分的房子空置已久,损失了数千美元的租金。

马丁说:“从政府颁布禁令的那一刻起,我就决定出售房产。我不想应付那些不付房租且永远摆脱不掉的房客。那会让财务状况变得更糟糕。”

马丁还表示,他对向投资者出售房产的这个决定感到恼火。其中一个买家已经把一套房产改成了公寓套房。另一个买家已经将一栋三户家庭的住宅租金提高了一倍。

他还补充说道:“老实说,这是一个非常艰难的决定。我希望我们这些小业主可以蓬勃发展。但由于这一禁令,一切都成为了泡影。”(财富中文网)

译者:三叠瀑

When Ryan David bought three rental properties back in 2017, he expected the $1,000-a-month he was pocketing after expenses would be regular sources of income well into his retirement years.

He also was counting on the rent money from the properties in Dupont, Pennsylvania, to help with the cash flow of his business buying and selling distressed properties, launched early last year.

But then the pandemic hit and federal and state authorities imposed moratoriums on evictions. The unpaid rent began to mount. Then, just when he thought the worst was over, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced a new moratorium, lasting until Oct. 3. A federal judge dismissed a legal challenge to the order in mid-August.

David, the father of a 2 1/2-year-old who is expecting another child, fears the $2,000 he's owed in back rent will quickly climb to thousands more.

The latest moratorium “was the final gut punch," said the 39-year-old, adding that he now plans to sell the apartments. “I have had this internal struggle going back and forth. I have lost sleep at night, and I have now come up with a decision to sell and walk away.”

Most evictions for unpaid rent have been halted since the early days of the pandemic and there are now more than 15 million people living in households that owe as much as $20 billion in back rent, according to the Aspen Institute.

A majority of single-family rental home owners have been impacted, according to a survey from the National Rental Home Council, and 50% say they have tenants who have missed rent during the pandemic.

Smaller landlords with fewer than four units, who often don't have the financing of larger property owners, were hit especially hard, with as many as 58% having tenants behind on rent, according to the National Association of Realtors. More than half of back rent is owed to smaller landlords.

Landlords, big and small, are most angry about the moratoriums, which they consider illegal. Many believe some tenants could have paid rent, if not for the moratorium. And the $47 billion in federal rental assistance that was supposed to make landlords whole has been slow to materialize. By July, only $3 billion of the first tranche of $25 billion had been distributed.

David points to two tenants who received paychecks throughout the pandemic but didn't pay rent or bother to file for rental assistance. Others singled out delinquent tenants who they claimed still managed to drive a luxury car, get food deliveries or go on vacation.

“Without rent, we’re out of business,” said Gary Zaremba, who sold 40 of his properties in Ohio due to the moratorium and still has a quarter of his tenants in the remaining 100 buildings struggling to pay rent. He has helped some apply for rental assistance, he said.

“It’s like a restaurant that doesn’t have patrons,” he said. “I don’t get the rent. I can’t pay my maintenance staff. I have to lay them off. I can't fix the buildings and keep them in good repair. So, that means they are going to get even worse off. I can’t pay my taxes.”

Zaremba, who also owns a handful of properties in New York City, sold some of his single-family homes to home buyers and some multi-family commercial apartment buildings to small investors.

Many landlords are saddled with tens of thousands of dollars in lost rent—money that was meant for retirement, a college fund or for their investors, who themselves had sought a safe investment. They are maxing out credit cards or dipping into savings to pay property taxes, staff salaries, insurance, water bills and maintenance.

“I keep thinking to myself, when does my family get paid?” said Matthew Haines, who owns 253 units with his wife in the Dallas/Fort Worth area and is owed more than $300,000 in back rent. He has referred $250,000 of that to collections.

The couple put in $50,000 of their own money to avoid laying off their seven full-time and three part-time employees. Haines is also doing repairs like fixing an air conditioning unit or changing a pool light himself to save money. Their investors, retirees who typically get an annual return of 7% to 9%, got nothing last year on two multifamily apartments and 3% on a third one because of unpaid rent.

“We jumped through hoops to help our residents who were struggling. We have not evicted a single person trying to work with us, even though we have people who owe us seven, eight, nine months of rent,” he said. “We are trying to do the right thing but it’s becoming impossible.”

In upstate New York, Michael Reid sold three of his houses to stem losses—after paying some delinquent tenants thousands of dollars to leave. Already out more than $100,000 in back rent on 13 of his 31 units and more than $20,000 in unpaid water bills, Reid took out a $90,000 home equity loan on his house so he could pay property taxes and other bills. On August 17, he finally received $9,000 in federal rental assistance, a fraction of what he's owed.

“I’ve lost an incredible amount of money on top of the rent owed,” said Reid, who also works as a mortgage loan officer, referring to his delinquent tenants in Binghamton and Endicott, New York. “Thank God, my day job pays pretty well.”

Some owners are taking advantage of a red-hot housing market to sell their units to deep-pocketed investors willing to wait out the moratorium or to families who plan to live in them. Buyers are increasingly out-of-town investors or equity funds, whom critics fear will renovate the properties and market them at much higher prices.

“A lot of landlords are disgusted. They are selling at losses. They are getting out period,” Reid said of the dozens of investors he talks with.

Even those sticking with the property business say the moratorium has forced them to change their operations.

Some are leaving apartments vacant for months at a time, either because they lack the money to renovate or fear being stuck with nonpaying tenants. Some aren’t buying any new properties as long as the moratorium is in place; others will only buy in wealthier neighborhoods.

Still others are bolstering their screening process and giving extra scrutiny to someone who was unemployed for long stretches during the pandemic or saddled their previous landlord with months of back rent.

“If somebody stiffed their previous landlord out of 12, 15 or 18 months rent, I don’t want to rent to them,” Reid said.

This could result in fewer places to live for low-income tenants facing eviction when the moratorium lifts.

“It makes it worse for everyone. It’s worse for tenants, in particular, because we are going to lose affordable housing,” said Stacey Johnson-Cosby, who with her husband owns 21 units in the Kansas City, Missouri, area.

“The investors are going to come. They are going buy the property, put money into it, renovate it and rent it at a higher amount."

Rick Martin anguished over just that before selling two of his five buildings in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston. Before that the 62-year-old left most of them vacant due to the moratorium, depriving him of thousands of dollars in rent.

“The minute they enacted the moratorium, that trigged my decision to sell the properties,” Martin said. “I did not want someone moving in whom I could never get rid of if they didn’t pay rent. That would make the financial situation worse.”

Martin said he was torn about the decision to sell to investors. One has turned a building into condos. Another has already doubled the rent on a three-family building.

“Honestly it’s a very difficult decision,” he said. “I want the small property owners to flourish and grow. But because of this moratorium, we are having everything cut out from beneath us.”

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