立即打开
美国这两个州的抗疫表现为何差距如此之大?

美国这两个州的抗疫表现为何差距如此之大?

Anjani Jain, Jeffrey Sonnenfeld 2021年09月03日
面对新冠疫情的再次升级,美国佛罗里达州州长和康涅狄格州州长的不同做法体现了领导者个人的潜在影响力。

美国康涅狄格州州长内德·拉蒙特(左)和佛罗里达州州长罗恩·德桑蒂斯。图片来源:JOHN MOORE—GETTY IMAGES; MICHAEL REAVES—GETTY IMAGES

行政权力往往会受到复杂的地缘政治变化、反复无常的金融市场、颠覆性的新技术和重大自然灾害等因素的限制,但关键领导人仍然可以对数百万选民产生或积极或消极的深远影响。面对新冠疫情的再次升级,美国佛罗里达州州长和康涅狄格州州长的不同做法体现了领导者个人的潜在影响力。

今年夏天,由于美国南方若干州的州长哗众取宠、耍弄政治手腕,公共卫生领域噩耗不断。佛罗里达、得克萨斯和密苏里州的新冠病例激增,致使德尔塔变体毒株迅速传播。尽管这三州的人口仅为全美的17%,新发病例占比却高达40%。三个州的州长无视科学和证据,采取玩世不恭的强硬立场,禁止雇主强制雇员接种疫苗和在室内佩戴口罩,甚至置尚不能接种疫苗的幼龄学童的安全于不顾。

佛州州长罗恩·德桑蒂斯甚至威胁说,如果学校按照美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)的指南要求教职员工采取佩戴口罩等保护性措施,就将削减教育经费和教职工薪酬。尽管如此,仍然有10个学区不顾德桑蒂斯的威胁,强制要求人们佩戴口罩。此外,迪士尼(Disney)、嘉年华邮轮公司(Carnival Cruise Line)、皇家加勒比邮轮公司(Royal Caribbean)以及挪威邮轮公司(Norwegian Cruise Line)也冒着每次被罚款5000美元的危险,拒绝服从德桑蒂斯关于乘客疫苗护照的禁令。

眼下,佛州各家医院的急诊室和重症监护室已经接近饱和,90%的重症监护床位被占用,其中大多数是新冠肺炎患者。这些住院病患90%以上没有接种疫苗,佛州12岁至64岁人群的疫苗接种率仅为三分之一。

面对佛州大量居民尚未接种疫苗、极易感染德尔塔变体病毒的现状,德桑蒂斯的回应是听取那些反对佩戴口罩者的意见,而正是这些人,抛开科学研制、安全有效的疫苗,却在鼓吹伊维菌素、羟基氯喹等药效未经证实的牲畜驱虫剂。

相反,康涅狄格州州长内德·拉蒙特则从习惯疫情爆发初期就依靠科学的防疫方法。早在2020年3月宣布新冠疫情时起,他便召集全球著名的病毒学家、微生物学家、流行病学家和商业领袖组成顾问小组,抛开意识形态影响,坚持依靠科学、证据和明智的管理措施开展工作。他与先前的唐纳德·特朗普政府高层以及后来的乔·拜登政府领导人合作,令州内生产未曾有一天中断,确保了所需的防护器材的供应,使学校得以提前开学。拉蒙特还积极促成了全美范围内每周一次的州长会议,不哗众取宠,而是默默地开展跨党派、跨部门合作,寻求高效解决问题。

正如拉蒙特最近所言:“我们的重启委员会成员包括能够帮助我们摆脱困境的科学家和大企业领导人,我在州政府内所做的努力就是让更多的人可以参与到商讨与决策中来。”他既不为政治目的嘲讽科学家,也没有恐吓政府官员或威胁商业领袖。在此努力下,该州各年龄段的疫苗接种率均超过75%,达到全美前两位,90%的老年人也接种了疫苗;而因为新冠肺炎导致的死亡率则在保持较低水平,在全美50个州中位列第35位。

