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NBA季后赛做到了新冠零感染,东京奥运会为何做不到?

NBA季后赛做到了新冠零感染,东京奥运会为何做不到?

巴益明(Eamon Barrett) 2021年07月22日
自7月1日以来,已经有多达67名奥运会相关人员被检测出新冠阳性。

延期举办的2020年东京奥运会即将于7月23日开幕,来自世界各地的运动员正在日本汇聚一堂。这次奥运会因为去年爆发新冠疫情而延迟举行,但12个月后,东京却仍然没有走出疫情阴霾的笼罩。自7月1日以来,已经有多达67名奥运会相关人员被检测出新冠阳性。

国际奥委会的主席托马斯•巴赫声称,阳性病例的出现证明意在追踪新冠病例的系统是有效的。

他在7月17日说:“我认为这表明,这些措施不仅已经落实到位,而且正在发挥作用,得到了有效的执行。”

当时,只有44名奥运会相关人员感染。这个数字正在增长。

7月19日,美国体操队候补队员卡拉•埃克和捷克排球运动员翁德雷•佩鲁希奇成为最新两名被检测出新冠阳性的运动员。一天前,两名南非足球运动员在奥运村也被检测出阳性。

自新冠疫情开始肆虐全球以来,有多项其他体育赛事成功举行,没有出现任何参赛者感染病例——它们甚至在新冠疫苗问世之前便做到了这一点。众所周知,NBA将球员们置于一个隔离园区当中,最终顺利完成了2020年赛季的172场比赛,期间一例病例都没有出现。

但举办东京奥运会是一项全然不同的挑战。为了参加奥运会,约有6万名运动员、工作人员和媒体人员将前往或经过日本。奥运会相关人员感染人数的不断增加,揭示了将所有这些参与者一直置于一个隔离环境中是一件多么棘手的事情。

具体有哪些规定?

今年4月,日本奥林匹克委员会针对参加东京夏季奥运会的代表发布了一系列“参赛手册”,概述了参赛者在赛前和赛中需要采取的安全预防措施。

该运动员手册要求参赛者在抵达奥运村之前的两周内监测自己的体温,在抵达前两天进行新冠检测,并在进入奥运村之前再进行一次检测。东京方面并不要求运动员在到达奥运村之前接种疫苗,但据国际奥委会称,约有80%的奥运选手接种了疫苗。

规则还规定运动员不早于比赛开始前五天进入奥运村,并要求运动员在结束比赛48小时后才能够离开奥运村。在逗留期间,运动员的活动范围限制在奥运村的各个区域之内;他们不得进入东京城市本身。

各队需要在奥运村餐厅预订餐桌,从而尽量减少相互接触。所有运动员每天都要接受检测。在接受检测时,一旦检测出阳性病例,所有密切接触者都必须留在房间里进行自我隔离。

目前有来自英国代表队的六名成员处于隔离状态,因为他们在7月16日抵达奥运村时与一名检测呈阳性的人员有过密切接触。最初的病毒携带者并不是英国队的成员。

问题出在哪里?

东京奥运会新冠筛查措施的主要缺陷在于,许多运动员都是乘坐商用或公共交通工具抵达奥运村。去年NBA隔离比赛期间,篮球明星们是乘坐私人飞机飞往位于迪士尼世界(Walt Disney World)的隔离园区。而参加东京奥运会的运动员则是乘坐有普通旅客的商业航班抵达日本。

上周,与肯尼亚和南非奥运橄榄球队同乘一个航班的两名乘客在抵达日本时被检测出新冠阳性。这两个病例可能会导致两支队伍被强制隔离14天,因此东京奥委会临时改变了规则,在运动员何时应该自我隔离的问题上采取了更宽松的态度。

规则的改变带来了更多的出错空间。由于新冠病毒可以潜伏两周,在前往奥运村的过程中感染病毒的参赛者可能在几天后才检测出阳性,在此期间,他们可能接触到数百人——要么是去过公共健身场所和食堂的其他运动员,要么是在奥运村各处的工作人员。

奥运会还将在日本各地的数个体育场馆和场地举行。从奥运村的住宿处到比赛所在的奥运场馆的往返过程,将增加运动员的感染机会。相比之下,NBA的所有比赛都在迪士尼世界内的场地举行。