本着这种致力于解决问题的工作方式和协调合作的领导风格,拉蒙特呼吁在学校、养老院以及所有州一级政府雇员中开展强制性疫苗接种。令人惊讶的是,工会、两党政要和商界领袖中无人对此提出异议。拉蒙特针对南方一些州接连出现的医院饱和情况评论到:“可悲的是,很多地区的医院往往已经不堪重负或濒临饱和。我们绝不会让这种情况出现在康涅狄格。”

通过以下两张美国疾病控制和预防中心给出的佛罗里达州和康涅狄格州的公共卫生结果对比图不难发现,面对同一个国家、同一时期内出现的同样疾病,不同的领导者会带来怎样不同的结果。尽管康涅狄格州在疫苗问世前的那段时间里形势严峻,但情况随后却发生了显著变化。两个州的差异无法归于年龄因素,因为这两州居民的平均年龄均为41岁左右,而且康涅狄格州各个年龄段居民的健康状况均好于佛州居民。

截至目前,今年佛罗里达州疫情死亡人数

截至目前,今年康涅狄格州疫情死亡人数

随着德尔塔变体毒株肆虐全美,东北部地区和南方各州公众健康状况的差异愈发明显。从下图可见,康涅狄格州与佛罗里达州的差异也是各自周边地区的缩影。新冠疫情爆发一年半以来,我们已经在设计有效的公共卫生对策方面积累了大量知识和经验。各地公众健康的差异并非德尔塔变体病毒肆虐、人口统计学差异、医疗条件或环境因素造成,而应该归于各地领导力水平的差距。

领导力不容小觑,它不仅会影响政府应对公共卫生危机的效率,也决定着危机时期的个体观念和群体意识。

意识形态极端主义已经给美国带来了不必要的死亡。可悲的是,各州间的政治分歧竟导致其在卫生防疫措施方面的巨大差异,包括疫苗接种和口罩佩戴状况。所有民主国家都存在意识形态差异和激烈的政治竞争,世界各地对待疫苗和口罩的态度也不尽相同,但没有哪个地区像美国这般,将防疫态度与政治意识紧密挂钩。英国、印度和以色列是三个典型例子,这三个国家均面临严峻的疫情,各自国内的政治分歧不亚于美国,但均未影响其卫生防疫措施。然而在美国,如下图所示,政治因素却强化了人们对公共卫生措施的抵制,使得个体态度愈发强硬,恶化了疫情及其对美国人生活和经济的影响。

康涅狄格和佛罗里达的州长均拥有哈佛大学(Harvard)和耶鲁大学(Yale)的本科及研究生学历,两人的领导方式差异无法用受教育程度解释。这种差异也非资历深浅造成,而是源于各人的能力和个性。罗恩·德桑蒂斯精明世故,不惜扮演反智角色以谋取政治利益;内德·拉蒙特则努力做好本职工作,积极寻求业已掌握的关于疫情的最佳科学知识和证据,以期挽救选民生命。

正如缔造了现代佛州的商业大亨沃尔特·迪斯尼所言:“在我看来,无论何时何地,勇气都是领导力的主要体现。”(财富中文网)

杰弗里·索南菲尔德是耶鲁大学管理学院(Yale School of Management)高级副院长、管理实践专业教授、首席执行领导力学院(Chief Executive Leadership Institute)院长。安贾尼·贾因是耶鲁大学管理学院学术副院长、管理实践专业教授。

译者:胡萌琦

行政权力往往会受到复杂的地缘政治变化、反复无常的金融市场、颠覆性的新技术和重大自然灾害等因素的限制,但关键领导人仍然可以对数百万选民产生或积极或消极的深远影响。面对新冠疫情的再次升级,美国佛罗里达州州长和康涅狄格州州长的不同做法体现了领导者个人的潜在影响力。

今年夏天,由于美国南方若干州的州长哗众取宠、耍弄政治手腕,公共卫生领域噩耗不断。佛罗里达、得克萨斯和密苏里州的新冠病例激增,致使德尔塔变体毒株迅速传播。尽管这三州的人口仅为全美的17%,新发病例占比却高达40%。三个州的州长无视科学和证据,采取玩世不恭的强硬立场,禁止雇主强制雇员接种疫苗和在室内佩戴口罩,甚至置尚不能接种疫苗的幼龄学童的安全于不顾。

佛州州长罗恩·德桑蒂斯甚至威胁说,如果学校按照美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)的指南要求教职员工采取佩戴口罩等保护性措施,就将削减教育经费和教职工薪酬。尽管如此,仍然有10个学区不顾德桑蒂斯的威胁,强制要求人们佩戴口罩。此外,迪士尼(Disney)、嘉年华邮轮公司(Carnival Cruise Line)、皇家加勒比邮轮公司(Royal Caribbean)以及挪威邮轮公司(Norwegian Cruise Line)也冒着每次被罚款5000美元的危险,拒绝服从德桑蒂斯关于乘客疫苗护照的禁令。

眼下,佛州各家医院的急诊室和重症监护室已经接近饱和,90%的重症监护床位被占用,其中大多数是新冠肺炎患者。这些住院病患90%以上没有接种疫苗,佛州12岁至64岁人群的疫苗接种率仅为三分之一。

面对佛州大量居民尚未接种疫苗、极易感染德尔塔变体病毒的现状,德桑蒂斯的回应是听取那些反对佩戴口罩者的意见,而正是这些人,抛开科学研制、安全有效的疫苗,却在鼓吹伊维菌素、羟基氯喹等药效未经证实的牲畜驱虫剂。

相反,康涅狄格州州长内德·拉蒙特则从习惯疫情爆发初期就依靠科学的防疫方法。早在2020年3月宣布新冠疫情时起,他便召集全球著名的病毒学家、微生物学家、流行病学家和商业领袖组成顾问小组,抛开意识形态影响,坚持依靠科学、证据和明智的管理措施开展工作。他与先前的唐纳德·特朗普政府高层以及后来的乔·拜登政府领导人合作,令州内生产未曾有一天中断,确保了所需的防护器材的供应,使学校得以提前开学。拉蒙特还积极促成了全美范围内每周一次的州长会议,不哗众取宠,而是默默地开展跨党派、跨部门合作,寻求高效解决问题。

正如拉蒙特最近所言:“我们的重启委员会成员包括能够帮助我们摆脱困境的科学家和大企业领导人,我在州政府内所做的努力就是让更多的人可以参与到商讨与决策中来。”他既不为政治目的嘲讽科学家,也没有恐吓政府官员或威胁商业领袖。在此努力下,该州各年龄段的疫苗接种率均超过75%,达到全美前两位,90%的老年人也接种了疫苗;而因为新冠肺炎导致的死亡率则在保持较低水平,在全美50个州中位列第35位。

本着这种致力于解决问题的工作方式和协调合作的领导风格,拉蒙特呼吁在学校、养老院以及所有州一级政府雇员中开展强制性疫苗接种。令人惊讶的是,工会、两党政要和商界领袖中无人对此提出异议。拉蒙特针对南方一些州接连出现的医院饱和情况评论到:“可悲的是,很多地区的医院往往已经不堪重负或濒临饱和。我们绝不会让这种情况出现在康涅狄格。”

通过以下两张美国疾病控制和预防中心给出的佛罗里达州和康涅狄格州的公共卫生结果对比图不难发现,面对同一个国家、同一时期内出现的同样疾病,不同的领导者会带来怎样不同的结果。尽管康涅狄格州在疫苗问世前的那段时间里形势严峻,但情况随后却发生了显著变化。两个州的差异无法归于年龄因素,因为这两州居民的平均年龄均为41岁左右,而且康涅狄格州各个年龄段居民的健康状况均好于佛州居民。

随着德尔塔变体毒株肆虐全美,东北部地区和南方各州公众健康状况的差异愈发明显。从下图可见,康涅狄格州与佛罗里达州的差异也是各自周边地区的缩影。新冠疫情爆发一年半以来,我们已经在设计有效的公共卫生对策方面积累了大量知识和经验。各地公众健康的差异并非德尔塔变体病毒肆虐、人口统计学差异、医疗条件或环境因素造成,而应该归于各地领导力水平的差距。