运动员只在奥运村和比赛所在的场馆之间往返,不能进入东京城市本身,将有私人穿梭巴士接送运动员往返于比赛场馆。日本奥委会在6月表示,运动员和其他人员将受到智能手机应用程序的位置追踪,但该系统将只用于追踪感染病例的密切接触者,而不是实时监控行踪。(财富中文网)

译者:万志文

延期举办的2020年东京奥运会即将于7月23日开幕,来自世界各地的运动员正在日本汇聚一堂。这次奥运会因为去年爆发新冠疫情而延迟举行,但12个月后,东京却仍然没有走出疫情阴霾的笼罩。自7月1日以来,已经有多达67名奥运会相关人员被检测出新冠阳性。

国际奥委会的主席托马斯•巴赫声称,阳性病例的出现证明意在追踪新冠病例的系统是有效的。

他在7月17日说:“我认为这表明,这些措施不仅已经落实到位,而且正在发挥作用,得到了有效的执行。”

当时,只有44名奥运会相关人员感染。这个数字正在增长。

7月19日,美国体操队候补队员卡拉•埃克和捷克排球运动员翁德雷•佩鲁希奇成为最新两名被检测出新冠阳性的运动员。一天前,两名南非足球运动员在奥运村也被检测出阳性。

自新冠疫情开始肆虐全球以来,有多项其他体育赛事成功举行,没有出现任何参赛者感染病例——它们甚至在新冠疫苗问世之前便做到了这一点。众所周知,NBA将球员们置于一个隔离园区当中,最终顺利完成了2020年赛季的172场比赛,期间一例病例都没有出现。

但举办东京奥运会是一项全然不同的挑战。为了参加奥运会,约有6万名运动员、工作人员和媒体人员将前往或经过日本。奥运会相关人员感染人数的不断增加,揭示了将所有这些参与者一直置于一个隔离环境中是一件多么棘手的事情。

具体有哪些规定?

今年4月,日本奥林匹克委员会针对参加东京夏季奥运会的代表发布了一系列“参赛手册”,概述了参赛者在赛前和赛中需要采取的安全预防措施。

该运动员手册要求参赛者在抵达奥运村之前的两周内监测自己的体温,在抵达前两天进行新冠检测,并在进入奥运村之前再进行一次检测。东京方面并不要求运动员在到达奥运村之前接种疫苗,但据国际奥委会称,约有80%的奥运选手接种了疫苗。

规则还规定运动员不早于比赛开始前五天进入奥运村,并要求运动员在结束比赛48小时后才能够离开奥运村。在逗留期间,运动员的活动范围限制在奥运村的各个区域之内;他们不得进入东京城市本身。

各队需要在奥运村餐厅预订餐桌,从而尽量减少相互接触。所有运动员每天都要接受检测。在接受检测时,一旦检测出阳性病例,所有密切接触者都必须留在房间里进行自我隔离。

目前有来自英国代表队的六名成员处于隔离状态,因为他们在7月16日抵达奥运村时与一名检测呈阳性的人员有过密切接触。最初的病毒携带者并不是英国队的成员。

问题出在哪里?

东京奥运会新冠筛查措施的主要缺陷在于,许多运动员都是乘坐商用或公共交通工具抵达奥运村。去年NBA隔离比赛期间,篮球明星们是乘坐私人飞机飞往位于迪士尼世界(Walt Disney World)的隔离园区。而参加东京奥运会的运动员则是乘坐有普通旅客的商业航班抵达日本。

上周,与肯尼亚和南非奥运橄榄球队同乘一个航班的两名乘客在抵达日本时被检测出新冠阳性。这两个病例可能会导致两支队伍被强制隔离14天,因此东京奥委会临时改变了规则,在运动员何时应该自我隔离的问题上采取了更宽松的态度。

规则的改变带来了更多的出错空间。由于新冠病毒可以潜伏两周,在前往奥运村的过程中感染病毒的参赛者可能在几天后才检测出阳性,在此期间,他们可能接触到数百人——要么是去过公共健身场所和食堂的其他运动员,要么是在奥运村各处的工作人员。

奥运会还将在日本各地的数个体育场馆和场地举行。从奥运村的住宿处到比赛所在的奥运场馆的往返过程,将增加运动员的感染机会。相比之下,NBA的所有比赛都在迪士尼世界内的场地举行。