领导力不容小觑,它不仅会影响政府应对公共卫生危机的效率,也决定着危机时期的个体观念和群体意识。

意识形态极端主义已经给美国带来了不必要的死亡。可悲的是,各州间的政治分歧竟导致其在卫生防疫措施方面的巨大差异,包括疫苗接种和口罩佩戴状况。所有民主国家都存在意识形态差异和激烈的政治竞争,世界各地对待疫苗和口罩的态度也不尽相同,但没有哪个地区像美国这般,将防疫态度与政治意识紧密挂钩。英国、印度和以色列是三个典型例子,这三个国家均面临严峻的疫情,各自国内的政治分歧不亚于美国,但均未影响其卫生防疫措施。然而在美国,如下图所示,政治因素却强化了人们对公共卫生措施的抵制,使得个体态度愈发强硬,恶化了疫情及其对美国人生活和经济的影响。

康涅狄格和佛罗里达的州长均拥有哈佛大学(Harvard)和耶鲁大学(Yale)的本科及研究生学历,两人的领导方式差异无法用受教育程度解释。这种差异也非资历深浅造成,而是源于各人的能力和个性。罗恩·德桑蒂斯精明世故,不惜扮演反智角色以谋取政治利益;内德·拉蒙特则努力做好本职工作,积极寻求业已掌握的关于疫情的最佳科学知识和证据,以期挽救选民生命。

正如缔造了现代佛州的商业大亨沃尔特·迪斯尼所言:“在我看来,无论何时何地,勇气都是领导力的主要体现。”(财富中文网)

杰弗里·索南菲尔德是耶鲁大学管理学院(Yale School of Management)高级副院长、管理实践专业教授、首席执行领导力学院(Chief Executive Leadership Institute)院长。安贾尼·贾因是耶鲁大学管理学院学术副院长、管理实践专业教授。

译者:胡萌琦

Executive power is often circumscribed by complex geopolitical dynamics, volatile financial markets, disruptive new technologies, and tragic natural disasters. But key leaders still can have a profound impact—positive or negative—on millions of constituents. A comparison of Florida’s and Connecticut’s governors in their contrasting approach to the resurgence of the coronavirus reveals the consequential potential of individual leaders.

This summer, tragic public-health news was exacerbated by historic levels of political grandstanding by several Southern state governors. The rapid spread of the COVID-19 Delta variant was driven by a surge of new cases in Florida, Texas, and Missouri—as these states accounted for an astounding 40% of new U.S. coronavirus cases despite representing only 17% of the nation’s population. Ignoring science and evidence, the governors of these three states have taken a rigid, cynical stance, forbidding vaccine mandates by employers and mandatory indoor mask usage—even in cases where such mandates were intended to protect young schoolchildren ineligible for vaccines.

In Florida, Gov. Ron DeSantis even threatened to cut off funding and educators’ salaries for schools that required protective masks in compliance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. Nonetheless, 10 school districts defied DeSantis by issuing mask mandates. Similarly, Disney, Carnival Cruise Line, and Royal Caribbean joined Norwegian Cruise Line in defiance of DeSantis’s ban on passenger vaccination passports, despite being threatened with fines of $5,000 for each such violation of his decree.

Florida’s hospital emergency rooms and intensive care units are now reaching capacity, with 90% of ICU beds occupied, the majority of them by COVID patients. More than 90% of these inpatients are unvaccinated; overall only one-third of Floridians between ages 12 and 64 are vaccinated.

DeSantis’s response to such wide swaths of the unvaccinated Florida population suffering from the highly contagious Delta variant has been to consult with anti-mask advocates who promote the horse parasite drug ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine, unproven elixirs, instead of scientifically developed, safe, and highly effective vaccines.