运动员只在奥运村和比赛所在的场馆之间往返,不能进入东京城市本身,将有私人穿梭巴士接送运动员往返于比赛场馆。日本奥委会在6月表示,运动员和其他人员将受到智能手机应用程序的位置追踪,但该系统将只用于追踪感染病例的密切接触者,而不是实时监控行踪。(财富中文网)

译者:万志文

Athletes from the world over are converging in Japan ahead of the delayed Tokyo 2020 Olympics, which open on July 23. The Games were postponed last year owing to the pandemic, but, 12 months later, Tokyo is still in the grips of a COVID-19 outbreak, and 67 people associated with the Olympics have tested positive for COVID-19 since July 1.

International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Thomas Bach argued that the positive cases demonstrated how systems designed to catch COVID cases were effective.

“I think this shows that the measures are not only in place but that they are working and that they are enforced,” Bach said on July 17.

At the time, there were only 44 Olympic-related infections. The number is growing.

On July 19, U.S. gymnastics alternate Kara Eaker and Czech volleyball player Ondřej Perušič became the latest athletes to test positive for the virus. A day earlier, two South African soccer players tested positive in the Olympic Village, too.

Since the pandemic began, other sporting events have managed to convene without competitors catching the virus—even before COVID-19 vaccines were available. The NBA famously kept players in an isolated “bubble” for 172 games of the 2020 season, without a single case of COVID-19.

But Tokyo 2020 is a different challenge. Some 60,000 athletes, staff, and media are traveling to and through Japan in order to attend the Olympics, and the rising case numbers related to the Tokyo 2020 Games reveal just how tricky keeping all those attendees in a bubble will be.

What are the protocols?

In April, Japan’s National Olympic Committee (NOC) released a series of “playbooks” for delegates attending the Tokyo 2020 Summer Games, outlining what safety precautions the attendees would be required to take before and during the games.

The playbook for athletes instructs participants to monitor their temperatures for two weeks prior to arriving at the Olympic Village, to take a test two days before arrival, and again before they enter the village. Tokyo doesn’t require athletes to be vaccinated before arriving at the village, but, according to the IOC, around 80% of competitors at the Olympics are.

The rules also prohibit athletes from entering the village earlier than five days before their events and mandate that athletes leave the village 48 hours after their final performance. During their stay, athletes are restricted to traveling between areas of the village; they cannot enter Tokyo proper.

Teams are required to book tables at the Olympic Village dining room, to minimize mixing, and all athletes are tested daily. If a positive case is detected, all close contacts are forced to self-isolate in their rooms while undergoing testing.

Six members of the Great Britain team are currently under isolation, after coming into close contact with a person who tested positive upon arrival at the village on July 16. The original carrier was not a member of Team GB.

What are the weak spots?

The key weakness in Tokyo 2020’s COVID-19 screening policies is that many of the athletes arriving at the village will have traveled by commercial, or public, transport. Unlike during the NBA bubble, where basketball stars were flown to their bubble in Walt Disney World by private jet, athletes are arriving in Japan by commercial flight alongside ordinary travelers.

Last week, two passengers sharing separate flights with Kenyan and South African Olympic rugby teams tested positive for COVID-19 upon arrival in Japan. The cases threatened to send both teams to a mandatory 14-day quarantine, so the Tokyo NOC changed its rules to be more lenient on when athletes should self-isolate.

The rule change has introduced more room for error. Because the virus can incubate for up to two weeks, attendees who contract the virus while traveling to the village might not test positive until days later, during which time they might have mingled with hundreds of other people—either other athletes in the communal gym spaces and canteen, or staff manning the facilities at the village.

The Olympics are also taking place in several stadiums and sites across the country. Ushering athletes from their accommodations in the Olympic Village to their events at the Olympic stadiums will present more opportunity for transmission. The NBA, by comparison, held all of its matches at venues inside Disney World.

Athletes are expected to travel only between the village and their relevant event venues, without straying into Tokyo’s general city, and private shuttle buses will ferry athletes to and from the venues. The NOC said in June that the locations of athletes and others will be tracked by a smartphone app, too, but that the system will only be used to conduct contact tracing, not to monitor movement in real time.

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