In contrast, Connecticut Gov. Ned Lamont has been relying on a science-based approach from the outset of the pandemic. He pulled together globally renowned virologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, and business leaders in March of 2020, just as the pandemic was declared, and kept such advisory panels working to solve problems by relying on science, evidence, and smart management, independent of ideology. Accordingly, he worked with both top Trump administration and later top Biden administration leaders to keep manufacturing flowing without a day’s interruption, ensuring the needed supply of protective material to open schools early. Lamont also catalyzed a new nationwide weekly meeting of the nation’s governors, favoring quiet, effective, bipartisan, cross-sector problem-solving instead of seeking the public limelight.

As Lamont recently explained, “Our reopen committee included the scientists and the big business leaders that we needed to help us, and I’ve tried to do that throughout state government—get a wider variety of people at the table.” He did not mock scientists, intimidate public officials, or threaten business leaders as foils for political grandstanding. This resulted in the nation’s highest or second highest vaccination rates for every age group, from 75% upward—including 90% of seniors—and one of the lowest COVID-19 death rates in the nation (Connecticut is 35th out of 50 by that measure).

This focused approach to problem-solving and collaborative leadership style allowed Lamont to call for vaccine mandates in schools, nursing homes, and for all state employees recently—astoundingly without protest from unions, partisan political leaders of either party, or business leaders. Lamont pointed to heat maps of Southern state infections with overflowing hospitals and declared, “Sadly, in many cases, they have hospitals in different regions who are overwhelmed or close to being overwhelmed. We’re not gonna let that happen in Connecticut, and that is not happening in Connecticut.”

Just glancing at the two contrasting CDC charts of public health outcomes for Florida versus Connecticut below—showing the impact of the same disease, in the same country, over the same time period—illustrates the difference leaders can make. Even though Connecticut was hard hit in the pre-vaccine phase of the pandemic, the post-vaccine outcomes are dramatically different. This difference is not explained by age patterns: The average age in both states is about 41 years old, but the health outcomes of Connecticut residents tower over those of Floridians in every age bracket.

As the Delta variant rages across the country, the divergence of health outcomes is especially notable between the Northeast and the South. The map below shows that the divergence between Connecticut and Florida is reflected in a wider region surrounding each state. A year and a half into the pandemic, we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge and experience in designing effective public health responses. The divergence of health outcomes across the country is the result not of differences in the prevalence of the Delta variant, population demographics, access to health care, or environmental conditions; it is attributable at this point principally to differences in leadership.

Leadership matters. Leadership matters not only in determining the effectiveness of government’s response to the public health crisis, but in shaping both individual opinions and the sense of common purpose.

Ideological extremism has caused needless deaths in our country. It is tragic that political differences among the states have resulted in a sharp divergence with respect to health-protective behaviors—vaccination and masking among them. Ideological differences and bitter political rivalries exist in all democracies, and individual attitudes toward vaccination and masking vary widely within all regions of the world, but nowhere else are these attitudes as closely aligned with political ideologies as they have become in the U.S. The U.K., India, and Israel are just three examples: In each country, the pandemic remains a grave danger, but each country’s political cleavages, no less intractable than in the U.S., are largely unrelated to health-protective behaviors. In the U.S., the political reinforcement of resistance to public health measures has hardened individual attitudes, as shown in the chart below, worsening the pandemic and its impact on American lives and the economy.

The contrasting leadership approaches between the governors of Connecticut and Florida are not explainable by educational sophistication: Each governor holds college and graduate school degrees from both Harvard and Yale. The differences are not explained by credentials but rather by competence and character. Ron DeSantis is a smart person cynically willing to play the role of an anti-intellectual for political gain, while Ned Lamont is trying to do his job to save the lives of his constituents, seeking the best scientific knowledge and evidence we have gathered on the pandemic.

As Walt Disney, one of the business leaders who shaped modern Florida, once said, “Courage is the main quality of leadership, in my opinion, no matter where it is exercised.”

Jeffrey Sonnenfeld is a senior associate dean and professor of management practice at the Yale School of Management, where he is president of the Chief Executive Leadership Institute. Anjani Jain is deputy dean for academic programs and professor in the practice of management at the Yale School of Management.

最新:
  • 热读文章
  • 热门视频
活动
扫码打开财富Plus App